Civilian Prisoners

"The proceedings of Governor Peirpoint in seizing and confining suspected rebels in his vicinity, placing them in a chain gang and holding them at hard labor until certain civilians and officers of West Virginia are released and exchanged by the enemy is certainly an interference with the disposition and treatment of prisoners of war which must needs be very embarrassing to those officers to whom control of prisoners and their exchange has been expressly delegated by the War Department. Unless some special authority has been given to Governor Peirpoint by the War or State Office to act in this manner he should be advised that he cannot without embarrassing the Government transcend the ordinary police power which he is authorized as Governor to exercise over rebels within his jurisdiction, and that by taking it upon himself to hold rebel prisoners for exchange for Union men he necessarily interferes with the formal arrangements made by the proper officers for the same purpose. The fearlessness and energy shown by Governor Peirpoint in making these arrests cannot be too highly commended, but they should be made by virtue of his general police powers if not expressly enlarged as aforesaid."

 J. Holt, Judge-Advocate-General, June 5, 1863, Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series 2, Vol. 5, pgs. 611-12

 

These lists come from the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series 2, Vol. 2, pgs. 264-268. and also from the Camp Chase Cemetery records, which are available online. Camp Chase left an indelible scar on the West Virginians who were sent there, though few West Virginia historians have bothered to write about it. It even became the title of a traditional fiddle tune called "Camp Chase", which was recorded by the Hammons Family in the late 1940's. According to Thomas J. Arnold, Stonewall Jackson's nephew,
 
"Immediately, following the fight, Col. T. M. Harris, mad at allowing himself to be surprised by Jackson, and, who at the time of the Imboden raid, had remarked he was coming back to Beverly to spend the 4th of July, sent armed guards out for several miles north of Beverly and gathered all the citizens they could find and marched them into town. They were lined up on the street. I was present and saw and heard everything that was said. Harris walked along the line and questioned each man as to whether he was a Union man. Whenever the answer was "my sympathy is with the South," or "I am a constitutional Union man," the order came "take two steps to the front." There were thirteen that stepped to the front. Without any opportunity whatever to be heard, or explanation given, they were rushed off to Fort Delaware, a military prison, from whence but few of them returned alive."
 
So there are about a dozen West Virginia civilians also buried at Fort Delaware.
 
This list is not meant to be definitive. It only reflects what records are available for early 1862, which would have been substantial numbers.  For instance, in Dr. Camden's narrative he states that about 80 citizens of the Weston area were headed for Camp Chase by order of Gen. Roberts. I am merely offering this as an example of what was happening in western Virginia.
 
"Twenty-eight prisoners arrived Saturday from West Virginia via Cincinnati; and of these, twenty-three are on parole. They will be immediately transferred to Richmond, Va. The reporter heard one of them remark that if they took Washington City they would not burn it, for there were too many good buildings there ; and as they wished to make it the capital of the Confederacy sometime, these buildings would be needed." from "The Story of Camp Chase", by William H. Knauss, pg. 121.
 
 
The following three citizens are buried in the Johnson Island Confederate Cemetery
 
Ash, Samuel :Citizen of Doddridge Co. Virginia. Captured on unknown date at unknown  site. Arrived Dec. 25, 1862. Died Jan. 4, 1863 of typhoid fever. Buried on island, grave unknown.
 
Christian, Daniel :Pvt. 129th Virginia, Co. E. Captured Feb. 16, 1862 at McDowell Co. Virginia (Now West Virginia). Arrived Sept.6, 1862. Died Oct. 11, 1862 of chronic diarrhea. Buried grave 72
    NOTE:The 129th Virginia was a militia regiment (27th Brigade), from Nicholas and Logan Counties and was in service during 1861.It appears that Christian may have been a civilian when captured.
 
Fuqur (or Ferquer), James :Citizen of Virginia. Captured at date unknown in Tyler Co. Virginia (West Virginia). Arrived Dec. 25, 1862. Died Feb. 3, 1863 of typhoid fever.Buried on island, grave unknown.
 
 
The following paragraph comes from Kenneth W. Noe's essay, "Who Were the Bushwackers? Age, Class, Kin, and Western Virginia's Confederate Guerrillas, 1861-1862", Civil War History, Vol. 49, No. 1, March, 2003.
 
"The Camp Chase materials reveal, for example, that dozens of civilians went there during the war's first year for "aiding the rebels" in some manner, some only for voicing support for the Confederacy. The rosters list at least forty prisoners suspected of disloyalty, while the incomplete descriptive lists suggest a much higher number. Many clearly were "political prisoners": in November 1862 officials specifically used that term for the more than three hundred men and three women then imprisoned in Camp Chase. Among the western Virginians held, authorities identified Thomas C. Reid of Alleghany County as a "spy," charged John Leeson of Calhoun County with "treason," and dispatched David Murphy of Marion County to Camp Chase although he was only "awaiting charges." Henry Jenkins of Doddridge County made the mistake of "cheering for Jeff Davis," Thomas F. Watson of Monogahelia County dangerously advocated secession, and E. J. W. Rawson of Mason County was "hostile to U.S. government." The military also arrested A. J. Seamands of Cabell County for "treason" although he had "done nothing," and imprisoned George Standiford of Marshall County for "trying to run a union man off his field."
 
Eight men went to the prison for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the United States government, while a ninth, Berry Y. Morris of Marshall County, reportedly violated the oath he had taken. Two others, Joseph Wilson of Calhoun County and B. F. Smith of Hampshire County, were listed simply as "hostage. All told, the annotated rosters and descriptive lists of prisoners suggest that the contention of Mark E. Neely, Jr., that historians have exaggerated the Abraham Lincoln administration's violations of civil liberties may require readjustment if not significant reevaluation. Apparently unaware of the existence of the rosters, Neely inadvertently plays down Federal arrests in West Virginia while emphasizing similar Confederate activities there. Arrests of secessionist civilians in the region, however, clearly were somewhat more widespread than Neely maintains."


ro=released on oath
rob=released on oath and bond
dcc=died at Camp Chase, Ohio

Showing 292 items
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NameCountyDateDischarge or Charge
Arnold, James Gilmer  3/13/62 rob 
Allen, William H., sr Kanawha  3/13/62 ro 
Allen, William, jr. Kanawha  3/13/62 ro 
Adams, J.D. Hampshire  3/13/62 ro 
Amick, Henry Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Anderson, John Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Ayers, Jeff Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Bright, Matthew Harrison 3/13/62 rob 
Boggs, Wesley Webster 3/13/62 rob 
Barnett, N.D. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Barnett, J.D. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Baumgardner, Jacob Cabell (Guyandotte) 3/13/62 rob 
Bowman, A.C. Barbour 3/13/62 rob 
Burner, L. Pocahontas 3/13/62 rob 
Byard, Benj Wetzel 3/13/62 rob 
Bennett, Hezekiah Pendleton 3/13/62 rob 
Butcher, Harvey B. Roane 3/13/62 rob 
Coffman, J.W. Harrison  3/13/62 rob 
Cooper, F.W., Dr. Roane 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Cool, Jesse Webster 3/13/62 ro 
Cool, Archibald Webster 3/13/62 ro 
Collins, Lewis Upshur 3/13/62 ro 
Carte, George Clay 3/13/62 ro 
Cogar, Tunis Webster 3/13/62 rob 
Cavendish, John Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Crawford, W.S. Hampshire 3/13/62 rob 
Cain, Michael Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Coffman, George Taylor 3/13/62 ro 
Conway, G.S. Harrison 3/13/62 ro 
Coteral, B.H. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Collins, A.I Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Conrad, Marion Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Cone, Gamaliel Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Cummins, John S. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Davis, George A. Harrison 3/13/62 rob 
Dillon, R.H. Kanawha 3/13/62 ro 
Dulin, Francis Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Dent, Cornelius Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Dunn, John Hampshire 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Davis, Samuel Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Duffy, Peter Fayette 3/13/62 ro 
Evert, P.R. Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Enlow, John Randolph 3/13/62 ro 
Eaton, Jonah B. Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Evans, Peter Harrison 3/13/62 ro 
Enoch, David, jr. Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Eshelman, Abraham Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Frampton, David Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Farley, J.W. Kanawha 3/13/62 ro 
Flanagan, Jacob Tucker 3/13/62 ro 
Fall, Reuben Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Flint, William Kanawha 3/13/62 rob 
Grove, George S. Upshur 3/13/62 rob 
Gwin, John Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
George, Henry Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Hite, J.W. Cabell 3/13/62 rob 
Harwood, John A. Wood 3/13/62 ro 
Hansford, Charles S. Randolph 3/13/62 rob 
Heater, Hanson Gilmer 3/13/62 ro 
Heater, Harvey Gilmer 3/13/62 ro 
Hoover, Frederic Braxton 3/13/62 ro 
Houchin, Ellis Pocahontas 3/13/62 ro 
Hall, A.E. Harrison 3/13/62 ro 
Hickman, William Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Hall, Samuel Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Jones, Samuel Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Keith, J.J. Lewis 3/13/62 ro 
Kious, J.C. Kanawha 3/13/62 ro 
Kesler, Alex Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Lowther, Harrison Lewis 3/13/62 rob 
Lockwood, John Wood 3/13/62 ro 
Louck, G.W. Randolph 3/13/62 rob 
Limbers, Isaac Braxton 3/13/62 ro 
Lowther, Camillus Wood 3/13/62 ro 
Lemmon, Jacob Ritchie 3/13/62 ro 
Lemmon, Fredk Ritchie 3/13/62 ro 
Long, S.D. Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Lynch, William Lewis 3/13/62 ro 
Manie, A.J. Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Martin, H.T. Lewis 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Morris, W.B. Nicholas 3/13/62 rob 
McCutcheon, Jones Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Malcomb, J.M Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Morrow, Thomas Wirt 3/13/62 rob 
McCartney, G.D. Harrison 3/13/62 rob 
Moss, James A. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
McCrea, Robert Webster 3/13/62 ro 
McNamar, John Gilmer 3/13/62 ro 
Meeks, William Lewis 3/13/62 ro 
Moss, G.W. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Malcolm, F.M. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Martin, David Kanawha 3/13/62 ro 
Nichols, G.W. Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Norton, Timothy Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Nutter, Thomas Marion 3/13/62 ro 
Nelson, W.H. Tucker 3/13/62 ro 
Neal, Jonathan Kanawha 3/13/62 rob 
Neal, Anderson Kanawha 3/13/62 rob 
Parsons, Abraham Tucker 3/13/62 rob 
Parsons, C.C. Kanawha 3/13/62 ro 
Parrish, James Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Parsons, Cornelius Tucker 3/13/62 ro 
Parsons, Joseph Tucker 3/13/62 ro 
Parsons, William L. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Russell, St. Mark Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Ricketts, Elijah Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Rogers, William A. Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Reynolds, Archibald Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Rowsey, Kilburn Fayette 3/13/62 ro 
Roach, Charles Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Rogers, Lem Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Ruckmann, M.D. Randolph 3/13/62 rob 
Rudolph, Hezekiah Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Robinson, J.H. Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Rhea, J.L. Braxton 3/13/62 ro 
Rafferty, Patrick Calhoun 3/13/62 ro 
Roach, John Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Rinehart, Elijah Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Ruby, John Putnam 3/13/62 rob 
Smith, Chris. H. Harrison 3/13/62 rob 
Stalnaker, Absolom Randolph 3/13/62 rob 
Smith, E.A. Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Stewart, James Cabell 3/13/62 ro 
Snyder, Lewis Lewis 3/13/62 ro 
Smoot, N.C. Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Stackhouse, M. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Siebert, Adam Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Siebert, William Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Stockslager, Daniel Hampshire 3/13/62 ro 
Sheppard, Martin Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Staats, Martin Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Somerville, David Wirt 3/13/62 ro 
Stewart, William P. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Stewart, John W. Roane 3/13/62 ro 
Sharp, Bryery Wirt 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Stallman,G.W. Gilmer 3/13/62 rob 
Tanner, Joshua Clay 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Tanner, Elijah Clay 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Tanner, John A. Calhoun 3/13/62 ro and to live in Ohio 
Van Bibber, D.C. Nicholas 3/13/62 rob 
Van Bibber, J.C. Nicholas 3/13/62 rob 
Vance, George W. Nicholas 3/13/62 rob 
Vandevender, Cain Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Varner, Jacob Jackson 3/13/62 rob 
Ware, John N. Randolph 3/13/62 rob 
Wilson, Wash. M. Clay 3/13/62 ro 
Warner, E.C. Braxton 3/13/62 rob 
Windsor, Anderson Fayette 3/13/62 rob 
Walton, E.H. Cabell 3/13/62 rob 
Wise, W.H Harrison 3/13/62 ro 
Ward, McKinsey Barbour 3/13/62 ro 
Wyatt, Addison Lewis 3/13/62 ro 
Youst, F.H. Marion 3/13/62 ro 
Adkins, Wilson Boone 8/7/63 dcc 
Alford, J.C. Barbour 3/7/64 dcc 
Barnes, Nathaniel Harrison 6/23/63 dcc 
Candy, James Hampshire 2/8/63 dcc 
Clark, Stephen Randolph 10/13/62 dcc 
Cline, Cincinnati N. Ritchie 11/14/62 dcc 
Elliott, Samuel Barbour 6/16/63 dcc 
Fisher, W.H. Fayette 10/12/63 dcc 
Foster, Aaron L. Monongalia 9/8/63 dcc 
Galford, Thomas Pocahontas 6/19/63 dcc 
Hill, George W. Monroe 7/27/62 dcc 
Ketterman, Adam Hardy 12/14/62 dcc 
Kittle, Benjamin Barbour 8/5/64 dcc 
Long, William Ritchie 11/1/62 dcc 
Maddox, Matthew Harrison 10/5/63 dcc 
Malot, Reisin Marion 10/29/62 dcc 
Morrow, John Lewis 6/30/63 dcc see Dr. Camden's story 
Patterson, William Greenbrier 8/3/62 dcc 
Paul, J.E. Putnam 12/25/62 dcc 
Pinson, William Wayne 6/3/63 dcc 
Roberts, William R. Doddridge 6/16/63 dcc 
Rutherford, John Taylor 10/25/62 dcc 
Standeford, George Marshall 8/11/62 dcc 
Talkington, W.P. Marion 11/22/62 dcc 
Tench, Clark W. Raleigh 7/15/62 dcc 
Valentine, George Ritchie 6/3/62 dcc 
Watson, James A. Upshur 10/4/63 dcc 
Wees, Amos Hardy 9/23/64 dcc 
Alderton, William Morgan 3/15/62 rebel aider 
Apperson, William Randolph 3/15/62 rebel mail carrier 
Amick, Eli Nicholas 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
Arbough, Harry Putnam 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
Butler, Oliver Clay 3/15/62 thief & a bad man 
Boney, Reuben Hampshire 3/15/62 forcing Union men into rebel army 
Burdett, John J. Greenbrier 3/15/62 sending Union men into rebel custody 
Ball, Henry Cabell 3/15/62 violent secessionist 
Burner, George Pocahontas 3/15/62 charges unknown 
Bradford, James Jackson 3/15/62 aiding the rebellion 
Bradford, James P. Preston 3/15/62 secessionist 
Childers, Francis Roane 3/15/62 violent secessionist 
Coberly, Bushrod Pendleton 3/15/62 rebel mail carrier 
Cain, Thomas Calhoun 3/15/62 secessionist 
Cordaw, William Barbour 3/15/62 secessionist 
Cunningham, John Marion 3/15/62 aiding the rebels 
Devies, Doctor Wirt 3/15/62 rebel aider in robbing boats 
Daft, George E. (c.c.) Randolph 3/15/62 secessionist 
Dering, George M. Hampshire 3/15/62 rebel mail carrier 
Davison, D.D. Wood 3/15/62 secessionist 
Daugherty, Joseph Wirt 3/15/62 secessionist 
Everet, E.T. Cabell 3/15/62 secessionist 
Fleshman, C.S. Kanawha 3/15/62 sympathising with the South 
Farris, Jacobs Pendleton 3/15/62 giving aid to the enemy 
Falconer, William Upshur 3/15/62 comforting rebels 
Gibson, George Wirt 3/15/62 secessionist 
Green, James Braxton 3/15/62 secessionist 
Heater, Thomas B. Gilmer 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
Holmes, N.G. Kanawha 3/15/62 aider of rebellion 
Helmick, J.N. Calhoun 3/15/62 supposed secessionist 
High, Frederick S. Hampshire 3/15/62 giving information to the enemy 
Henson, John Cabell 3/15/62 secessionist 
Hammer, George W. Pendleton 3/15/62 rebel scout; violating parole 
Harden, John J. Barbour 3/15/62 giving information to rebels 
Hampton, Reuben Wayne 3/15/62 secessionist & rebel aider 
Hensley, William Wayne 3/15/62 secessionist & rebel aider 
Hickey, David H. Harrison 3/15/62 secessionist & rebel aider 
Holmes, S.G.C. Harrison 3/15/62 secessionist & rebel aider 
Hopkins, A.S. Boone 3/15/62 secessionist & rebel aider 
Jones, Wesley Marion 3/15/62 secessionist 
Kelly, Frank (c.c.) Roane 3/15/62 secessionist & bushwhacker 
Kaddle, John (c.c.) Marshall 3/15/62 secessionist & bushwhacker 
Keith, Robert M. Gilmer 3/15/62 secessionist & bushwhacker 
Kirkpatrick, R.W. Wetzel 3/15/62 secessionist & bushwhacker 
Lewis, John E. Kanawha 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
Lewy, Green Fayette 3/15/62 secessionist 
Leace, George W. Hampshire 3/15/62 secessionist 
Leace, John W. Hampshire 3/15/62 secessionist 
Melot, Rezin Marion 3/15/62 secessionist 
Marks, John Gilmer 3/15/62 destroying Union men's property 
Michael, John E. Marion 3/15/62 rank secessionist 
Michael, Jonathan Marion 3/15/62 rank secessionist 
Musgrave, Moses Marion 3/15/62 rank secessionist 
McClung, George A.U. Nicholas 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
McDonald, Anthony Pendleton 3/15/62 rebel aider & horse-thief 
Myers, Daniel M. Tucker 3/15/62 rebel mail carrier & horse-thief 
McCollister, Peter Putnam 3/15/62 aiding rebels in arresting Union men 
McCollister, Moses Putnam 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
Markham, Bart Wayne 3/15/62 secessionist 
Markham, Steven Wayne 3/15/62 secessionist 
Norton, Moses Kanawha 3/15/62 secessionist 
Nolan, P.E. Jefferson 3/15/62 secessionist 
Nelson, J.W Cabell 3/15/62 found in armed rebellion 
Odell, William H. Nicholas 3/15/62 in arms against the government of the United States 
Parsons, Josiah Jackson 3/15/62 secessionist 
Pierce, Benjamin H. Raleigh 3/15/62 secessionist 
Props, Noah W. Nicholas 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
Phillips, Samuel H. Tucker 3/15/62 rebel mail carrie; horse-thief 
Paul, Thomas Putnam 3/15/62 bushwhackerr 
Paul, James Putnam 3/15/62 poisoning Union man 
Riley, John W. Calhoun 3/15/62 secessionist and rebel aider 
Rooke, E. Kanawha 3/15/62 secessionist and rebel aider 
Ross, Francis Calhoun 3/15/62 secessionist and rebel aider 
Rogers, Charles L. Braxton 3/15/62 secessionist and rebel aider 
Rowsey, K. Fayette 3/15/62 secessionist and rebel aider 
Stalnaker, John Roane 3/15/62 secessionist 
Stewart, Owen Hampshire 3/15/62 violent secessionist 
Sharps, Jesse H. Upshur 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
Stevenson, Leslie Wayne 3/15/62 bushwhacking 
Shrivers, H.J. Hampshire 3/15/62 bushwhacking 
Sevey, Herman Fayette 3/15/62 rank bushwhacker 
Swindler, Wilson Hampshire 3/15/62 giving aid and comfort to rebels 
Sites, William Pendleton 3/15/62 in Captain Lauty's militia company; unorganized 
Smith, Benjamin F. Hampshire 3/15/62 hostage for Mr. Brabb 
Swain, C.M. Putnam 3/15/62 horse-stealing; scouting 
Scisson, Luther Boone 3/15/62 horse-stealing; scouting 
Stewart, J.J. Cabell 3/15/62 secessionist 
Souther, John M. Wood 3/15/62 secessionist 
Shannon, George Putnam 3/15/62 secessionist 
Smith, Allen Nicholas 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
Stevens, J.J. Fayette 3/15/62 secessionist 
Simmonds, William Cabell 3/15/62 secessionist 
Stevens, Lewis W. Marion 3/15/62 secessionist 
Stevens, Firman Marion 3/15/62 secessionist 
Short, Thomas Wayne 3/15/62 bushwhacking 
Shirely, Henry Morgan 3/15/62 comforting rebels 
Stollings, Granville Kanawha 3/15/62 secessionist 
Toothman, Ashbury Marion 3/15/62 recruiting for rebel militia 
Thompson, George W. Clay 3/15/62 bushwhacker 
Taylor, Alfred Randolph 3/15/62 rebel aider & horse-thief 
Thompson, Coplin Pendleton 3/15/62 rebel aider & intimidating Union citizens 
Taylor, Obed W. Randolph 3/15/62 supposed rebel informer 
Thompson, Caloway Wayne 3/15/62 secessionist 
Valentine, George Ritchie 3/15/62 secessionist 
Wilson, Joseph Calhoun 3/15/62 to be released for Joseph Durkin of Hampshire Co. 
Watkins, Charles W. Randolph 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
Weese, Elias Randolph 3/15/62 aiding rebels 
White, W.T. Nicholas 3/15/62 secessionist 
Wharton, W.H. Putnam 3/15/62 secessionist 
Yost, John Hampshire 3/15/62 secessionist 
Coger, Christopher Braxton 10/21/64 dcc 
Showing 292 items
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