06-writing an essay

exercise for advanced level - try to write an essay  on any subject that you like (300 to 700 words). Read parts of your research material aloud.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010 

writing an essay -

1) think about your subject and write down what it means to you.
2) Do some research about your subject, interview people, take notes, take photographs etc
3) organize your results. For example, you can have one paragraph for each photograph you took. Or one paragraph for each idea you want to develop. You need about  5 paragraphs to write a short essay. The link between paragraphs is called a transition

4) Write each paragraph. Your sentences should be up to ten words long, unless you have a list or a quote. Express your opinion because anecdotes, photos and quotes are not the main focus on an essay.
5) Illustrate your paragraphs with additional quotes, anecdotes, examples.
6) Now write the introduction and the conclusion. The introduction should tell the reader what ideas / what things you are going to tell about, and the conclusion is a short summary of your paragraphs. Your essay should look like this: Title - date - location - author - /Introduction - /paragraph one - paragraph two - paragraph three - /conclusion

7) Note to editors - If you have to edit a text, then you need to decide on the layout. You should write an introduction and a postscript. In the introduction, you need to write your name, date, etc and tell about your relationship with this text. In the conclusion, you can write a short comment. You are not allowed to change the text. If there are mistakes you need to check back with the author and they have to approve it. You can replace single words but need to put them in brackets like this (like this). If you take some text out, you need to replace it with (...)

If you feel like writing an essay, then you can use these guidelines to help you along - but remember these are not strict rules. What is important is that your sentences are correct and your arguments coherent. .


In my opinion, .. / En ce qui me concerne
I have the feeling that ...    /   Il me semble que
It seems to me that ...J'ai l'impression que
 At least, that's my opinion. C'est du moins mon opinion.
 I must say / Je dois dire que
 I'm sure /Je suis sûr(e) que
I find that / Je trouve que
 I'm convinced that / Je suis persuadé(e)  que
I can't help thinking /Je ne peux pas m'empêcher de penser que
 I don't think that... /  Je ne pense pas que
I believe that / Je crois que.
 I fear that it is / Je crains qu'il ne soit

(The author / the narrator / the protagonist / etc.) is  right
(la personne) a raison
I have come to the same conclusion   / je conclus la meme chose
It is true that/   
C'est vrai que
I share (your/his/her/their) view.  / Je partage cette opinion

I take a different view.
I am afraid that is not quite true.
This argument does not hold water

I don't share his/her/your view.
Without meaning to contradict you /
Sans vouloir vous contredire

According to /
D'après (lui/person)
It is obvious that/ C'est évident que
For example / Par exemple
They say / On dit que...
I heard about / J'ai entendu parler de + noun
I heard that /J'ai entendu dire que
As for... / quant à (moi/ lui etc)
He/ she writes that / il/elle écrit que


alter-ego / un alter ego
A fictional self, different from one’s own, in an idealized or transformed version.
collage / le collage
The process or product of affixing paper or objects to a two-dimensional surface.

/ la composition/
The arrangement of an artwork's formal elements.
content / le contenu /
The subject matter, concepts, or ideas associated with a work of art. A work's content is shaped by the artist's intentions, the context of its presentation, and by the experiences, thoughts, and reactions of the viewer.
culture / la culture
The rarely questioned system of beliefs, values and practices that form one's life. Cultures are often identified by national borders, ethnicity, and religion—while some cultures cross borders, ethnicities and organized faiths. A culture which involves a select portion of a population and which is organized around a particular interest (such as cars, graffiti, or music) is known as a subculture.
design / le design
Relating to popular forms of art including architecture, books, the internet, furniture, and mass media. Today, things that are designed are often mechanically produced or made with the help of a computer.
displacement / le sentiment d'aliénation
The act or feeling of being removed or alienated from a place or people.
ecology / l'écologie (F)
The relationship between organisms and their environment, ecology is also concerned with the relationship between people and nature.
form / la forme
The shape and structure of a work of art, formal elements include color, shape, pattern, and duration. Many artists strive for a relationship between form and content, so that the way something is made fits with what the artist intends the work to be about or how it will be seen.
genre / le genre
A means of categorizing works of art based on style, form, and subject matter. History painting and landscape are genres of painting; horror and romantic comedy are genres of film; detective and science fiction are genres of literature.
graphic / le graphisme
A description applied to flat, two-dimensional images or primarily graphic media such as fonts, comic books, and cartoons.
iconography / l'iconographie (F)
Symbols and images that have a particular meaning, either learned or universal.
illusion / l'illusion (F)
A visually misleading or perceptually altered space or object.
juxtaposition / la juxtaposition
The state or position of being placed close together or side by side, so as to permit comparison or contrast.
lexicon / le glossaire
Literally, a vocabulary. A collection of terms or characteristics used in a particular profession, subject, or style.
metaphor / la métaphore
A relationship between disparate visual or verbal sources where one kind of object, idea, or image is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them. Artists use metaphor to bridge differences between seemingly dissimilar images and ideas.
motif / le motif
A recurrent or dominant theme in a work of visual or literary art.
multicultural / multiculturel (adj)
Influenced by a diversity of ethnic, religious, cultural or national perspectives.
narrative / la narration
The representation in art, by form and content, of an event or story. Whether a literal story, event, or subject matter—or a more abstract relationship between colors, forms and materials—narrative in visual art applies as much to the work as it does to the viewer's "story" of what they see and experience.
oral tradition / la tradition orale
The spoken relation and preservation, from one generation to the next, of a people's cultural history and ancestry, often by a storyteller in narrative form.
originality / l'originalité (F)
The quality of being new and original; not derived from something else.
palette / la palette
A particular range of colors or a tray for mixing colors.
perspective / la perspective
A visual formula that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a two-dimensional surface. Perspective also infers a particular vantage point or view.
persona / la persona
A personality that a person projects in public, often representing a character in a fictional context.
photojournalism / le photojournalisme
The profession or practice of recording and reporting real or ‘newsworthy’ events using photography.
render / reproduire (verb)
To reproduce or represent by artistic or verbal means.
representational / figuratif (adj)
Works of art that depict recognizable people, places or things—often figures, landscapes, and still lifes.
satire / la satire
Exposing human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn.
stereotype / le stéréotype
A generalized type, or caricature of a person, place or culture, often negative in tone. Visual as well as verbal, stereotypes tend to be reduced or oversimplified images.
symbolism / le symbolisme
The practice of representing things by an image, sign, symbol, convention, or association.
vantage point / le point de vue
A point of view, or a place from which subject matter is viewed.
vernacular / la langue populaire
Everyday language specific to a social group or region; the everyday language spoken by a people as opposed to the literary language.
visual sign / le signe visuel
A visible, conventional figure or device that stands for a word, phrase, or operation.
typography / la typographie
The appearance of fonts, letters, or characters, typography involves the printed word and graphic design.