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ZAMBIA




zambia is one of Africa's top safari destination. It is packed with amazing animals. For instance, zambia's south Luangwa National Park is one of the best spots to see a leopard. Every November, more than eight million fruit bats flock to Kasanga National Park which is the world's largest mammal migration. "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight", this is what David Livingstone said about the Victoria Falls.  Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" ("thundering smoke" )in the Lozi or Kololo dialect.The most iconic landmark is Victoria Falls, it is the largest in the world with 500 million litres of water pouring over the edge (enough to fill 200 swimming pools every  minute) - the Victoria Falls bridge connect Zambia with its neighbour Zimbabwe; it was constructed in 1905 and is 200m long. Zambia covers an area of 752,612 km2, and is home to 14,538,640 people. The population is mainly located around the capital city Lusaka in the south and the copper mines in the North-West.

Archaeological evidence shows that the area was inhabited by pre-historic manbetween 300,000 and 125,000 years BC. Ancient camping site tools near the kalambo falls dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
Zambia's first inhabitants were the Khoisan who were hunter-gatherers until around AD 300, when migrating pastoral Bantu tribes came to the area. Nowadays, the Khoisan live in the Eastern part Namibia. Until the 20th C, they were known to Europeans as Hottentots. According to tradition, the Lozis  have always inhabited Barotseland -the area around the Victoria falls. . of In the 12th century, major waves of Bantu people came: the Ba-Tonga people from the Eastern coastline, the Nkoya people came from the Luba-Lunda kingdom (modern Congo, modern Angola). By the late 12th century, more kingdoms had been established in modern day Zambia. To the East, the Marayi Empire which also included areas of modern Malawi. The Kalonga kingdom included some areas in what is now known as Mozambique. Muata Kazembe was emperor of the Lundas in the 18thC. The earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18thC. He led an expedition from Mozambique through Kazembe's lands while attempting to cross Southern Africa from coast to coast. When he passed away in 1798, the expedition was led by Francisco Pinto. as the lands were located between Portuguese held Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, it was claimed by the Portuguese empire. In about 1830, an army that originated in the Sotho-speaking Bafokeng region of South Africa, known as the Makololo, led by a warrior called Sebetwane, invaded Barotseland and conquered the Lozi. They ruled until 1864 when the Sotho clique was overthrown following a Lozi revolt.

 Other European visitors followed in the 19thC, the most prominent of these was a doctor and missionary Dr David Livingstone from Scotland who disapproved the slave trade and dreamed of bringing the "3 Cs": Christianity, Commerce and Civilization; he was the first European to see the Mosi-o-Tunya of the Zambezi river and named the falls after Queen Victoria in 1855. The town Livingstone is named after him. more British missionaries and traders came after his death in 1873. In 1888, the British South Africa Company led by Cecil Rhodes obtained mining rights from Litunga chief of the Lozi -the area became known as  North-Western Rhodesia-Barotseland. he renowned Litunga reigned from 1878 to 1916 with a short insurrectionist break in 1884-85 and repeatedly requested Queen Victoria to bring Barotseland under protectorate status.In the East, King Mprezi's son resisted the new arrivals, but his father signed a treaty and the area became known as North-Eastern Rhodesia. Rhode's assistant Burnham discovered copper deposits along the Kafue river. The two regions were administered separately until 1911, then the British government did not renew the licence for the British South Africa company and the area became directly administered by the British Empire, they merged the two regions which became North Rhodesia. In 1923, Southern Rhodesia (also administered by the South Africa Company) came under control of the British Empire and it was made into a self-governing colony; meanwhile the Northern Rhodesia became a colony. In 1953, the creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland grouped together Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now Malawi) as a single semi-autonomous region despite opposition from a sizeable minority of the population, who demonstrated against it in 1960–61. Northern Rhodesia was the centre of much of the turmoil and crisis characterising the federation in its last years. Initially, Harry Nkumbula's African National congress (ANC) led the campaign, then Kenneth Kaunda's United National Independence Party (UNIP) continued the campaign. A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties, he federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963, and in January 1964, Kaunda won the only election for Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia. Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on 24 October 1964, with Kenneth Kaunda   as the first president. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. This expertise was provided in part by a company called John Willson CMG. There were over 70,000 Europeans resident in Zambia in 1964. The Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity, despite Rhodesian management. The  (TAZARA – Tanzania Zambia Railways) to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam was completed in 1975 with Chinese assistance, and reduced Zambian dependence on railway lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola. Zambia received refugees from there before closing its borders. It supported the anti-apartheid ANC (Nelson Mandela's party). In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. In Zambia's situation, the cost of transporting the copper great distances to market was an additional strain. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but, as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world. In June 1990 riots against Kaunda accelerated as the protesters demanded multi-party elections, Frederic Chilumba , a Christian-Pentecostal minister became president in 1991.   The current president is Edgar Chagwa Lungu whose party won the elections. In the 2010 population census, 98.2% were Black Africans and the remaining 1.8% consisting of other major racial groups. Almost 90% of Zambians belong to the nine main ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, Tonga, Tumbuka, Lunda, Luvale, Kaonde, Nkova and Lozi. There are also 88,900 refugees from the Congo, Angola, Zimbabwe and Rwanda, nearly 60,000 live in camps. Zambia has 75% Protestants, 20% catholics, 1.8% describe themselves as atheists and 2.5% are animists. 1% are Muslims and play an important economic role. Safari tourism supplements Zambia's income.
Except for some technical positions (e.g. physicians), Western missionary roles have been assumed by native believers. Zambia is an English-speaking country. Bemba, Nyanja, Tonga and Lozi are used in their corresponding regions. The urbanization has led into the creation of a Zambian-slang. The age expectancy is still low because of the AIDS epidemic which seems now to be declining. Prior to the establishment of modern Zambia, the natives lived in independent tribes, each with their own ways of life. One of the results of the colonial era was the growth of urbanisation. Different ethnic groups started living together in towns and cities, influencing each other as well as adopting a lot of the European culture. The original cultures have largely survived in the rural areas. In the urban setting there is a continuous integration and evolution of these cultures to produce what is now called "Zambian culture". One of the most famous old festival is the Lozi Kuomboka ceremony,  that takes place every year when the plains around Mongu become flooded.





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