Battle of Stalingrad

By 1943, the German Forces at Stalingrad were surrounded with very little hope of ever leaving the war zone alive, never mind achieving their goal of capturing the city. It was reported that in every seven seconds, a German soldier in Stalingrad died.1 Failures to resupply the army in the area resulted in food shortages that suffered the soldiers. As a result, Friedrich Paulus, the army commander in the southern sector of the battlefield, ordered that only those who were able to engage in combat were allowed access to their already miniscule food rations, which cut off food for the wounded, making the healing process for them even slower.2 Slowing the healing process for the wounded also limited the amount of much needed manpower that the German Army needed to have any chance of leaving the war zone alive without surrendering to their enemy, the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, which was the land forces of the Soviet Union. Hunger, combined with frostbite that accompanies the brutal and harsh Russian winter and the debilitating effects of disease has claimed more lives than enemy bullets, artillery, bombs, and other such arms.3
This disastrous situation may have been avoided if Paulus had been allowed to break out of Stalingrad before the army was completely surrounded by the Red Army. But this was not possible as Hitler has forbade them from doing so: "Surrender is forbidden. 6 Army will hold their positions to the last man and the last round and by their heroic endurance will make an unforgettable contribution towards the establishment of a defensive front and the salvation of the Western world."4
Hitler has given the order that the soldiers at Stalingrad must fight to the last bullet. In an attempt to motivate Paulus, he was given the rank of field marshall by Hitler. Paulus was also told by radio that not a single German field marshall has ever been captured by the enemy, indicating that he was to commit suicide if victory was impossible. Regardless of Hitler’s words, Paulus’s army in the southern sector surrendered on January 31, 1943, with the rest of the troops surrendering on February 2, 1943.5

The last radio message received from Stalingrad was: “The Russians are standing at the door of our bunker. We are destroying our equipment. This station will no longer transmit.6
A national day of mourning was ordered in Hitler, but it was not for the soldiers at Stalingrad. Instead, it was for the shame that Paulus has brought on the nation by surrendering. To further emphasise Hitler’s anger, the high rank that was awarded to Paulus was removed from him.7
        On a side note, a very substantial amount of ammunition was consumed by both sides during the battle. In the time period between January 10 and February 2 of 1943, only one front in the army used twenty-four million rifle and machine gun rounds.8








Sources:
1.Stein, R. Conrad. World War II in Europe: From Normandy to Berlin. Berkeley Heights: Enslow, 2011. Print. R. Conrad Stein has authored over one hundred books for young readers. This work is meant to inform people about historical events. Some passages in this book indicates mild bias against the Soviet Union, but information is not compromised by this bias. This book is meant for young readers of my age. Compared to another book written by a millitary historian, this book seems to have less detail on individual battles, instead providing a clear, concise, and simpler explanation of the subject.
2.Simkin, John. “Friedrich Paulus.” Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERpaulus.htm#mainbody>. John Simkin has been a history teacher since 1978. He attempted to create materials that would actively educate his students. This webstie was written with the intention that it would be used by students. He has also published many books on the topic of history, displaying expertise in authoring historical content. The information provided does not indicate any bias that would compromise the information. The facts provided agree with that of other sources.
3.Stein, R. Conrad. World War II in Europe: From Normandy to Berlin. Berkeley Heights: Enslow, 2011. Print. R. Conrad Stein has authored over one hundred books for young readers. This work is meant to inform people about historical events. Some passages in this book indicates mild bias against the Soviet Union, but information is not compromised by this bias. This book is meant for young readers of my age. Compared to another book written by a millitary historian, this book seems to have less detail on individual battles, instead providing a clear, concise, and simpler explanation of the subject.
4.Trueman, Chris. “Battle of Stalingrad.” History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_stalingrad.htm>. Chris Trueman was a teacher of history and politics at a major secondary school in England for the last 26 years. He possesses a BA (Honors) in History from  Aberystwyth University in Wales. He claims that he had made the source as unbiased and objective as possible. This is seen as the information provided agrees with the information found in other sources. In case of suspected bias or inaccuracy, the author may be contacted, allowing errors to be easily reported and fixed. The information presented shows a lack of opinion, stating only the facts and interpreting events.
5.Trueman, Chris. “Battle of Stalingrad.” History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_stalingrad.htm>. Chris Trueman was a teacher of history and politics at a major secondary school in England for the last 26 years. He possesses a BA (Honors) in History from  Aberystwyth University in Wales. He claims that he had made the source as unbiased and objective as possible. This is seen as the information provided agrees with the information found in other sources. In case of suspected bias or inaccuracy, the author may be contacted, allowing errors to be easily reported and fixed. The information presented shows a lack of opinion, stating only the facts and interpreting events.
6.Stein, R. Conrad. World War II in Europe: From Normandy to Berlin. Berkeley Heights: Enslow, 2011. Print. R. Conrad Stein has authored over one hundred books for young readers. This work is meant to inform people about historical events. Some passages in this book indicates mild bias against the Soviet Union, but information is not compromised by this bias. This book is meant for young readers of my age. Compared to another book written by a millitary historian, this book seems to have less detail on individual battles, instead providing a clear, concise, and simpler explanation of the subject.
7.Trueman, Chris. “Battle of Stalingrad.” History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_stalingrad.htm>. Chris Trueman was a teacher of history and politics at a major secondary school in England for the last 26 years. He possesses a BA (Honors) in History from  Aberystwyth University in Wales. He claims that he had made the source as unbiased and objective as possible. This is seen as the information provided agrees with the information found in other sources. In case of suspected bias or inaccuracy, the author may be contacted, allowing errors to be easily reported and fixed. The information presented shows a lack of opinion, stating only the facts and interpreting events.
8.Lewis, S. J. “The Battle of Stalingrad.” Google Scholar. Google, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://scholar.google.com/scholar?start=10&q=battle+of+stalingrad&hl=en&as_sdt=0,39>. Being listed in Google Scholar, this work seems to be scholarly work. The information presented seems to be intended for historians doing research on this topic. The facts seems to be much more detailed and comprehensive than most sources that are written for a non-professional audience. There seems to be no bias in the work that would compromise the information. The author has provided adequate citations and credits to those deserving.
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