Edited by Hye-Sung Lee

This is an on-line "The Z' Hunter's Guide" to provide a basic but up-to-date review to people who are interested in Z' physics. At this point, it is just a collection of the links to some Z' papers I personally think useful. I plan to keep updating and refining it until it becomes a comprehensive review of the Z' physics. Please let me know your ideas and suggestions to improve this site.

We define our Z' as the new force carrier of an additional U(1) gauge symmetry unless otherwise indicated.


Software package for Z'

Some printed reviews on Z'

Z' meetings

Useful links

Hunting fields (Direct Z' resonance search)

General Discussions

Possible sources of resonances (Z'-like signals)

Sources of U(1)'

U(1)' Symmetry Breaking at TeV-scale

Other Solutions to the mu-problem besides the non-anomalous U(1)' symmetry at TeV-scale

Challenges in TeV-scale Z' model building

U(1)' and Proton Decay and also exotic fields

Problems in the exotics

More Z' Models

General Z' properties

Heavy Z'  (mZ' ~ EW/TeV scale)

Implications of Z' [General]

Direct Implications of Z'

  • Direct Collider search of the Resonance
  • The direct discovery channel of the Z' would be the observation of the resonance peak of the Z' in difermion channels. Especially the dilepton channel provides very clean signals without much background. 

    Nontrivial Collider signatures of Z'

    • Z' can be a factory of new and old particles. Especially, multi-lepton Z' resonance can enjoy both resonance and clean lepton signals at the hadron collider experiments, revealing the effect of new particles between the Z' and final leptons.
      • 4-lepton Z' resonance (via sneutrino)

      Leptophobic (or Baryonic) Z'

      Implications of Z' [EWPT sector]

      Implications of Z' [CP and FCNC sector]

      Implications of Z' [Neutrino sector]

      Implications of Z' [Neutralino sector]

      Implications of Z' [Sneutrino sector]

      • Sneutrino dark matter
          A right-handed sneutrino coupled to Z' can serve as a viable dark matter candidate satisfying all experimental constraints.
        • Revival of the Thermal Sneutrino Dark Matter [H.S. Lee, K.T. Matchev, S. Nasri (2007)]

          Relic density and direct detection constraints on sneutrino dark matter

      Implications of Z' [Baryogenesis sector]

      Implications of Z' [Higgs sector]

      Implications of Z' [Et Cetra]

      Light Z'  (mZ' << EW-scale)

      Early studies

      Motivations from dark matter explanation to astrophysical anomalies

      Direct Implications of Z'

      Dark Photon limit

      Parity Violation

      Axion approximation

      • When light Z' has axial coupling, its production is similar to the axion (light pseudo Goldstone boson), as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem says, which is often larger than gauge coupling. This can happen, for examples, in rare meson decays (K -> pi Z', B-> K Z') or Higgs decays (H -> Z Z', Z' Z').

      Long-Range Interaction  (mZ' ~ massless)


      Effect on neutrino oscillation

      Connections to astrophysical anomaly