•  On the training of being a scientist:
  • 1. Every scientist in the back of his mind takes it for granted that even the best theory is likely to be an approximation to the true state of affairs (Meehl, 1990).
    2. Since all models are wrong, the scientist must be alert to what is importantly wrong. It is inappropriate to be concerned about mice when there are tigers abroad (Box, 1976).
    3. A theory can be useful in that it "inspires people to create, innovate and produce new ideas (Chiu, 2010)", in other words, the theory serves the "primary function to be generative" (Higgins, 2004).
    4. Rather than in the business of testing hypotheses, scientists 
    are in the business of making discoveries (Higgins, 2004).
    The theory often evolved and became refined as the data unfolded, rather than being systematically detailed in advance ... A theory, like a child, must be allowed to develop through contact with the world (i.e., data). ... What is most magical about theory is how it draws one along in a train of reasoning to a destination one never imagined (Higgins, 2004).

  • Statistical tools and concepts:
Last Update: August 13, 2010