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chapter 06

speech disorder:
  • refers to difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech, often referred to as stuttering
Image result for speech disorder
citation: Exceptional Lives 129
  • entails difficulty receiving, understanding, or formulating ideas and information
Image result for language disorder
citation: Exceptional Lives 129
receptive language disorder:
  • is characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information
Image result for receptive language disorder
citation: Exceptional Lives 129
expressive language disorder:
  • is characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information.
  • both speech disorders and language disorders can adversely affect a students educational performance
citation: Exceptional Lives 129
  • a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity ot the upper lip.
  • language disorders are sometimes the primary feature through which other disorders are sometimes the primary feature through which other disorders are identified.
  • a child with a hearing disorder may initially be referred for evaluation because he is not talking as well as other children his age

citation: Exceptional Lives 129
  • a language variation that a group of individuals  uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors.
  • examples of culturally and linguistically diverse populations that may use an accent or a social dialect include African Americans, Latinos, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans.
  • accent and dialects are not communication disorders; rather, they are differences.

citation: Exceptional Lives 129

  • the oral expression of language.
  • this expression occurs when a person produces sounds and syllables.
  • a person forms sounds by varying the position of the lips, tongue, and lower jaw as air passes through the larynx, pharynx, mouth and nose.

citation: Exceptional Lives 130

  • is a structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating.
  • the five components of our language system are phonology (sound system), morphology (word forms), syntax (word order and sentence structure), semantics (word and sentence meanings), and pragmatics (social use of language)>
  • each dimension works together with the others to create a robust language system.

citation: Exceptional Lives 130

  • the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words.
  • phonology encompasses the rules and sequencing of individual speech sounds (called phonemes) and how they are produced, depending on their placement in a syllable or word.
  • constants at the beginning of syllables or words are produced slightly differently from those in the middle or at the end of syllables or words.
  • phonological use requires correct pronunciation as well as awareness of sound differences as they signal change in meaning

citation: Exceptional Lives 130
  • the system that governs the structure of words
  • phonemes or single sounds have little meaning on their own, but some can be grouped into syllables or words that have meaning.
  • the smallest meaningful unit of speech is called a morpheme.

citation: Exceptional Lives 131