Swaziland lies across a fault which runs from the Drakenberg Mountains Mountains of Lesotho,north through the Eastern highlands of Zimbabwe and forms the Great Rift Valley of Kenya. Surrounded by Mozambique and South Africa, Swaziland is a small landlocked country  and covers a surface of 7,364 km2 and is home to 1,249,514 inhabitants. Despite its small size, however, its climate and topography is diverse, ranging from a cool and mountainous high lands  to  hot and dry lowlands - thus enabling great biodiversity. Amongst others, it is home to the Burchell's zebra and the now-endangered black rhinoceros. The Rhinoceros is believed to have originated 50 million years ago.
Artifacts indicate  human activity dating back to the early Stone age  200,000 years ago.  Prehistoric rock art paintings date from c. 25,000 BC and continuing up to the 19th century can be found in various places around the country. the indigenous inhabitants of Southern Africa were the Khoisans.  Some Khoisan were hunter-gatherers known as Bushmen and some were herders and became known as the Hottentots, some of their art can be seen at Cederberg in South Africa the paintings  date f rom from 8 000 years to 100 or 200 years ago.   Bantu settlers from  Great rift valley region, who had settled along the Tembe river (now in Mozambique)  reached their region via the Pogola river which is located on the Eastern side of the current country.  They competed and intermarried with the Khoisan in the years after contact and became the dominant population of Swaziland. The new agrarian society called themselves  Swazi also known as Ngwane.  The Kingdom of Swaziland was  established under the leadership of  Ngwane III who established his capital at shiselveni at the foot of the Mhlosheni hills.  In 1881, the present borders were established  under King Mswati I and after the war between the British Empire and the Boers  (Dutch/French and Germans settlers) , Swaziland became a British protectorate until 1967. It regained its full independence in 1969, and  it is now ruled by  King Mswati III. The King or in Swazi language Ngwenyama (Lion)  is the head of state and appoints the government. Parliamentary elections were held in 2005 for the two houses of parliament (the senate and the house of assembly). The king seat is in the city of Lobambhe. Swaziland also received Portuguese settlers and African refugees from Mozambique. 40% of Swazi people belong to the church of "amaZioni" or Zionist Christian church which mixes African heritage with christianity which was founded by Daniel Nkonyane in 1908 in South Africa. 20% of the population are Catholics, the rest are Anglicans with On 18 July 2012, Ellinah Wamukoya, was elected Anglican Bishop of Swaziland, becoming the first woman to be a bishop in Africa,  Traditional religions represent 15%, Muslims (1%). The main language is Swazi, and minority language include: Zulu, Tsonga and Afrikaans. According to Unicef, Swazi population faces major health issues:  HIV and tuberculosis, the HIV rate is the highest in the world which explains why I had the lowest life expectancy in the world  n 2011, Swaziland suffered an economic crisis and received a loan from South Africa. Swaziland is also known for a strong presence in the handcrafts industry. The formalised handcraft businesses of Swaziland employ over 2,500 people, many of whom are women - handcrafted items include: housewares, to artistic decorations, to complex Ngwenya glass, stone, or wood artwork.