Edited by Hye-Sung Lee

This is an on-line "The Z' Hunter's Guide" to provide a basic but up-to-date review to people who are interested in Z' physics. At this point, it is just a collection of the links to some Z' papers I personally think useful. I plan to keep updating and refining it until it becomes a comprehensive review of the Z' physics. Please let me know your ideas and suggestions to improve this site.



We define our Z' as the new force carrier of an additional U(1) gauge symmetry unless otherwise indicated.




Overview


Some printed reviews on Z'


Z' meetings


Useful links


Hunting fields (Direct Z' resonance search)



General Discussions


Possible sources of resonances (Z'-like signals)


Sources of U(1)'


U(1)' Symmetry Breaking at TeV-scale


Other Solutions to the mu-problem besides the non-anomalous U(1)' symmetry at TeV-scale


Challenges in TeV-scale Z' model building


U(1)' and Proton Decay and also exotic fields


Problems in the exotics


More Z' Models


General Z' properties



Heavy Z'  (mZ' ~ EW/TeV scale)


Implications of Z' [General]


Direct Implications of Z'

  • Direct Collider search of the Resonance
  • The direct discovery channel of the Z' would be the observation of the resonance peak of the Z' in difermion channels. Especially the dilepton channel provides very clean signals without much background. 




    Nontrivial Collider signatures of Z'

    • Z' can be a factory of new and old particles. Especially, multi-lepton Z' resonance can enjoy both resonance and clean lepton signals at the hadron collider experiments, revealing the effect of new particles between the Z' and final leptons.
      • 4-lepton Z' resonance (via sneutrino)

      Leptophobic (or Baryonic) Z'


      Implications of Z' [EWPT sector]


      Implications of Z' [CP and FCNC sector]


      Implications of Z' [Neutrino sector]


      Implications of Z' [Neutralino sector]


      Implications of Z' [Sneutrino sector]

      • Sneutrino dark matter
          A right-handed sneutrino coupled to Z' can serve as a viable dark matter candidate satisfying all experimental constraints.
        • Revival of the Thermal Sneutrino Dark Matter [H.S. Lee, K.T. Matchev, S. Nasri (2007)]

          Relic density and direct detection constraints on sneutrino dark matter

      Implications of Z' [Baryogenesis sector]


      Implications of Z' [Higgs sector]


      Implications of Z' [Et Cetra]



      Light Z'  (mZ' << EW-scale)


      Early studies

      Motivations from dark matter explanation to astrophysical anomalies


      Direct Implications of Z'

      Dark Photon limit

      Parity Violation




      Axion approximation

      • When light Z' has axial coupling, its production is similar to the axion (light pseudo Goldstone boson), as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem says, which is often larger than gauge coupling. This can happen, for examples, in rare meson decays (K -> pi Z', B-> K Z') or Higgs decays (H -> Z Z', Z' Z').
       


      Long-Range Interaction  (mZ' ~ massless)


      Constraints


      Effect on neutrino oscillation


      Connections to astrophysical anomaly