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Carol Dweck's Lay Theories About Mutability: Incremental and Entity Theories

I. Theoretical foundation

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048. 

Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: The Psychology Press. 

Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267-285. 

Dweck, C. S., Hong, Y., & Chiu, C. (1993). Implicit theories: Individual differences in the likelihood and meaning of dispositional inference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 644-656. 

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273. 

Molden, D. C., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). Finding “meaning” in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist, 61, 192-203. 

II. Domain-specific mutability

Ability (e.g., athletic coordination, group-management ability, intelligence)

Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78, 246-263.

Burns, K. C., & Isbell, L. M. (2007). Promoting malleability is not one size fits all: Priming implicit theories of intelligence as a function of self-theories. Self and Identity, 6, 51-63.

Butler, R. (2000). Making judgments about ability: The role of implicit theories of ability in moderating inferences from temporal and social comparison information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 965-978.

Cury, F., Da Fonseca, D., Zahn, I., & Elliot, A. (2008). Implicit theories and IQ test performance: A sequential mediational analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 783-791.

El-Alayli, A. (2006). Matching achievement contexts with implicit theories to maximize motivation after failure: A congruence model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1690-1702.

Gonida, E., Kiosseoglou, G., & Leondari, A. (2006). Implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement: Testing alternative models. American Journal of Psychology, 119, 223-238.

Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M. S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 588-599.

Kasimatis, M., Miller, M., & Marcussen, L. (1996). The effects of implicit theories on exercise motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 510-516.

Leonardelli, G. J., Hermann, A. D., Lynch, M. E., & Arkin, R. M. (2003). The shape of self-evaluation: Implicit theories of intelligence and judgments of intellectual ability. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 141-168.

Rhodewalt, F. (1994). Conceptions of ability, achievement goals and individual-differences in self-handicapping behavior: On the application of implicit theories. Journal of Personality, 62, 67-85.

Spraya, C. M., Wang, C. K. J., Biddle, S. J. H., Chatzisarantis, N.L. D., & Warburton, V. E. (2006). An experimental test of self-theories of ability in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 255-267.

Tabernero, C., & Wood, R. E. (1999). Implicit theories versus the social construal of ability in self-regulation and performance on a complex task. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 78, 104-127.

Tong, Y. Y., & Chiu, C. (2002). Lay theories and evaluation-based organization of impressions: An application of the memory search paradigm. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1518-1527.

Emotion


Tamir, M., John, O. P., Srivastava, S., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Implicit theories of emotion: Affective and social outcomes across a major life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 731-744.

Groups and social identities

Rydell, R. J., Hugenberg, K., Ray, D., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Implicit theories about groups and stereotyping: The role of group entitativity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 549-558.

Tong, E. M. W., & Chang, W. C. (2008). Group entity belief: An individual difference construct based on implicit theories of social identities. Journal of Personality, 76, 707-732.

Human character and moral character

Chiu, C., Dweck, C. S., Tong, J. Y., Fu, J. H. (1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 923-940.

Haslam, N., Bastian, B., Bain, P., & Kashima, Y. (2006). Psychological essentialism, implicit theories, and intergroup relations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9, 63-76.

Hong, Y., Chan, G., Chiu, C., Wong, R. Y. M., Hansen, I. G., Lee, S., Tong, Y., & Fu, H. (2003). How are social identities linked to self-conception and intergroup orientation? The moderating effect of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 1147-1160.

Hong, Y., Levy, S. R., & Chiu, C. (2001). The contribution of the lay theories approach to the study of groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 98-106.

Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1421-1436.

Miller, C. H., Burgoon, J. K., & Hall, J. R. (2007). The effects of implicit theories of moral character on affective reactions to moral transgressions. Social Cognition, 25, 819-832.

Molden, D. C., Plaks, J. E., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). “Meaningful” social inferences: Effects of implicit theories on inferential processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 738-752.

Plaks, J. E., Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Violations of implicit theories and the sense of prediction and control: Implications for motivated person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 245-262.

Personality


Beer, J. S. (2002). Implicit self-theories of shyness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1009-1024.

Chiu, C. Y., Hong, Y. Y., & Dweck, C. S. (1997). Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 19–30.

Erdley, C. A., & Dweck, C. S. (1993). Children’s implicit personality theories as predictors of their social judgments. Child Development, 64, 863-878.

Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., & Sacks, R. (1997). Implicit theories and evaluative processes in person cognition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 296–323.

Norenzayan, A., Choi, I., & Nisbett, R. E. (2002). Cultural similarities and differences in social inference: Evidence from behavioral predictions and lay theories of behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 109-120.

Renaud, J. M., & McConnell, A. R. (2007). Wanting to be better but thinking you can't: Implicit theories of personality moderate the impact of self-discrepancies on self-esteem. Self and Identity, 6, 41-50.

Relationship


Knee, C. R. (1998). Implicit theories of relationships: Assessment and prediction of romantic relationship initiation, coping, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 360-370.

Knee, C. R. (2004). Implicit theories of relationships: Moderators of the link between conflict and commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 617-628.

Thompson, J. A., & Halberstadt, A. G. (2008). Children's accounts of sibling jealousy and their implicit theories about relationships. Social Development, 17, 488-511.

World (i.e., general social structure)


Chen, J., Chiu, C., & Chan, F. S. (in press). The cultural effects of job mobility and the belief in a fixed world: Evidence from performance forecast. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Chiu, C., Dweck, C. S., Tong, J. Y., Fu, J. H. (1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 923-940.

Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267-285.

Yang, Y. J., & Hong. Y. (in press). Implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self as moderators of self-stereotyping. Social Cognition.
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