Young Hoon Lee

August 29, 2014

Young Hoon Lee


Office Address: GN605,  Department of Economics,

            School of Economics, Sogang University

            35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 

            Seoul, Korea 04107

Office Phone: 82-2-705-8772



            Research Interests:
                 - Panel Data Model
                 - Productivity and Efficiency Estimation (Stochastic Frontier Model)
               Sports Economics
               Sogang University, Economics B.A. 1985
               Michigan State University, Economics M.A. 1987. 6
               Michigan State University, Economics Ph.D., 1991. 3
            Academic Positions:
              Sogang University, Economics, Professor,  2007. 8-present
              Nam Duck-Woo Economic Research Institute, Director, 2019.02-present
              Sogang University, Economics, Graduate Chair,  2009. 3-2011.2
              Hansung University, Economics, Professor,  2005. 3-2007.8
              Hansung University, Economics, Associate Professor, 2000. 4-2005.2
              Washington State University Economics, visiting professor, 2003. 12-2005. 2
              Hansung University, Economics, Assistant Professor, 1996. 3-2000.3
              Korea Economic Research Institute, Research Fellow, 1992. 3-1996. 2
              Hanshin Economic Research Institute  Senior Researcher, 1991. 6-1992. 2 

            Public Service
               Editorial Board Member, Journal of Sports Economics, 2011-present
               Editorial Board Member, International Journal of Sport Finance, 2006-present
               Vice President, International Association of Sports Economists, 2017-present
               Board Member, MathSport Asia, 2017-present
               Editor, Journal of Market Economy, 2012-2013
               지암남덕우경제연구원 원장, 2019-현재
               편집위원장, 한국야구학회지, 2013-2014
               KBO 야구발전실행위원회 위원, 2014-2018
               문화체육관광부 국제행사심사위원회 위원, 2010-2016.
               평창동계올림픽 지원실무위원회 위원, 2012-2016.
               편집위원, 계량경제학보, 2009-2017 
               전문위원, 한국연구재단 인문사회연구본부 사회과학단, 2012-2016.
               이사, 산업조직학회, 2011-2013.
                   이사, 한국야구학회, 2013-현재
편집위원, 규제연구, 2002-2013 
               사무국장, 계량경제학회, 2008.3-2009.2
               총리실 업무평가위원회 위원, 2006-2012
               총리실 규제개혁위원회 위원, 2006-2012 
               한국법제연구원 자문위원, 2010-2013
               시장경제연구원 자문위원, 2008-2012
               경제사회연구회 평가위원, 2007

Books Published


"도전에 직면한 한국경제," Hakhyunsa, 2019.

"프로스포츠 시장의 이해 Professional Sports Market," KPSA, 2018.

"The Sports Business in the Pacific Rim: Economics & Policy(written in English and coauthored with Rodney Fort), Springer Verlag, 2015.

"확률적 변경모형: 이론과 응용 Stochastic Frontier Models: Theory and Applications," Sogang University Press, 2014.

"한국의 야구경제학 Baseball Economics in Korea," Yulgok Publishing, 2013.

"통계이론과 응용 Statistical Theory and Application," 2nd eds. Hakhyun Publishing, 2011.

"Sports and Money," Window of World Publishing, 2002.

Papers Published (in English)

[64] "Transition to An Unbalanced Sports League Schedule: Adding the Analysis of Outcome Uncertainty." (coauthored with R. Fort) Applied Economics, vol. 52, no. 51, 2020. p. 5629-5638.

[63] "Competitive Balance with Unbalanced Schedules." (coauthored with Y. Kim and S. Kim) Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, vol. 15, no. 3, 2019. p. 239-260.

[62] "Quantile Insights on Market Structure and Worker Salaries: The Case of Major League Baseball." (coauthored with Rodney Fort and Taeyoun Oh) Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 20, no. 8, 2019. p.1066-1087.

[61] "Sports Economics and Management of Asian Sports Business." (coauthored with Nick Watanabe) Journal of Global Sport Management, vol. 4, no. 2. 2019. p.121-127.

[60] "A Bias-Corrected Estimator of Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues." (coauthored with Y. Kim and S. Kim) Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 20, no. 4. 2019. p.479-508.

[59] "Winning in Professional Team Sports: Historical Moments." (coauthored with Hayley Jang and Rodney Fort) Economic Inquiry, vol. 57, no. 1. 2019. p.103-120.

[58] "Common Factors in Major League Baseball Game Attendance." Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 19, no. 4, 2018. p.583-598.

[57] "Changes in Habitual Attendance at Korean Baseball Games." (coauthored with Hayley Jang) In Dae Hee Kwak, Mark Rosentraub, and Yong Jae Ko (eds.) Sport in Korea: History, Development, Management, Routledge. 2018. p135-152.

[56] "Just Looking for a Good Game: Competitive Balance in the Korean Professional Baseball League."  (coauthored with Hayley Jang and Rodney Fort) Applied Economics, vol. 48, no. 33. 2016. p.3104-3115.

[55] "A Business Analysis of Asian Baseball Leagues."  (coauthored with Hayley Jang) Asian Economic Policy Review, vol. 11, no. 1. 2016. p.95-112.

[54] "Ex Ante and EX Post Expectations of Outcome Uncertainty and Baseball Television Viewership." (coauthored with Jigyu Chung and Joon-Ho Kang), Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 17, no. 8. 2016. p.790-812.

[53] "Market Competition and Threshold Efficiency in the Sports Industry."  (coauthored with Hayley Jang and Sun Ho Hwang) Journal of Sports Economics, vol 16. no. 8, 2015. p.853-870.

[52] "Effect of Management Practices on Productivity: Evidence from Team Production in Korean Baseball." Korean Journal of Industrial Organization, vol. 23, no. 3. 2015. p.31-57.

[51] "Outcome Uncertainty, Governance Structure, and Attendance: A Study of the Korean Professional Football League," (coauthored with Hayley Jang) In Y.H. Lee and R. Fort (eds.) The Sports Business in the Pacific Rim, Springer Verlag. 2015. p.175-194.

[50] "KBO and International Sports League Comparisons," (coauthored with Rodney Fort and Joon-Ho Kang) In Y.H. Lee and R. Fort (eds.) The Sports Business in the Pacific Rim, Springer Verlag. 2015. p.59-82.

[49] "Stochastic Frontier Models in Sports Economics." International Journal of Sport Finance, vol. 9, no. 4, 2014.

[48] "Major League Baseball Attendance: Long-term analysis Using Factor Models," (coauthored with Seung C. Ahn), Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 15, no. 5, 2014. p.451-477.
       Harvard Business Review introduced this paper as follows;

What Baseball Fans Really Love: Doubt About the Outcome

In major league baseball’s first half-century, game attendance was entirely determined by teams’ winning percentages, but in recent decades fans have been increasingly
attracted by stadium quality, batting performance, and outcome uncertainty, raising the importance of competition-enhancing policies such as player free agency, say
Seung C. Ahn of Arizona State University and Young H. Lee of Sogang University in South Korea. When a league policy enhances competitive balance enough to increase
doubt about game outcomes and about consecutive-season dominance by 1 standard deviation, attendance increases by 4% in the American League and 7% in the
National League

[47] "Comparisons of Stochastic Frontier Effect Models: Monte Carlo Simulation," (coauthored with Jinseok Shin) In W. Horrace and R. Sickles (eds.) Festschrift in Honor of Peter Schmidt: Econometric Methods and Applications, Springer, 2014.

[46] "Stochastic Frontier Models with Threshold Efficiency," (coauthored with Sungwon Lee), Journal of Productivity Analysis, vol. 42, no. 1, 2014. p.45-54. 

[45] "Beauty and Productivity: The Case of LPGA." (coauthored with S. Ahn) Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 32,  no. 1, 2014. p.155-168.
       Freakonomics introduced this paper under the title of "The Sharapova Effect";

recent paper (full PDF here) by Young Hoon Lee and Seung Chan Ahn makes a clever point about occupations in which people are paid for a main activity and a secondary
 area where success depends on productivity in the main activity.  If success in the latter also depends on some other characteristic, people who are well-endowed with that
 characteristic will invest more in the skills needed to be productive in the main activity: the incentives created by that synergy will spill over to earnings in the main activity.
Their example is the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA).  Better-looking golfers get lower scores (perform better) — but only going from average-lookers to the best-
 looking. Below the average, there’s no effect of differences in looks on tournament scores.  That makes sense — you probably won’t get more endorsement opportunities if
 you’re average- looking instead of bad-looking.  Although not golf, one might call this the Sharapova Effect. Are there other labor markets, or other activities, in which a
 similarly unusual synergy exists?

ESPN also introduced this paper under the title of "A Study Into The Sharapova Effect"
NEW YORK -- The ad shows Maria Sharapova, in bright-red lipstick, blowing you a kiss.With carnival colors and more than a hint of sex appeal, Sharapova trumpets her latest
venture, a series of confections that come under the umbrella of Sugarpova.
....Min Ahn, a professor of economics at Arizona State University who co-authored the study with
Young Hoon Lee, would assert that Sharapova works harder at her tennis game than an average-looking person because she is aware on some level that her attractiveness
opens doors to a bigger pot of gold once she wins.
"People appreciate the product of an attractive person more than an unattractive person," said Ahn. "It encourages better-
looking people to do better."
This phenomenon is called, wait for it, the Sharapova Effect...........

* Many other media such as Boston Globe cited this paper.

[44] "Major League Baseball Attendance Time Series: League Policy Lessons." (coauthored with R. Fort) In Placido Rodriguez, Stefan Kesenne, and Jaume Garcia (eds.) Econometrics of Sport (Edward Elgar Pub), 2013, p.35-52.

[43] "Estimation of Temporal Variations in Fan Loyalty: Application of Multi-Factor Models" In Placido Rodriguez, Stefan Kesenne, and Jaume Garcia (eds.) Econometrics of Sport (Edward Elgar Pub), 2013, p.135-153.

[42] "Economic Analysis of the Sudden Influx of Korean Female Golfers into the LPGA." (coauthored with J. Kang, Y. Lee and I. Park) In Michael Leeds and Eva Leeds (eds.) Handbook on the Economics of Women's Sports (Edward Elgar Publishing), 2013, p.388-409.

[41] "Panel Data Models with Multiple Time-Varying Individual Effects," (coauthored with S.C. Ahn and P. Schmidt) Journal of Econometrics, vol. 174, no. 1. 2013, p.1-14.

[40] "Efficiency Comparison of International Golfers in the LPGA" (coauthored with I. Park)  Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 13, no. 4. 2012, p.378-392.

[39] "Competitive Balance: Time Series Lessens from the English Premier League,"(coauthored with R. Fort), Scottish Journal of Political Economy, vol. 59. no. 3 2012, p. 266-282.

[37] "Frontier Models and their Application to the Sports Industry,"  The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics Volume 1, Kahane and Shmanske(eds.), 2012. p.118-134.

[36] "Playoff Uncertainty and Pennant Races," (coauthored with T. Krautmann and K. Quinn), Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 12, no. 5. 2011, p.495-514.

[35] "The Catching-up and Technological Progress of the ASEAN Economies,” (coauthored with C.M. Yu), Pacific Economic Review, vol. 16, no. 2, 2011, p.236-254.

[34] "Temporal Variations in Technical Efficiency: Evidence from German soccer," (coworking with B. Frick), Journal of Productivity Analysis, vol. 35, no. 1,2011, p.15-24.

[33] "Is the small-ball strategy effective in winning games? A stochastic frontier production approach", Journal of Productivity Analysis, vol. 35, no. 1, 2011, p.51-59.

[32] "Regional Disparity of Productivity in China: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," (coauthored with H.L. Chan), Journal of Economic Theory and Econometrics, vol. 21, no. 2, 2010 p.30-60

[31] "Happiness and Physical Activity in Special Populations: Evidence from Korean Survey Data," (coauthored with I. Park) Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 11, no. 2, 2010, p.136-156.

[30] "The Group-Specific Stochastic Production Frontier Models with Parametric Specifications," European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 200, 2010, p.508-517.

[29] "Identification of Segments of Soccer Clubs in the Spanish League First Division with a Latent Class Model: Comments," Journal of Sports Economics, vol.10, no.6, 2009, p651-659.

[28] "A Survey of Stochastic Frontier Models and Likely Future Developments," (coauthored with C. Amsler and P. Schmidt) Seoul Journal of Economics, vol.22. no.1. 2009. p.1-23.

[27] "The Impact of Postseason Restructuring on the Competitive Balance and Fan Demand in Major League Baseball," Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 10, no. 3. 2009. p.219- 235.

[26] "Fan Demand and the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis in Baseball."  (coauthored with R. Fort) Review of Industrial Organization, vol.33. no.4. 2008 p.281-295.

[25] "Optimal Dynamic Pricing for Sports Games with Habitual Behavior in Attendance," (coauthored with D. Won) Managerial and Decision Economics, vol.29, no.8, 2008. p. 639-655.

[24] "Race, Technical Efficiency, and Firing:  The Case of NBA Coaches," (coauthored with R. Fort and D. Berri) International Journal of Sport Finance, vol.3. no.2. 2008. p.84-97.

[23] "Why Are Americans Addicted to Baseball?  An Empirical Analysis of Fandom in Korea and the U.S." (coauthored with T. Smith) Contemporary Economic Policy, vol.26. no. 1, 2008. p.32-48.

[22] "A Re-examination of Production Fns and Efficiency Estimates for the NBA,” (coauthored with D. Berri) Scottish Journal of Political Economy, vol. 55. no.1. 2008. p51-66.

[21] "Structural Change, Competitive Balance, and the Rest of the Major Leagues," (coauthored with R. Fort) Economic Inquiry, vol. 45. no. 3. 2007.

[20] "Life-Cycle Demand for Major League Baseball," (coauthored with S.C. Ahn) International Journal of Sport Finance, vol. 2. no. 2, 2007.

[19] "Productivity Growth and Patterns of Efficiency Changes in Korean Economy: Stochastic Frontier Approach with Industry-Panel Data“ Seoul Journal of Economics vol. 20. no. 1, 2007.

[18] "Stochastic frontier models with multiple time-varying individual effects," (coauthored with S.C. Ahn and P. Schmidt) Journal of Productivity Analysis, vol. 27. no.1, 2007.

[17] "A Stochastic Production Frontier Model with Group-Specific Temporal Variation in Technical Efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, vol 174. 2006. p.1616-1630.

[16] "Efficiency Estimation of Sports Team and Stochastic Frontier Model,"  In John Fizel (ed.) The Handbook of Sports Economics Research (Armonk, N.Y.:  M.E. Sharpe, Inc.), 2006.

[15] "Stationarity and Major League Baseball Attendance Analysis,"(coauthored with R. Fort) Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 7, 2006 p.408-415.

[14] "The Productivity Debate of East Asia Revisited: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," (coauthored with S.H. Kim), Applied Economics, vol. 38 no.14/10. p. 1697-1706, 2006.

[13] "The Decline of Attendance in the Korean Professional Baseball League: The Major League Effects," Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 7 no. 2, 2006.

[12] "Structural Change in Baseball's Competitive Balance: The Great Depression, Team Location, and Racial Integration," (coauthored with R. Fort) Economic Inquiry, vol. 43, 2005.

[11] "Competitive Balance and Attendance in Japanese, Korean and U.S. Professional Baseball Leagues.”  In R. Fort and J. Fizel (eds.) International Comparisons in Sports Economics (Westport, CT:  Praeger), p. 281-292, 2004.

[10] "Public Sector Capital and the Production Efficiency of U.S. Regional Manufacturing Industries", (coauthored with S. Kim) The Japanease Economic Review, vol. 53 no. 4, 2002.

[9] "GMM Estimation of Linear Panel Data Models with Time-Varying Individual Effects", (coauthored with S.C. Ahn and P. Schmidt) Journal of Econometrics, vol.101 no.2, 2001.

[8] "Infrastructure and Production Efficiency: An Analysis on the Korean Manufacturing Industry," (coauthored with S. Kim and J. Koo) Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 17, 1999.

[7] "Stochastic Frontier Models for Temporal Patterns of Technical Efficiency", The Journal of Productivity, Vol. 5. 1999.

[6] "Nominal Compensation With Temporal Effects of Individual Characteristics," Journal of Socio-Industrial Research, Vol. 11. 1997.

[5] "Tail-Truncated Stochastic Frontier Models", Journal of Economic Theory and Econometrics, Vol. 2. 1996.

[4] "Estimation of a Cobb-Douglas System with Flexible Temporal Variation in Efficiency", Journal of Korean Econometric Society, Vol. 5. 1994.

[3] "Panel Data Models with Temporal Effects of Individual Characteristics", Seoul Journal of Economics Vol. 7, No. 1., 1994.

[2] "A Production Frontier Model with Flexible Temporal Variation in Technical Inefficiency",(coauthored with P. Schmidt) in the Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications, H. Fried, C.A.K. Lovell and S. Schmidt, eds., Oxford University Press, 1993.

[1] "Panel Data Models with Multiplicative Individual and Time Effects: Applications to Compensation and Frontier Production Functions", Ph.D. Dissertation, 1991. 3.

Papers Published (in Korean)

[32] "지배구조를 고려한 한국프로야구의 전력평준화제도 연구," (공저) 응용경제 제21 제4, 2019. p.157-186.

[31] "다중공통요인 모형을 이용한 생산성 결정요인분석," (공저) 한국경제연구 제36 제2, 2018.

[30] "총요소생산성 분포의 추정방법," (공저경제학연구 제65 제3, 2017.

[29] "한국프로야구선수의 가치평가모형," (공저) 노동경제논집 제39 제2, 2016. p.113-139.

[28] "상호저축은행의 효율성분포," (공저) 응용경제 18 1, 2016. 5-34.

[27] "메이저리그야구 선수노동시장구조와 연봉 적절성," 한국스포츠산업경영학회지 18 3, 2013. p.1-15.

[26] "부트스트랩과 확률적 생산변경모형을 이용한 제조업효율성 국제비교," 산업조직연구 20 3, 2012. p.23-44.

[25] "R&D 생산효율성계에 관한 계량모형 비교연구: 확률적 생산변경모형을 중심으로," 경제분석, 17 1, 2011. p.103-130.

[24] "부트스트랩방법을 이용한 국내 은행산업의 효율성분석," (공저) 응용경제, 12 1, 2010. p.155-182.

[23] "한국프로야구 경기력 결정요인에 관한 실증분석," 한국체육측정평가학회지, 9 2, 2007. p.63-77.

[22] "세계철강기업의  생산성 분석,"  (공저) 생산성논집, 21 1, 2007.

[21] "효율성추정과 확률적 생산변경모형에 대한 문헌연구," (공저) 계량경제학보, 164, 2005

[20] "안정적 복권기금확보를 위한 복권정책 제도 개선방안," (공저) 규제연구, 142, 2005

[19] "프로야구산업의 이벤트마케팅 생산성에 관한 연구: 입장요금 전략을 중심으로," 생산성논집, 18, 1, 2004.

[18] "한국프로야구산업의 경쟁력 분석", 체육과학연구, 13 4, 2002.

[17] "한미일 프로야구산업의 경쟁력비교", 한국스포츠사회학회지, 15 2, 2002.

[16] "한국경제의 생산효율성과 성장능력," 한국경제 성장의 한계와 가능성, 한국경제연구원, 2001.

[15] "한국프로야구산업의 제도개선방향," 규제연구, 한국경제연구원, 10 1, 2001.

[14] "확률프론티어분석을 이용한 연구개발투자의 OECD국가간 파급효과," (공저) 산업조직연구, 한국산업조직학회, 9 1, 2001.

[13] "선형패널자료모형에 관한 문헌연구," 계량경제학보, 한국계량경제학회, 12 1, 2001.

[12] "산업별 인력수급 예측모형 개발," (공저) 노동부, 2001.

[11] "한국프로농구팀의 효율성분석," 산업조직연구, 한국산업조직학회, 8 2, 2000.

[10] "공익서비스산업의 전략적 민영화 방안: 고속도로 유지보수산업,"(공저) 규제연구, 한국경제연구원, vol.9 no. 1, 2000.

[9] "생산성을 통해 동아시아의 경제위기", 동아시아경제연구, 1, 1998.

[8] "사회간접자본과 제조업 생산의 효율성", 계량경제학보, 1998.

[7] "장기 철강 수급전망과 정책과제", 한국경제연구원, 1996.

[6] "확률적 생산변경모형을 이용한 잠재GDP추정", 한국경제의 분석, 1 2, 1996.

[5] "우리경제의 성장능력추이 전망을 위한 연구", 한국경제연구원, 1995. 10.

[4] "산업별 물가원인 분석 : 통화적 요인을 중심으로", 한국경제연구원, 1995. 8.

[3] "債券市場開放 金利決定構造 미치는 영향", 증권조사월보, 증권감독원, 1994. 10.

[2] "우리경제의 효율성을 고려한 잠재 GNP추정",(공저) 연구조사자료 87-93-03, 한국경제연구원, 1993. 10.

[1] "서비스부문 擴大 通貨·物價關係 미치는 影響 ", 연구조사자료 84-92-15, 한국경제연구원, 1992. 11.