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Uzbekhistan



Apart from Liechstenstein, Uzbekhistan is the only  so-called double-landlocked country in the world: 'double landlocked' means that it is two countries away from the nearest sea. it covers a surface of 447,400 km2 and is home to a population of 30,241,100.

The first people known to inhabit the Central Asian region of modern-day Uzbekistan were Iranian nomads who arrived from the northern grasslands of what is now Kazakhstan sometime in the 1st millennium BC. These nomads, who spoke Iranian dialects, settled in Central Asia and began to build an extensive irrigation system along the rivers of the region.At this time, cities such as  began to appear as centres of emerging government and high culture. By the 5th century BC, the Greek Bactrian,  Soghdian and  Tokharian states ruled over the region in succession. 
In the 8th century, Transoxiana, the territory between the Amydarya and syrdarya rivers, was conquered by the Arabs (Ali ibn Sattor) who enriched the region with the Early Renaissance. Many notable scientists lived there and contributed to its development during the Islamic Golden Age. Among the achievements of the scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form (simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moon), advances in optics, in astronomy, as well as in poetry, philosophy, art, calligraphy and many others, which set the foundation for the Muslim Renaissance.
As China began to develop its silk trade with the West, Iranian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centres of trade. Using an extensive network of cities and rural settlements in the province of Mouwaurannahr (a name given the region after the Arab conquest) in Uzbekistan, and further east in what is today China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Soghdian intermediaries became the wealthiest of these Iranian merchants. As a result of this trade on what became known as the Silk Route  eventually Bukhoro (Bukhara), Samarqand (Samarkand) and Chash (Tashkent) became extremely wealthy cities, and at the time Transoxiana(Mawarannahr) was one of the largest, most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.The treck was 6,437 km long and traded silks, fabrics, carpets, medicines and spices in both directions. the Venetian explorer Marco Polo was one of those merchants and it took him three years, he published his experiences in his 'Book of the marvels of the World' in 1300 - it provided inspiration for later explorers. Between the 9 and 10 C, the region was ruled by Persian empires,then it was conquered by Gengis Khan Mongolian empire. His son Chagakhai ruled the area as a khaganate, and in the 13th C, the kaghanate was challenged by Tamerlan who proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Asia minor, the  southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea He also invaded Russiabefore dying during an invasion of China in 1405, he made Samarqand his capital and  initiated an exchange of medical discoveries and patronized physicians, scientists and artists from the neighbouring countries such as India;His grandson Ulugh Beg was one of the world's first great astronomers. It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Transoxiana, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature. The Timurid state quickly split in half after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea. In 1501 the Uzbek forces began a wholesale invasion of Transoxiana. The slave trade in the Khanate of Bukhara became prominent there were 25,000 and 60,000 Tajik slaves in Bukhara alone in 1821.

The area was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century. There were 210,306 Russians living in Uzbekistan in 1912.  In 1924 what is now Uzbekistan became a bordered constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet socialist Republic   (Uzbek SSR). In the 1940s, the Crimean Tatars, along with the Volga Germans, Chechens, Pontic Greeks, Kumaks and many other nationalities were deported  to Central Asia. Following the end of the Soviet Union,  it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially celebrated the following day).  Uzbekhistan is described as an authoritarian state with limited civil rights. Several hundred people were killed during the civil unrest of 2005. Capital punishment was abolished in 2008. The country's official language is Uzbek , a Turkic language written in latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population; however, Russian remains in widespread use as a second language. Uzbeks form 81% of the population and many describe themselves as non-denominational muslims, and they regard their country as a secular. 1.2 million people live in  slave-like conditions as servants and forced labour. Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium and natural gas, and is transitioning to market economy. Uzbekistan has a 99.3% literacy rate among adults older than 15 (2003 estimate), which is attributable to the free and universal education system of the Soviet Union.
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