I

I is for IDF (Immune Deficiency Foundation) and Israel


Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF)


Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PI) are a group of more than 250 rare, chronic disorders in which part of the body’s immune system is missing or functions improperly. Because one of the most important functions of the normal immune system is to protect us against infection, patients with PI commonly have an increased vulnerability to infections, which can be recurrent, unusually severe, or won’t clear up. People with PI can face frequent health problems and often develop serious and debilitating illnesses. The Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF), founded in 1980, is the national non-profit patient organization dedicated to improving the diagnosis, treatment and quality of life of persons with PI through advocacy, education and research. There are approximately 250,000 people who are diagnosed with PI in the U.S., and thousands more go undetected.

The PI community often identifies with zebras. This is based on an old saying. In medical school, many doctors learn the saying, “when you hear hoof beats, think horses, not zebras,” and are taught to focus on the likeliest possibilities when making a diagnosis, not the unusual ones. However, sometimes physicians need to look for a zebra. Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PI) are the zebras of the medical world. So the Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF) says THINK ZEBRA - http://primaryimmune.org

 

Yisraʾel
, Isrāʾīl;  is mentioned on the Meneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (13 century BCE), the Meneptah stele perceives Israel as an culture rather than a state. The period of the three Patriarchs has been placed somewhere in the early 2nd millennium BCE,and the first Kingdom of Israel (under David) was established around the 11th century BCE.  The temple of Solomon was built in ---- Around 930 BCE, the kingdom split into a southern Kingdom of Judah and the Northern kingdom of Israel. Israel's capital Samaria was destroyed by the Neo-Assyrians in 722 BCE and the kingdom was captured by King Sargon. Sargon's son failed to conquer Judea.  In 586 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah, destroyed the Temple of Salomon and exiled the Judean population. In 538 BCE, Babylonian emperor Cyrus II, granted religious freedom to everyone in his empire. 50.000 Judeans returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the temple. Judeah was then controlled by the Greeks.In 167 BCE,  the Maccabeans group of Judeah revolted against Greek domination and reconquered Judeah, then established the Hasmonean Kingdom. When a civil war broke out in Judeah in 63 BCE, the Roman Empire conquered the region and eventually destroyed the second Temple of Solomon. After the Bar Kokhba revolt in 132 AD, Judean influence declined, exiled Judeans united by their faith wrote the Mishna and the Talmud. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Jewish people from the Samaria region revolted against the Byzantine Empire and between 614 and 628  succeeded in creating a Jewish commonwealth state. In 634–641 CE, the whole region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had just recently adopted Islam. It remained under Muslim control for the next 1300 years under various dynasties. In 1099, the Jewish inhabitants of the city fought side by side with the Fatimid garrison and the Muslim population who tried in vain to defend the city against the European Christian crusaders who were sent to the area by the Pope. In 1187 Sultan Saladin of the Ottoman Empire, founder of the defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and subsequently captured Jerusalem and almost all of Palestine. In time, Saladin issued a proclamation inviting Jews to return and settle in Jerusalem. In 1211, the Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over 300 rabbis from France and England. In 1260, control passed to the Mamluk sultans of Egypt -  The country was located between the two centres of Mamluk power, Cairo and Damascus. In 1470, Isaac b. Meir Latif arrived from Ancona (Italy)and counted 150 Jewish families in Jerusalem. In the closing years of the 15th century, Safed and its environs had developed into the largest concentration of Jews in Palestine. With the help of the Sephardic
immigration from Spain  increased to 10,000 by the early 16th century.In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire of Turkey and remained under the same rule until 1920. 
Between 1881 and 1914, Jews from Eastern Europe left Russia because of the so-called Pogroms which targeted them - this is known as the Aliyah. In 1920, 11% of the population of Palestine were Jewish.   The Pogroms and the Aliyah prompted Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist Theodor Herzl to consider the idea of a Jewish state or Zionism. When the Ottoman Empire ended in 1920 after its defeat in the First World War,  its territories outside modern Turkey territory were divided between France and the United Kingdom.The British-administered area was named Mandatory Palestine. Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of a Jewish militia known as the Haganah from which the Irgun and Lehi or Stern Gang, paramilitary groups later split .The British introduced restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine with the White Paper of 1939. With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestineby 1945, the percentage of Jewish people in Palestine amounted to 33%. The Haganah paramilitaries  joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule. At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. The Jewish aid agency Yishuv attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine but many were turned away or rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British. Escalating violence culminated with the 1946 King David Hotel bombing where 91 people were killed and 46 injured.  In 1947, the British government announced it would withdraw from Mandatory Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews. In 1948, the independence of Israel was declared by David Ben Gurion. In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann  in Argentina and brought him to Israel for trial. The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust. 
. 8,059,400 people live in an area covering 20,770 km2. 74% of these people identify themselves as Jewish while 1,718,400 people are Arabs who live in the area around Jerusalem.  In 1994, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) was established to rule over the West Bank and it has developed its own unique postmarks and issued stamps. The PNA has issued dozens of stamps and souvenir sheets since 1994, with the exception of 2004 and 2007.  PNA is authorized to issue manage postal operations, issue stamps and postal stationery, and set rates, under agreements signed between Israel and the PNA following the Oslo Accord. In 1999, the PNA and Israel agreed that PNA mail could be sent directly to Egypt and Jordan.The PNA's Ministry of Telecom & Information Technology has sharply criticized postal services in areas under Israeli control. In Palestine (West Bank and Gaza), 2,731,052 people live in an area amounting 6,220. On the 28th of July 2011, at al-Waha beach on the Gaza strip children assisted by the United Nation relief flew 12,350 kites to promote peace in the region.
The Dead Sea gets its name because it has almost ten time more salt than the oceans and no animal can survive in it. At 400 m below sea level, it is also located at the world's lowest point.

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