Flight 93   page 2

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Go to Flight 93 page 1:-Evidence summary, Phone calls from passengers and crew, Eyewitnesses to Flight 93's final moments, First responders & investigating agencies on the scene, Victim and personal effects identification, Coroner Miller's accounts, Memorial, Flight 93-related journalism and movies.

Go to Flight 93 page 3: More photos.

On this page:NORAD & ATC recordings, Flight 1989 confusion, Flight data recorder readouts before impact, cockpit voice recorder transcript, Autopilot study, Crater size and debris field, Comparison crash scenes, Aircraft parts collection, Hijackers and identification, More photos and videos

NORAD and Air Traffic Control Recordings, confusion with Delta flight 1989

NTSB: FDR Reports, Air Traffic Control Reports, Flight Path Studies, Autopilot studies, Recorded Radar Data Studies

Vanity Fair Article, with quotes from NORAD and ATC recordings – "How did the U.S. Air Force respond on 9/11? Could it have shot down United 93, as conspiracy theorists claim?"

NORAD 9/11 recordings hosted at 911myths.com

The Air Traffic Control recordings and accounts.

Pittsburgh officials were on full alert tracking Flight 93

Former ATC says no gag order on talking about 9/11

An example of an incorrect early report that fighter planes were near flight 93:
Meanwhile, speculation continued to swirl around reports that a military fighter jet was seen in the vicinity immediately after the crash.

According to the Nashua (N.H.) Telegraph, FAA employees at an air-traffic control center near Boston learned from controllers at other facilities that an F-16 “stayed in hot pursuit” of the 757.

By 10:30 a.m. Tuesday, the Air Force had taken control of all U.S. airspace, the unidentified controller told the Telegraph. A few minutes later, the Boeing crashed in Stonycreek Township.

The F-16 made 360-degree turns to stay close to the 757, the Telegraph reported. “He must’ve seen the whole thing,” the FAA employee said of the F-16’s pilot.
That event simply didn't happen. Note also the incorrect time of flight 93's crash: it was 10:03, not after 10:30.

Air Traffic Controllers mistook Delta Flight 1989, a 757 flying also flying from Boston to Los Angeles, for the hijacked plane. Here's a report from a passenger who was on board flight 1989, which landed in Cleveland.

Flight Data Recorder, Autopilot Info, Cockpit Voice Recorder Transcript

Black box recovered at Shanksville site
Flight Data Recorder found at PA Site
Searchers Find Plane Cockpit Voice Recorder

The Flight Data Recorder recording graphed. (PDF)

The FDR data show that the plane was intact and its systems were operating normally before impact. The plane’s roll angle corresponds to eyewitness reports:

Cabin pressure - NORMAL. Hydraulics - NORMAL. Cargo fire - NORMAL. Smoke - NORMAL. Engines - RUNNING. Engine RPM (N1) 70% . Fuel pressure - NORMAL. Engine vibration - LO. Wind direction - WEST. Wind speed - 25 kts. Pitch angle - 40 deg down. Airspeed - 500 kts. Heading - 180 deg. Roll angle - 150 deg right. AoA - 20 deg negative

NTSB Flight 93 Flight Path Study (PDF). Excerpt:
"From 10:00 to 10:02 there were four distinct control column inputs that caused the airplane to pitch nose-up (climb) and nose-down (dive) aggressively. During this time the airplane climbed to about 10,000 feet while turning to the right. The airplane then pitched nose-down and rolled to the right in response to flight control inputs, and impacted the ground at about 490 knots (563 mph) [FDR says 500 kts] in a 40 degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The time of impact was 10:03:11."

Study of Autopilot, Navigation Equipment, and Fuel Consumption Activity Based on United Airlines Flight 93 and American Airlines Flight 77 Digital Flight Data Recorder Information” (PDF)

JREF forum– Apathoid (Boeing 757/767 technician) on Flight 93 Autopilot use.

Apathoid's detailed paper on the feasibility of remote takeover of the hijacked planes. (PDF)

Below: Allied Signal flight data and cockpit voice recorders, new and as recovered from flight 93 scene.

Flight 93 Cockpit Voice Recorder transcript, introduced in Z. Moussaoui trial (PDF). Below: the final words recorded by the CVR, ending two seconds before impact (translated from the Arabic).

Crater Size, Site Cleanup, Debris Field

Above and below: note the scorched earth where the wing fuel tanks were.

By today, Environmental Resources Management Inc. of Pine, a contractor hired by United, expects to return 5,000 to 6,000 cubic yards of soil to the 50-foot hole dug around the crater left by the crash.
Source (10/03/01)

Site cleanup cost United Airlines $850,000

United Flight 93 Secondary Debris Field

[FBI Agent in charge] Crowley said that debris from the crash has been found in New Baltimore, Pa., which is 8 miles away from the crash scene, and Indian Lake, which is 2 1/2 miles away from the crash scene. Crowley said that NTSB officials said that it is probable that the debris in New Baltimore is from the crash.

The debris found in New Baltimore include paper and nylon, Crowley said. He said that the debris found is lightweight and easily can be carried by the wind. At the time of the crash, there was wind speed of 9 knots per hour heading to the southeast. Both Indian Lake and New Baltimore are southeast of the crash scene. [Bolding mine]

WTAE's Jim Parsons reported Wednesday that debris had been found miles off-site and removed. State Police Maj. Lyle Szupinka confirmed Thursday that debris had been discovered in the residential community of Indian Lake northeast of the central crash site.

Jim Brant, owner of Indian Lake Marina, said he rushed outside Tuesday morning when he heard the roar of jet engines overhead, then saw a fireball rise into the air. The wind was strong that morning, Brant said, and within minutes debris from the crash was "falling like confetti." Source (9/13/01.)

Also on Thursday, the Pennsylvania State Police arrested two photographers for breach of security. A police officer said that two stringers from New York City were given permission to take pictures of one portion of the crash scene, but they went into a restricted area and immediately were arrested.

Investigators say they've found debris from the crash at least eight miles away from the crash site.

A second debris field was around Indian Lake about 3 miles from the crash scene. Some debris was in the lake and some was adjacent to the lake. More debris from the plane was found in New Baltimore, some 8 miles away from the crash.

State police and the FBI initially said they didn't want to speculate whether the debris was from the crash, or if the plane could have broken up in midair. Investigators later said the debris was all very light material, such as paper and thin nylon the wind would easily blow. The wind was blowing towards Indian Lake and New Baltimore at 9 knots [10.5 mph]. "According to the NTSB, it is not only possible that the debris is from the crash, it is probable," Crowley said. Source (9/13/01)

Fleegle, marina owner Jim Brant and two of Brant's employees were among the dozens who witnessed the crash from Indian Lake. Fleegle had just returned to the marina to get fuel for a boat that had run out of gas when Carol Delasko called him into the drydock barn to watch news of the World Trade Center attack.

"All of a sudden the lights flickered and we joked that maybe they were coming for us. Then we heard engines screaming close overhead. The building shook. We ran out, heard the explosion and saw a fireball mushroom," said Fleegle, pointing to a clearing on a ridge at the far end of the lake.

Delasko, who ran outside moments later, said she thought someone had blown up a boat on the lake. "It just looked like confetti raining down all over the air above the lake," she said.

Fleegle, Brant and a fellow marina worker, Tom Spinelli, jumped in a truck and rushed to the crash site.

In the woods, they saw only a crater and tiny pieces of debris.

Fleegle said he climbed on the roof of an abandoned cabin and tossed down a burning seat cushion that had landed there. Source

Comparison Crash Scenes, Northwest Airlines Flight 710, Swissair Flight 111

Northwest Airlines Flight 710 (Lockheed Electra): high speed crash into farm field, plane and passengers reduced to small parts scattered or buried, few remains found. Only seven of the plane's 63 victims were identified.
The plane and its final explosion blew out a smoldering crater 50 ft. wide and 25 ft. deep. Civil Aeronautics Board crash specialists found empty, neatly laced shoes, a stray airmail letter, a bloodstained blouse, a prayer book lying open at the Litany of the Saints ("Lord have mercy on us..."). Source: "Why This Failure..." Time Magazine, March 28, 1960

There is a crater--it appears to be quite deep...perhaps 35 feet deep. There is thick smoke. I can barely make out the twisted wreckage of a large aircraft. The plane appears to have slammed itself nose first into the ground. I don't see how anyone could possibly have survived this kind of impact. As I look around in the snow I see slivers of silver/green metal, spilled fuel, and debris. I see no bodies...only indistinguishable remnants of human remains. Here is the largest identifiable piece of humanity: a part of a backbone that is still connected to a kidney. These people...these poor people. What must have happened? How long must they have known their inescapable fate? The wing and engine we first found must have been 3 or 4 miles away. I've never seen anything like this before...

...For days the Graves and Registration Troops continued to sift through the 4 or 5 acres of the wreckage, often mistaking pieces of pink airplane insulation for frozen pieces of human flesh. The smell of charred bodies, once frozen--then thawed--remains with me today. I came home from the crash site that first night and threw away my clothes. We reported the story to ABC, CBS, NBC, Canada and Mexico. A Two-inch communication cable was laid by Bell Telephone all the way from Cannelton to the crash site. Ultimately 8 or 9 coffins were provided to hold the recovered human remains of the 63 passengers and 6 crew members. All were buried in Greenwood Cemetery, but, in truth, only 2 of them actually held any contents at all. The other 6 were empty--symbolic gestures of grief. Source

It struck a field at 618 MPH. Mud, dirt, grass, shrubs and mottled snow were tossed 250 ft into the air. The debris fell back around a muddy crater forty feet wide. From this gaping wound in the earth poured smouldering smoke. There were pieces of wreckage around the perfectly formed rim. Some other metal fragments were hurled fifteen hundred feet away. But the one hundred foot fuselage itself had disappeared entirely.

In the crater, buried twelve feet under this smoking cauldron, was what was left of Northwest Airlines flight 710 - and the 33 men, 21 woman and 8 children and 1 infant aboard.
From "The Electra Story," 1963

Below: from Civil Aeronautics Board Flight 710 accident report

United Airlines Flight 585 (Boeing 737: much lower speed at impact, but an example of an airliner making a relatively small crater)
"The aircraft was turning from its 45° intercept to the extended runway centerline, and the first officer called "we're at 1,000 feet."

Dozens of witnesses in the community directly under the extended centerline watched as the airplane levelled off momentarily on the runway heading, 3.5 miles from the threshold. Then, it rolled to the right, pitched down until reaching a nearly vertical attitude, and compacted itself into a 39-foot wide, 15-foot deep crater in an area known as Widefield Park. All onboard were killed.

The first officer said, "Oh, God," - the altitude decreased rapidly; the indicated airspeed increased to over 200 knots; and the normal acceleration increased to over 4g." Source: AirDisaster.Com

"There was no damage to structures on the ground. Trees adjacent to the impact crater were damaged by flying debris and soot, and nearby patches of grass north and northeast of the crater were scorched. The size of the impact crater measured approximately 39 feet by 24 feet and was about 15 feet deep. Source: NTSB
Below: UA 585 crash scene.

Below: recovered remains of an RAF Canberra bomber, which crashed at a steep angle into a farm field at about 450-500 knots in 1952. "Such was the complete destruction of the aircraft that it made the job of the Accidents Investigation Branch a difficult one and all the wreckage recovered was taken back to Samlesbury and laid out in a Hanger for detailed inspection." Source

Below three photos: remains of Swissair flight 111, an MD-11 that crashed nose-down into the sea at 300 knots in 1998. Most of the wreckage was so fragmented that dredges had to be used to recover it. Thanks to JREF forum member "Norseman" for finding this item.

Rob Balsamo, the founder of Pilots for 9/11 Truth who thinks I should be executed as a traitor, likes to compare the 1994 crash of USAir flight 427, a Boeing 737, to that of flight 93. Balsamo claims that flight 93 should have left a similar amount of large wreckage to flight 427:

It's not a valid comparison. Flight 427 weighed about 49,000 kg and struck the ground at 264 knots. Flight 93 weighed about 77,000 kg and struck the ground at 504 knots. Flight 93's impact had five to six times more kinetic energy than flight 427's.

However, there is at least one good comparison between those two crashes:
One [flight 427] witness stated that he heard the sound of the crash while he was playing golf about 2 miles east-northeast of the accident site; about 2 minutes later, he observed blackened insulation falling onto the golf course. The insulation, business card, and sections of the airplane’s cargo liner were sent to Safety Board and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) laboratories for examination, which revealed no evidence of explosive residue. Source (PDF)
(Flights 585 and 427 were eventually determined to have most likely crashed due to the same type of rudder system malfunction, which has been corrected in 737s.)

Other flight 93 aircraft parts collection and inspection

Most of the plane was recovered, examined for signs of explosives by the FBI, and turned over to United Airlines (except for the black boxes, which went to the NTSB). Source and Source

Bill Crowley FBI: 95% of flight 93 recovered
Flight 93: 95% recovered

Searchers yesterday also found one of the hijacked jetliner’s engines. (Sept. 14, 2001)

After FBI investigation over, search for debris that had been blown out of trees by storms is done

Searchers to return to Flight 93 crash site

Volunteers scour Somerset County crash site, woods, to remove debris

Over the weekend, about 300 volunteers combed a half-mile square around the crash site and found enough debris from the Boeing 757 to fill about one-third of a trash container.

At the same time, the high winds that buffeted the area over the last few days have dislodged additional airplane parts – seat cushions, wiring, carpet fragments and pieces of metal – from trees near the crash site. "It's all aircraft parts, no human remains," Miller said. "We've collected them in 10 recycling bin-sized containers and eventually we'll turn them all over to United." Wallace Miller

Lambert (a distant relative of Nevin's) says his first trip around the site in October was "overwhelming and heartbreaking." He was absorbing the devastation when his escort, Somerset County Coroner Wally Miller, held up a quarter-size piece of metal. "As soon as he did that, you saw plane parts everywhere," Lambert says. Now, he can't help searching the ground every time he visits. "I don't notice the trees, the beauty of the land, the grass, or the snow," he says. "I just notice plane parts."

... Errant shards of the aircraft can still be found there–twisted plates of the machine's metal skin and swatches of patterned seat covers–but it's illegal to keep them. They're still considered evidence, and the area a crime scene, "until they catch [Osama] bin Laden," say many local police officers. Source

The Flight 93 Hijackers
 * Ziad Jarrah (Lebanese), pilot  * Ahmed al-Haznawi (Saudi Arabian)  * Ahmed al-Nami (Saudi Arabian)
 * Saeed al-Ghamdi (Saudi Arabian)

See stills from hijacker martyrdom videos here

Al Qaeda names "20th hijacker" (was to have been on flight 93)

Pilot Ziad Jarrah in "martyrdom" video with Mohammed Atta (no audio)

Hijacker remains to stay in FBI custody
Hijacker identification from the crash sceneMoreMore

9/11 plotter says flight 93 target was the U.S. Capitol building