Republic of Guinea or Guinea-Conakry has a landmass of 245,857 km2  and a population size of 11,745,189. It is one of the poorest countries on earth.A 2012 survey showed that 139,200 children suffer from acute malnutrition, 609,696 from chronic malnutrition and further 1,592,892 suffer from anemia. It  The Guinea national circus is world-known as well as the Balafon-xylophone and the kora-harp- the local instruments made popular by the group Bembeyan Jazz. When Guinea was a colony, it was on the trade route between the Latin American colonies and Europe; Guinea pigs originated from Peru where they were domesticated 7,000 years and were imported via Guinea. Guinea has an equatorial climate and is one of the wettest countries in Africa. The southern moist part of the country lies within the forests  in the south,  and  the north-east characterized by dry savanna. The wildlife of Guinea is very diverse due to the wide variety of different habitats. Guinea is rich in minerals and one of the world's leading exporter of bauxite (the core metal for aluminium). Cassava forms the basis of Guinean diet. Until 1898, the territory belonged to various African empires. First the Ghana, then the Almoravid (Moors) who brought Islam. In the 13thC, it was ruled by the Mali empire, then the Songhai, after 1878 the Wassulu empire. Fulani Muslims migrated to Futa Jallonin in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers.  It became a french colony in 1898 after the defeat in Guinea of Emperor Samori Toure. Under Sékou Touré  it gained its independence from France in 1958 and Sékou Touré became president. Since 2010, it has been ruled by autocratic rulers. In 2014, the Ebola disease broke out, As of 1 November 2015, there have been 3,810 cases and 2,536 deaths in Guinea. Nowadays the Futa represent 45% of the population and The Mandinka (28%)   are mostly found in eastern Guinea. 85% of people in Guinea are Muslims.


At 36,125 km2, Guinea-Bissau in Africa  is the same size as Switzerland. It is bordered by Senegal and the Republic of Guinea.  90% of its economy runs on the cashew nuts it produces. Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C.  The average rainfall for Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought.   Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu , as well as part of the Mali Empire  Parts of the kingdom of Gabu persisted until the 18th century, while a few others had become colonies of Portugal.  Almost half the population (44%) speaks Kriol - a Portuguese based creole language, 14% are still Portuguese speakers, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages - French is taught in schools because of the neighboring countries. Portuguese Guinea used to be known as the Slave coast. they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior.In 1956, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) started its guerillas of independence which eventually was declared in 1973. Multi-party governance was established in the  mid-1991. Guinea-Bissau follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and organizations.  The music of Guinea-Bissau is usually associated with the polyrhytmic gumbe style the country's primary musical export. The Kalabash music instrument originates from there.

From the times of Charlemagne in 962 until 1805, all German provinces were autonomous provinces within the Holy Roman Empire of German Nations. The precise term was not used until the 13thc. The name was bestowed by the Pope to Charlemagne thus making the Empire its earthly representative. In the early 1450, Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press. The Reformation challenged the rule of the Catholic Church which lead to numerous religious wars. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1649 gave regional rulers and their subjects religious freedoms. The Emperor abdicated after the battle of Austerlitz in 1805 thus ending the empire. While the administrative language of the Empire was Latin, the German language as we know it know was codified at the times of Martin Luther when the bible was translated and printed. In 1871, most of the German-speaking provinces (minus Austria and Bohemia) united to form the second German Empire under Prussian Emperor Wilhelm I. Hohenzollern and his chancellor Bismark. Germany became a republic after 1918- then a dictatorship between 1933-1945. Between 1945 and 1949 it was divided into four allied zones, the zones under British, French, US control became the Federal Republic of Germany (stamp on the right), while the Soviet zone became the Democratic Republic of Germany (stamp on the left). In 1990, the two German states re-united as a federal republic and the capital moved to Berlin. Germany covers 357,114 km2 and has 80,621,788 inhabitants.
Composers such as Ludwig Van Beethoven, Robert and Clara Schumann, Johann Sebastian Bach, Fanny Henzel and her brother Felix Mendelson were all born in Germany. Famous painters include Albrecht Duerer, Hans Holbein, Matthias Gruenewald, Anselm Kiefer, Franz Marc, Paul Klee and writers include Friedrich Schiller, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Bettina von Arnim and many others. It also produces 1,200 different types of sausages.