Based on the evidence presented here, to insist that the Hebrews of the Bible were strict monotheists is absurd. There is not one verse in the entire Bible that claims there is only “one” God, in fact the opposite is true. In multiple verses throughout the Bible we read of multiple gods.

Yahweh is not the “one and only true God,” as taught by the Abrahamic faiths of today, but the one god out of many that Israel was to serve and worship. Yahweh is not the one and only Elohim (singular), he is a part of the assembly of the Elohim (plural).

These gods are identified in the Biblical text by many different terms including: El, Elim, Elohim, messengers, messengers of Yahweh, messengers of Elohim and sons of Elohim. These gods are not the omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent deities that we are familiar with, but finite beings in physical form with extra-ordinary power.

When we read the Biblical text without any theological filters we find that the Ancient Israelites acknowledged the existence of many gods, but were only to worship one of the gods-Yahweh. This form of religion is called henotheism and the bulk of the Hebrew Bible is written from this perspective.  An example can be found in the verse below where Yahweh acknowledges the existence of other gods, but requires Israel to serve him alone.

 You shall have no other gods before me. (Exodus 20:3, RSV)

However, In a few places in the text we find a panenetheistic view of God.  Panentheism is the belief that God exists in every part of the universe, or to use a more Hebraic idiom for all things, the sky and the land.  In the following passage David is describing the breath (Hebrew ruach) of God as being everywhere.

 Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend to heaven, thou art there! If I make my bed in Sheol, thou art there! (Psalms 139:7-8, RSV)

Judaism and Christianity believe that the Bible is a book written by God to man, but a more realistic view is that the Bible is a book written by men about God. With this perspective, different authors may have different understandings of who or what Elohim is. While some may have a henotheistic view of Elohim, others may have a panentheistic view.