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Reformational Worldview

Worldviews are critical for understanding world history and how ideas have helped to shape global cultures. Cultures are a reflection of what people worship (the cult). At the heart of every culture is a predominant religious worldview. Whether people acknowledge it or not, everyone has a worldview by which they determine the reality in which they live. Within Christianity you can have different worldviews depending upon the theological stream that makes up a certain denomination or stream of thought within Christianity. The reality is that different theological perspectives will have unique worldviews that work themselves out differently from other theological perspectives.

On this web site we will be focusing on the development mainly of a "holistic" biblical worldview that deals with all facets of human life and is referred to as being within the Reformed stream of Christianity. Historically, the Reformation led to the establishment Christian worldviews that helped transform Europe and led to the development of Western civilization. The major theological stream that fueled much of the transformation was a theological perspective known as Covenant theology. This is often referred to as the Reformed church stream which was strongly influenced by John Calvin's theology. The distinguishing characteristic of this theology is the belief that Jesus is both the sovereign Lord of the universe and of every facet of one's life. God's laws apply to both our personal lives as well as the culture. This holistic theology played a major role in the transformation of Europe and the development of Western Civilization.

Calvin's Global Impact

Calvin's theology had an enormous impact on cultures throughout the world. While Luther concentrated most of his efforts on soteriology (salvation) issues, Calvin focused on developing a holistic worldview - one that addressed every facet of life, as well as the cultures of the world. This is known as covenant theology. While Luther lit the match that started the Reformation, it was Calvin's theological developments that fueled the fires of the Reformation and led to the transformation of both the church and the global cultures. His theology is largely credited with the rise of Western Civilization. Calvin's theological views led to the rise of republic forms of government and the fall of tyrannical kings that oppressed the liberties of the common people.

Many historians have attributed the founding of America to Calvin's work. They argue that his ideas led to the rise of America's republic form of government and the Constitution. Ironically enough, his ideas are still impacting cultures as a new generation of young people are currently being drawn to his writings within the universities. Time Magazine printed an article entitled "The New Calvinism." It describes a biblical reawakening that is happening on the universities throughout the United States. The article reveals that students are rejecting the "seeker sensitive" churches in order to find churches with more biblical substance. In particular, they are being drawn to the Calvinistic principles that fueled the European Reformation. They find Reformed Calvinism attractive because it presents a holistic biblical worldview that addresses the intellectual issues they are encountering within the university setting.

This section includes some rather interesting articles that describe the impact Calvinism (Reformed covenant theology) has had on the world. The articles are intended as a quick read for those not familiar with church history and the influence that Reformed biblical ideas have had in transforming the world. The reader may be surprised to find that Calvin is considered by many historians to be one of the original Founders of America since his ideas led to the development of our republic form of government.


Calvinist Renewal on the Universities

Calvinism is also experiencing a renewed interest among our college students. They are drawn to the holistic worldview that it provides in which Jesus is described as the sovereign ruler over all of life. This theological perspective provides the worldview paradigm that allows Christianity to address every area of life, including the world of academics. 

Evangelicals Find Themselves in the Midst of a Calvinist Revival

By Mark Oppenheimer


For those who are sad that the year-end news quizzes are past, here’s one to start 2014: If you have joined a church that preaches a Tulip theology, does that mean a) the pastor bakes flowers into the communion wafers, b) the pastor believes that flowers that rise again every spring symbolize the resurrection, or c) the pastor is a Calvinist?

As an increasing number of Christians know, the answer is “c.” The acronym summarizes John Calvin’s so-called doctrines of grace, with their emphasis on sinfulness and predestination. The T is for man’s Total Depravity. The U is for Unconditional Election, which means that God has already decided who will be saved, without regard to any condition in them, or anything they can do to earn their salvation.

The acronym gets no cheerier from there.

Evangelicalism is in the midst of a Calvinist revival. Increasing numbers of preachers and professors teach the views of the 16th-century French reformer. Mark Driscoll, John Piper and Tim Keller — megachurch preachers and important evangelical authors — are all Calvinist. Attendance at Calvin-influenced worship conferences and churches is up, particularly among worshipers in their 20s and 30s.

In the Southern Baptist Convention, the country’s largest Protestant denomination, the rise of Calvinism has provoked discord. In a 2012 poll of 1,066 Southern Baptist pastors conducted by LifeWay Research, a nonprofit group associated with the Southern Baptist Convention, 30 percent considered their churches Calvinist — while twice as many were concerned “about the impact of Calvinism.”

Calvinism is a theological orientation, not a denomination or organization. The Puritans were Calvinist. Presbyterians descend from Scottish Calvinists. Many early Baptists were Calvinist. But in the 19th century, Protestantism moved toward the non-Calvinist belief that humans must consent to their own salvation — an optimistic, quintessentially American belief. In the United States today, one large denomination, the Presbyterian Church in America, is unapologetically Calvinist.

But in the last 30 years or so, Calvinists have gained prominence in other branches of Protestantism, and at churches that used to worry little about theology. In 1994, when Mark Dever interviewed at Capitol Hill Baptist Church, a Southern Baptist church in Washington, the hiring committee didn’t even ask him about his theology.

“So I said, ‘Let me think about what you wouldn’t like about me, if you knew,’ ” Mr. Dever recalled. And he told them that he was a Calvinist. “And I had to explain to them what that meant. I didn’t want to move my wife and children here and lose the job.”

Mr. Dever, 53, said that when he took over in 1994, about 130 members attended on Sundays, and their average age was 70. Today, the church gets about 1,000 worshipers, with an average age of 30. And while Mr. Dever tends not to mention Calvin in his sermons, his educated audience, many of whom work in politics, knows, and likes, what it is hearing.

“I think it is apparent in his teaching,” said Sarah Rotman, 34, who works for the World Bank. “The real focus on Scripture, and that all the answers we seek in this life can be found in the word of God. In a lot of his preaching, he does really talk about our sinfulness and our need of the Savior

That focus on sinfulness differs from a lot of popular evangelicalism in recent years. It runs contrary to the “prosperity gospel” preachers, who imply that faith can make one rich. It sounds nothing like the feel-good affirmations of preachers and authors like Joel Osteen, who treat the Bible like a self-help book, or a guide to better business.

“What you’d be hearing in some megachurches is, ‘God wants you to be a good parent, and here are seven ways God can help you to be a good parent,’ ” said Collin Hansen, the author of “Young, Restless, Reformed: A Journalist’s Journey With the New Calvinists.” “Or, ‘God wants you to have a good marriage, so here are three ways to do that.’ ” By contrast, Mr. Hansen said, those who attend Calvinist churches want the preacher to “tell them about Jesus.”

Some non-Calvinists say that the rise of Calvinism has been accomplished in part through sneaky methods. Roger E. Olson, a Baylor University professor and the author of “Against Calvinism,” is the Calvinists’ most outspoken critic.

“One of the concerns is that new graduates from certain Baptist seminaries have been infiltrating churches that are not Calvinist, and not telling the churches or search committees who are not Calvinist,” Professor Olson said. According to what he has heard, young preachers “wait several months and then begin to stock the church library with books” by Calvinists like John Piper and Mark Driscoll. They hold special classes on Calvinist topics, he said, and they staff the church with fellow Calvinists.

“Often the church ends up splitting, with the non-Calvinists starting their own church,” Professor Olson said.

At its annual meeting in June, the Southern Baptist Convention received a report from its special Calvinism Advisory Committee, which addressed charges both of anti-Calvinist prejudice within the denomination and of unfair dealing by Calvinists.

“We should expect all candidates for ministry positions in the local church to be fully candid and forthcoming about all matters of faith and doctrine,” the report read.

While many neo-Calvinists shy away from politics, they generally take conservative positions on Scripture and on social issues. Many don’t believe that women should be ministers or elders. But Serene Jones, the president of Union Theological Seminary, said that Calvin’s influence was not limited to conservatives.

Liberal Christians, including some Congregationalists and liberal Presbyterians, may just take up other aspects of Calvin’s teachings, Dr. Jones said. She mentioned Calvin’s belief that “civic engagement is the main form of obedience to God.” She added that, unlike many of today’s conservatives, “Calvin did not read Scripture literally.” Often Calvin “is misquoting it, and he makes up Scripture passages that don’t exist.”

Brad Vermurlen, a Notre Dame graduate student writing a dissertation on the new Calvinists, said that the rise of Calvinism was real, but that the hoopla might level off.

“Ten years ago, everyone was talking about the ‘emergent church,’ ” Mr. Vermurlen said. “And five years ago, people were talking about the ‘missional church.’ And now ‘new Calvinism.’ I don’t want to say the new Calvinism is a fad, but I’m wondering if this is one of those things American evangelicals want to talk about for five years, and then they’ll go on living their lives and planting their churches. Or is this something we’ll see 10 or 20 years from now?”




The Calvin Quincentenary and the Transformation of Christendom

Dr. Roger Schultz  »  Bio
July/August 2009 issue
Faith For All of Life "John Calvin: The Transformation of Christendom"

The year 2009 commemorates the 500th anniversary of the birth of John Calvin (1509–64), the greatest of the Protestant Reformers. Calvin left an astonishing record of Biblical scholarship, pastoral ministry, theological production, and ecclesiastical and governmental reform. His influence spread throughout Western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and German historian Leopold van Ranke notes, “Calvin was the virtual founder of America.”1

The Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses to protest Roman Catholic practice, especially regarding indulgences. As did the Reformers who followed him, Luther focused on the redeeming work of Christ and vital issues of personal salvation, Biblical authority and church reform. Calvin shared Luther’s sentiments, but developed a more consistent and far-reaching Biblical theology.

There was much for the Reformers to protest. The pre-Reformation church suffered from grotesque moral and spiritual abuses. Many priests, for instance, kept concubines. Powerful Renaissance popes were notorious for their mistresses and illegitimate progeny. The gospel was obscured. The Bible was often inaccessible, even for priests, and superstition frequently substituted for genuine faith. Frederick the Wise, Luther’s prince and protector, had a relic collection numbering 5,000 holy items, purportedly including wood from the true cross and straw from the manager in Bethlehem.2 Even Johannes Gutenberg, made famous by his press and publication of the Bible, made his living printing thousands of indulgence forms for the Roman Catholic Church (sold to abbreviate the penitent’s time in purgatory) and manufacturing mirrors that pilgrims used when visiting venerated relics.3 Europe desperately needed a reformation.

God used Luther to launch a powerful reformation of Western Christendom. Calvin provided a more systematic, full-orbed expression of the Reformation faith, which is the focus of this article. But this is not merely a historical study. Calvin’s testimony can provide a foundation for a twenty-first century reformation.

Evangelical Faith

The Reformers were committed to the gospel or evangel. The evangelical faith emphasizes the good news of salvation through the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The Apostle Paul makes this crystal clear in 1 Corinthians 15:1–4, when he “evangelizes” his readers with the message that he preached, they believed, and through which Christians are saved. He delivered this message as of “first importance”—“that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures …” (NIV).

This message sounds very simple to those who were raised in gospel-preaching churches. For the medieval Christian, however, the road to heaven had been paved with sacraments, good works, penitential duties, spiritual uncertainty and purgatorial sufferings. Luther languished in monastic misery striving to be good enough for God. He felt liberated by God’s grace and the truth of justification by faith alone. Romans 1:17 (“the just shall live by faith”) was, for Luther, “the very gate of paradise.” Calvin describes his own experience with redeeming grace and “sudden conversion” simply as “God subdued my heart to teachableness.”4

In time, Reformation evangelical teaching condensed into five “Solas.” Sola Scriptura stressed the absolute authority of the Word of God—in contrast to the Roman view of authority resting on tradition, popes and councils. Sola Gratia emphasized salvation solely through the grace of God rather than the synergistic work of man and God. Sola Fide pointed to “justification by faith alone,” rather than the combination of faith and meritorious human works. Solus Christus affirms that salvation is only through Christ our Mediator. Soli Deo Gloria provides a theocentric Reformation understanding of God’s eternal plan of redemption—that all things pertaining to our salvation are to the praise of His glory (Eph. 1: 6, 12, 14).5

Evangelicalism sometimes gets a bad name today, because of sloppy theology and a compromising spirit. (Bob Jones once defined an evangelical as “someone who says to a liberal, ‘I’ll call you a Christian, if you’ll call me a scholar.’”6)  Despite the weaknesses of some contemporary evangelicals, however, Reformed Christians should not be ashamed of the evangel of Jesus Christ—since it is the power of God unto salvation (Rom. 1:16).

Christians committed to ongoing reformation must first—like the Apostles and Reformers—stress the gospel. The Chalcedon Foundation provides an excellent example, articulating in “Credo” what genuine Christians must believe: “As Calvinists, we believe that sinners are saved solely on the ground of Christ’s substitutionary, atoning death and law-keeping life, the passive and active obedience of Christ (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:24). Further, we believe that justification, man’s legal acceptance in the sight of God as ‘not guilty,’ is appropriated by faith alone (Rom. 5:1; Eph. 2:8-10).”7

Biblical Faith

The Reformers were committed to Scripture as God’s inspired and absolutely trustworthy Word. In his study of Calvin’s Preaching, T. H. L. Parker notes that week after week, Calvin climbed the steps to his pulpit and “patiently led his congregation verse by verse through book after book in the Bible.” This fundamental biblocentricism highlights Calvin’s faith. For Calvin, Parker concludes, “Scripture demands the right of complete submission, complete credence.”8

Calvin’s approach to Scripture, furthermore, was Christocentric. He loved the Bible because it pointed to Christ, the cross and salvation. As Stanford Reid notes, “[H]e always brought the hearers back to the fact that the center of the Christian life was Christ Himself.” When Scottish Reformer John Knox was dying, he asked that Calvin’s sermons (on the passion of the Savior) be read to him. Before he died, it seemed, Knox wanted once again to hear from his old mentor the Biblical testimony of salvation through the cross of Christ.9

The Reformers also stressed the law of God and its manifold uses. The civil use referred to the basic principles of equity and justice contained in the law. All societies have laws regarding killing and stealing, for example, which are proscribed by God’s commandments. The evangelical use of the law shows that men are fallen and need a savior. The law is a tutor leading sinners to Christ. Lutherans were slow to accept the “third use” of the law, but Reformed Christians affirmed that it also had a didactic use. The law taught basic principles of holy living. As those saved by grace through faith and empowered by the Holy Spirit, Christians were to faithfully obey the commands of Scripture.

Calvin’s sermons were also practical, filled with pointed, contemporary applications. He stressed Old Testament law and its continuing application and sanctions. His sermon from Deuteronomy 28:25–28, for instance, deals with diseases, particularly the sexually transmitted diseases that plagued Europe after the Columbian contact. Calvin’s warnings must have been frightening:  “I pray you, have we not seen that God within these fifty years has brought up new diseases against harlotry?  Whence comes syphilis and all the other filthy diseases, which cannot be counted at this time?  Where do they come from except from God, who utters forth His vengeance as formerly was never seen?  [F]or a time men were greatly afraid of it; but … it has become so ordinary a matter that the despisers of God (I mean the lecherous sort and the whoremongers, who give themselves over to all sorts of lewdness) do but wring their groins at it. Though God smites them with such a leprosy (for it is a leprosy indeed), so that they are eaten up with fretting and other filthiness, yet they do not cease following their practices and only mock at the illness.”10

The twenty-first century is a rootless, postmodern and relativistic age. Now more than ever, people need a clear testimony of the absolute trustworthiness of Scripture and the unwavering moral standards of God’s law. Christians must present their generation with a faithful Biblical witness, as did their Reformation forefathers.

Confessional Faith

The Reformers were vigorously confessional and creedal. Constantly facing the prospect of persecution or martyrdom, they were compelled to give a clear testimony of their faith. Calvin’s Genevan Confession of 1536 is an excellent example. The Westminster Standards is the crowning achievement of this confessional age.11

The twenty-first century is not a confessional century. Christians, even in conservative churches, are not taught systematically. It is time for Reformed churches to emphasize theologically-focused training. An elderly Scottish lady recently told me about growing up on the Isle of Lewis. There, in the public schools, she memorized the Shorter Catechism. Though not a believer until later, she thought catechizing was invaluable because it provided such a sturdy theological framework. “If you learn the catechism,” she told me, “you can never go too far off-base in theology.”

The Bible itself includes confessions and creeds. Nehemiah 9 and Deuteronomy 6:5 are Old Testament examples. New Testament examples include Acts 4:24, Romans 10:9–10 and 1 Timothy 3:16. Scripture constantly affirms the value of personal and corporate confessions of faith.

The Practice of Confessional Subscription is an excellent resource for church officers, explaining what it means (and meant historically) to take ordination vows and subscribe to doctrinal standards. It includes a discussion of the positive purposes of creeds and confessions. Their functions include:  Confessional (to confess the faith), Apologetic (to defend the faith), Fraternal (to establish common ground), Pedagogical (to teach the youth), Uniformity (to standardize doctrine), Testing (to reveal soundness of candidates’ theology), Qualifying (to prepare men for church office), and Polemical (to attack error and heretical viewpoints).12 This was critically important for the Reformers.

Churches will inevitably have theological and confessional standards. They may be simple or highly structured. They may be published and visible, or implicit and assumed. They may be official and serious standards, or merely loose guidelines. A key strength of truly Reformed churches is their structured, explicit, public, Biblically-anchored theological standards.

Calvinistic Faith

Calvin’s name is immediately associated with Calvinism, election and predestination. All of the Reformers had a strong Augustinian emphasis on the sovereignty of God. Luther’s Bondage of the Will, written against the humanism of the day, is an excellent example. Of all the Reformers, however, Calvin best represents this emphasis on sovereign grace.

I made a commitment to reread Calvin’s Institutes in 2009. I first read Calvin’s great work thirty-some years ago as a university student, and I filled the margins with my Arminian objections. I loved Calvin’s passion, however, and found it difficult to ignore his careful reasoning and his dependence on Scripture.

Calvin’s theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, human depravity, God’s special revelation, and the redeeming work of Christ. No one better illustrates human rebellion, self-deception, and wretchedness. For Calvin, man was “a five-foot worm.”   And no one better points the way to the Redeemer. Even when Calvin recoils at some of the teaching of Scripture (the decree of reprobation, for instance, which he considered “dreadful”), he faithfully presents the Bible’s perspective.

In a humanistic and self-centered age, there will inevitably be opposition to the doctrine of predestination. But that didn’t stop Paul, speaking to the philosophers of Athens (Acts 17:24–28), from proclaiming God’s comprehensive providence and sovereign control of history. Jesus frequently spoke on election and effectual calling (John 6:65), and His teaching was unpopular (John 6:66). Christians are called to faithfully present the doctrines of Scripture, even if they are difficult to understand or unpopular. The Great Commission requires Christians to disciple the nations, teaching all things that Christ commanded.

Reformed Faith

The Reformed Church is “reformed—and always reforming according to the Word of God.”  “Semper reformandum” has long been associated with Reformed Churches. But it is important to maintain the final clause—“according to the Word of God”—lest liberals corrupt the formulation to mean “constant change according to the prevailing spirit of the age.” 

I still remember my first (and last) Presbytery meeting in the liberal, mainline UPCUSA. Preparing to go to seminary, I was coming under care of presbytery. Everyone assumed this would be automatic, and I was not dismissed from the floor of presbytery after giving my testimony. A shaggy minister, dressed in jeans and a tee shirt, denounced my chosen seminary, which was evangelical. (Afterwards, people told me that he was sore because of opposition to his wife, who was a pantheist. At the last Presbytery meeting, she had been barely approved for ordination to the gospel ministry. She was now seated beside her hippie husband, knitting.)   The liberal condemned evangelicals in general, saying that they could not serve well in a Presbyterian denomination, which was “reformed and always reforming.” For him, I suspect, “always reforming” meant “always becoming more liberal.” The Reformers, by contrast, were committed to reformation according to Scripture.

Luther’s clash with Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms is a famous event of the Reformation. Here Luther “took his stand,” saying, “I stand convicted by the Scriptures to which I have appealed, and my conscience is taken captive by God’s word …” Luther would not budge from his reforms, unless they were shown to be contrary to Scripture.

Calvin gave a similar testimony to Charles V in the “Necessity of Reforming the Church.” Calvin notes that God had raised up Luther and others to bring reformation. Reformation in doctrine was necessary, especially to make clear the doctrine of salvation. Reform of worship was needed to distinguish the “pure and legitimate worship of God” from superstition and idolatry. The government of the church had to be reformed, since it had degenerated into “horrible and insufferable tyranny.”13

The Reformed Church, then, was reforming in doctrine, worship and discipline according to the Word of God. This three-fold initiative corresponds to the offices of Christ, who is our prophet, priest and king. This also corresponds to the marks of the true church, where the Word was rightly proclaimed, the sacraments rightly administered, and discipline properly dispensed.

The word “reformed” doesn’t appear in the Bible, with one notable exception. Leviticus 26:23–24 (NKJV) reads:  “And if by these things you are not reformed by Me, but walk contrary to Me, then I also will walk contrary to you, and I will punish you yet seven times for your sins.” 

The term “reformed” in Leviticus 26 could also be translated “chastised,” “instructed,” “disciplined,” or “corrected.”  The idea is that God’s people are reformed by God’s careful discipline. It is interesting to note that the areas where God expected reformation in Israel were the very things that the Reformers stressed. They emphasized proper worship and repudiation of idolatry (Lev. 26:1), the Lord’s Day (Lev. 26:2, 43), the Law of God and consequences of disobedience (Lev. 26:3, 27, 40, 46), a personal walk with the LORD (Lev. 26:12), and the doctrine of the covenant (Lev. 26:9, 42, 44, 45). Finally, like the Reformers, Leviticus emphasizes sovereign grace (Lev. 26:23), in that God’s people are “reformed” by God. Jehovah is the one who renews His people. Leviticus 26, then, has a dramatic exhortation from the LORD: be Reformed … or else!

Engaged Faith

The Reformation gave important roles to laymen. Both Luther and Calvin encouraged lay involvement in the work of the Kingdom. Both stressed the idea of vocation and the legitimacy of glorifying God through secular callings. Luther particularly emphasized the priesthood of all believers.

When Calvin reformed the church in Geneva, he did so along Presbyterian lines. He developed a simple, Scripture-heavy liturgy for the church that influenced Presbyterian and Puritan worship. His church order established principles of ecclesiastical polity that were copied throughout the Reformed world. He proposed four church offices: Pastor, Teacher, Elder, and Deacon.  This same polity is found in the Westminster Form of Government and, with modifications, in modern American Presbyterian denominations. The Reformed churches, emphasizing the work of Ruling Elders, encouraged broad involvement.

Hierarchical and bureaucratic churches opposed Biblical Presbyterianism. “The church has by and large paid lip service to the priesthood of all believers,” Rushdoony comments, “because its hierarchy has distrusted the implications of the doctrine, and because it has seen the church as an end in itself, not as an instrument.”15 Yet man has a proper calling as a royal priest, to serve God in his area of vocation. As Rushdoony notes, “[T]he purpose of the church should not be to bring men into subjection to the church, but rather to train them into a royal priesthood capable of bringing the world into subjection to Christ the King. The church is the recruiting station, the training field, and the armory for Christ’s army of royal priests.”16 Christian leaders are necessary in every sphere of action—in the church, family, state, education, and various vocations. “It is the duty of the Christian home, school, and the church,” Rushdoony argues, “to train elders who will apply the law of God to all the world.”17 This is the engaged faith the Reformers emphasized.

Comprehensive Faith

The Reformation faith was a complete faith, touching and transforming every area of life. The Great Commission requires believers to teach all things that Christ commanded. The Christian faith cannot be restricted to pious platitudes and Sunday morning religion.

Abraham Kuyper (1837–1920) revived the Reformation commitment to comprehensive, applied Christianity. Kuyper lived what he taught, working as a pastor, theologian and journalist; establishing a new Dutch Reformed denomination, the Christian Democratic Party and the Free University of Amsterdam; and serving as the Prime Minster of the Netherlands. His overarching commitment to the Lordship of Christ is expressed in his most famous quotation: “There is not a square inch in the whole domain of our human existence over which Christ, who is Sovereign over all, does not cry: ‘Mine!’” His Lectures on Calvinism, the 1898 Stone Lectures at Princeton, is an excellent example of all-encompassing Reformed principles.

Kuyper stressed integrated and coherent worldview thinking. He described a mighty contest between Christianity and Modernism, saying “two life systems are wrestling with one another in mortal combat.” As Christians, Kuyper charged, “[W]e have to take our stand in a life system of equally comprehensive and far-reaching power.”18

He emphasized sphere sovereignty, arguing that beneath the overarching sovereignty of God existed distinct spheres (church, state, family, vocations) with unique structures of authority. The state does not function independent of God’s sovereignty. Kuyper argued, for instance, that there were three distinct Western approaches to state authority: atheistic popular sovereignty (French Revolution), pantheistic state sovereignty (German philosophers); sovereignty of God (Christianity). The state’s power was limited, and it had no right to dominate other spheres, such as the church. “Calvinism protests against State omnipotence, against the horrible conception that no right exists above and beyond existing laws.”  Each sphere is distinct, Kuyper argued, and in every sphere “God’s Word must rule.”19

Kuyper was confident about the future, but he believed that Christians should be active. They should emphasize Calvinist creeds, study Calvinism’s historical roots, and apply principles of the Reformation to “every department of life.” All disciplines—philosophy, law, literature, science—must be studied from Biblical and Christian perspectives. As the Apostle Paul proclaimed, “We are destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge
of God, and we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ.
(2 Cor. 10:5)”20

Kuyper’s “ruling passion” was clear: “That in spite of all worldly opposition, God’s holy ordinances shall be established again in the home, in the school and in the state for the good of the people; to carve as it were into the consciousness of the nation the ordinances of the Lord, to which Bible and Creation bear witness, until the nation pays homage to God.” His comprehensive vision was the goal of the Protestant Reformers, and it should be the goal of every revival-minded Christian today.

1. Quoted in William Roberts, “Calvin’s Influence on America,” in John Calvin: Theologian, Preacher, Educator, Statesman, Ed. Philip Vollmer (Philadelphia: Heidelberg Press, 1909), 202.

2. Lewis Spitz, The Renaissance and Reformation Movements (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1971), 312–315.

3. Alister McGrath, In the Beginning (New York: Random House, 2001), 9–16.

4. John McNeill, Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1960), li; Timothy George, Theology of the Reformers (Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1988), 172–174.

5. Good essays on the “Five Solas” are available at http://www.monergism.com/directory/link_category/Five-Solas/ (29 May 2009).

6. Joel Carpenter, Revive Us Again (New York: Oxford, 1997), 241.

7. “What Chalcedon Believes,” http://www.chalcedon.edu/credo.php  (29 May 2009).

8. T.H.L. Parker, Calvin’s Preaching (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992), 1–2.

9. W. Stanford Reid, editor, John Calvin: His Influence in the Western World (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982), 45.

10. John Calvin, The Covenant Enforced: Sermons of Deuteronomy 27 and 28, Ed. James Jordan (Tyler, Texas: Institute for Christian Economics, 1990), 159.

11. See Joel Beeke and Sinclair Ferguson, Reformed Confessions Harmonized (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

12. Peter Lilbeck, “Confessional Subscription Among Sixteenth Century Reformers,” in The Practice of Confessional Subscription, ed. David Hall (New York: University Press of America, 1995), 58.

13. John Calvin, “The Necessity of Reforming the Church,” in Calvin: Theological Treatises, ed. J. K. S. Reid (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1964), 186.

14. John Calvin, “Draft Ecclesiastical Ordinances,” in Calvin: Theological Treatises, 38. Calvin’s polity was likely influenced by Martin Bucer.

15. R. J. Rushdoony, The Institutes of Biblical Law (Philipsburg, NJ: Craig Press, 1973), 764.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid., 742.

18. Abraham Kuyper, Lectures on Calvinism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1931), 11.

19. Ibid , 90, 98, 104.

20. Ibid, 192–194.

Dr. Roger Schultz is Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Liberty University and is the homeschooling father of nine children.


Recommended readings:

One of the best publications that gives a solid description of the Reformational worldview meta-narrative.

"This book is an intellectual masterpiece; it is first rate scholarship - a theological and historical gem... It is the theological apologetic to act out God's truth in every sphere of life in 21st century Britain and beyond...This book is changing lives." -From the Foreword: Andrea Williams, CEO, Christian Concern and Christian Legal Centre, London "Bold, provocative and illuminating...a potential game changer for modern societies." -Jonathan Burnside, Professor of Biblical Law at the University of Bristol "The Mission of God stands tall as a tour de force of historic Christian orthodoxy.... Boot makes his case with coherence, clarity and conviction." -Greg Downes, Theologian and Missioner, St Michael le Belfrey, York "A hard-hitting tour de force which will no doubt inspire, encourage and provoke ... Recommended." -Dr Daniel Strange, Academic Vice Principal and Tutor in Culture, Religion and Public Theology, Oak Hill College, London, U.K. "As comprehensive an overview of the church's mission in the 21st century as anything you will find presently available ... a great achievement." -Dr Peter Jones (Ph.D), Scholar in Residence, Westminster Theological Seminary, California "A work of theology that can be exegetically profound, philosophically rigorous, historically aware, culturally illuminating, pastorally wise with a serious love for the church and the lost is an extremely rare feat.... This book is a must read." -Dr Thaddeus Williams (Ph.D). Assistant Professor of Theology, Biola University, U.S.A. "The most comprehensive and cogent argument for the perpetuity of God's moral law as it relates to civil legislation written in 40 years...A breath of fresh air amid both the hermeneutical nihilism and pietistic retreatism in the modern church... An intellectual force to be reckoned with." -Dr P. Andrew Sandlin (S.T.D) President, Center for Cultural Leadership, California "Dr Joe Boot is one of the top Christian apologists writing and speaking today ... this book is an intellectual tour de force ... Impressive in both breadth and scope." -Dr Gabriel Fluhrer, Visiting Professor of Philosophy and Theology, Reformed Theological Seminary Global Campus, U.S.A. "I could not put it down ... this book is destined to be a classic." -Rev. Dr Bishop Joshua HK Banda (Ph.D), President, Southern Africa Region of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Africa --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.


David Hall lays out the case that America's founding was strongly influenced by ideas that fueled the Protestant 

Reformation. Most influential were the ideas of John Calvin.


Douglas Kelly documents the influence of Calvin's ideas in the rise of liberty in Europe and America. Calvin's work has been credited by many theologians as having provided the foundation for the rise of Western Civilization and republic forms of governance. These forms of government led to increased liberties of the common people from tyrannical kings that abused their powers. The concept of government rulers being in a covenant with both the people and God led to government leaders being held accountable for respecting God's laws with regard to how they treated God's people. Kelly's book documents how these theological ideas impacted Europe and let to the rise of liberties in the West. This provides a great historical account of the impact of biblical law on the surrounding cultures where Reformed theology flourished.


Law and Revolution

Harold Berman's masterwork narrates the interaction of evolution and revolution in the development of Western law. This new volume explores two successive transformations of the Western legal tradition under the impact of the sixteenth-century German Reformation and the seventeenth-century English Revolution, with particular emphasis on Lutheran and Calvinist influences. Berman examines the far-reaching consequences of these apocalyptic political and social upheavals on the systems of legal philosophy, legal science, criminal law, civil and economic law, and social law in Germany and England and throughout Europe as a whole.

Berman challenges both conventional approaches to legal history, which have neglected the religious foundations of Western legal systems, and standard social theory, which has paid insufficient attention to the communitarian dimensions of early modern economic law, including corporation law and social welfare.

Clearly written and cogently argued, this long-awaited, magisterial work is a major contribution to an understanding of the relationship of law to Western belief systems.


The Reformation of Rights: Law, Religion and Human Rights in Early Modern Calvinism 1st Edition

by John Witte Jr (Author)
John Calvin developed arresting new teachings on rights and liberties, church and state, and religion and politics that shaped the law of Protestant lands. Calvin's original teachings were periodically challenged by major crises - the French Wars of Religion, Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War, American colonization, and American Revolution. In each such crisis moment, a major Calvinist figure emerged - Theodore Beza, Johannes Althusius, John Milton, John Winthrop, John Adams, and others - who modernized Calvin's teachings and translated them into dramatic new legal and political reforms. This rendered early modern Calvinism one of the driving engines of Western constitutionalism. A number of basic Western laws on religious and political rights, social and confessional pluralism, federalism and constitutionalism, and more owe a great deal to this religious movement. This book is essential reading for scholars and students of history, law, religion, politics, ethics, human rights, and the Protestant Reformation.