Satanism

Satanism is a broad term referring to a group of Western religions comprising diverse ideological and philosophical beliefs. Their shared features include symbolic association with, or admiration for the character of, Satan, or similar rebellious, promethean, and, in their view, liberating figures.
Satan in Paradise Lost, as illustrated by Gustave Doré

Particularly after the European Enlightenment, some works, such as Paradise Lost, were taken up by Romantics and described as presenting the biblical Satan as an allegory representing a crisis of faith, individualism, free will, wisdom and enlightenment. Those works actually featuring Satan as a heroic character are fewer in number, but do exist; George Bernard Shaw, and Mark Twain (cf. Letters from the Earth) included such characterizations in their works long before religious Satanists took up the pen. From then on, Satan and Satanism started to gain a new meaning outside of Christianity.[1]

Although the public practice of Satanism began in 1966 with the founding of the atheistic Church of Satan, some historical precedents exist: a group called the Ophite Cultus Satanas was founded in Ohio by Herbert Arthur Sloane in 1948. Inspired by Gnosticism and Gerald Gardner's Wicca, the coven venerated Satan as both a horned god and ophite messiah.[citation needed]

Satanist groups that appeared after the 1960s are widely diverse, but two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism. Theistic Satanists venerate Satan as a supernatural deity. In contrast, atheistic Satanists[2] consider themselves atheists, agnostics, ignostics or apatheists and regard Satan as merely symbolic of certain human traits. This categorization of Satanism (which could be categorized in other ways, for example "Traditional" versus "Modern"), is not necessarily adopted by Satanists themselves, who usually do not specify which type of Satanism they adhere to.[citation needed] Some Satanists believe in a god in the sense of a Prime Mover but, like atheistic Satanists, do not worship it, due to the deist belief that a god plays no part in mortal lives.[citation needed]

Despite heavy criticism from other religious groups, there are signs that Satanistic beliefs have become more socially tolerated. Satanism is now allowed in the Royal Navy of the British Armed Forces, despite much opposition from Christians,[3][4][5] and, in 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States debated over protecting the religious rights of prison inmates after a lawsuit challenging the issue was filed to them.[6][7]

Contemporary Satanism is mainly an American phenomenon, the ideas spreading with the effects of globalization and the Internet.[1] The Internet promotes awareness of other Satanists, and is also the main battleground for the definitions of Satanism today.[1] Satanism started to reach Eastern Europe in the 1990s, in time with the fall of the Soviet Union, and most noticeably in Poland and Lithuania, predominantly Roman Catholic countries.[8][9]

Satanism developed in the context of the Christian faith, as an ideological backlash to certain tenets promoted in Christianity. The character of Satan revered by Satanists, therefore, is mainly regarded as the prototypical anti-Christian figure. There have been some Satanists, however, who have shown reverence for the similar, albeit differently-characterized Islamic concept of Satan (Arabic: شيطان Shayṭān), also known as Iblis (Arabic: إبليس ʾIblīs) although this is much more uncommon as Satanist philosophy has primarily flourished in the Occident, and has likely not reached any Muslim-majority countries. As he is an antagonist in all of the major Abrahamic traditions, Satan is also mentioned in certain Jewish literature, although he is treated more as a nuisance than the primary enemy of God in Judaism.[Wikepedia

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References: 

  1. a b c Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009). "Introduction: Embracing Satan". Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1.
  2. ^ Flowers, Stephen (1997). Lords of the Left-hand Path. Runa-Raven Press. ISBN 1-885972-08-3.
  3. ^ Royal Navy to allow devil worship CNN
  4. ^ Carter, Helen. The devil and the deep blue sea: Navy gives blessing to sailor SatanistThe Guardian
  5. ^ Navy approves first ever Satanist BBC News
  6. ^ Linda Greenhouse (March 22, 2005). "Inmates Who Follow Satanism and Wicca Find Unlikely Ally". New York Times.
  7. ^ "Before high court: law that allows for religious rights". Christian Science Monitor.
  8. ^ Alisauskiene, Milda (2009). "The Peculiarities of Lithuanian Satanism". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5286-6.
  9. ^ "Satanism stalks Poland"BBC News. 2000-06-05.
  10. a b c d e Robbins, Rossell Hope, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1959.
  11. ^ Manichaeism by Alan G. Hefner in The Mystica, undated
  12. ^ Acta Archelai of Hegemonius, Chapter XII, c. AD 350, quoted in Translated Texts of Manicheism, compiled by Prods Oktor Skjærvø, page 68. History of the Acta Archelai explained in the Introduction, page 11
  13. ^ Extensively described in: Zacharias, Gerhard, Der dunkle Gott: Satanskult und Schwarze Messe, München (1964).
  14. ^ Original sources: Ravaisson, François Archives de la Bastille (Paris, 1866-1884, volumes IV, V, VI, VII)
  15. ^ Dr. Iwan Bloch, Marquis de Sade: His Life and Work, 1899: "The Marquis de Sade gave evidence in his novels of being a fanatic Satanist."
  16. ^ Jullian, PhilippeEsthétes et Magiciens, 1969; Dreamers of Decadence, 1971.
  17. ^ Bois, JulesLe Satanisme et la Magie - avec une étude de J.-K. Huysmans, Paris, 1895.
  18. ^ Huysmans, J.-K.Là-Bas, 1891
  19. ^ Waite, A.E.Devil Worship in France, London: George Redway 1896.
  20. ^ Medway, Gareth (2001). Lure of the Sinister: The Unnatural History of Satanism. p. 18.
  21. ^ Messe Luciférienne, in Pierre Geyraud, Les Petites Églises de Paris, 1937.
  22. ^ “The Devil Worshipers of the Middle East : Their Beliefs & Sacred Books” Holmes Pub Group LLC (December 1993) ISBN 1-55818-231-4 ISBN 978-1-55818-231-8
  23. ^ LaVey, Anton (1969). The Satanic Bible. Avon. p. 40.: "It is a common misconception that the Satanist does not believe in God...To the Satanist, "God" - by whatever name he is called, or by no name at all - is seen as a balancing factor..."
  24. ^ Satanism
  25. ^ A'al, Jashan. Satanic Denominations - Modern Satanism
  26. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
  27. ^ Prayers to Satan
  28. ^ Bob and Gretchen Passantino: Satanism: Grand Rapids: Zondervan: 1995
  29. ^ Moriarty, Anthony (1992). The Psychology of Adolescent Satanism. New York: Praeger.
  30. ^ Baddeley, Gavin (1993). Raising Hell!: The Book of Satan and Rock 'n' Roll.
  31. ^ Götz KühnemundA History of Horror. In: Rock Hard, no. 282, November 2010, pp. 20-27.
  32. ^ Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground, Feral House 1998, pp. 15f.
  33. ^ INTERVIEW FOR THE FANS BY THE FANS- Final Interview with Jon Nödtveidt -.
  34. ^ Garry Sharpe-Young (2007). Metal: The Definitive Guide.
  35. ^ Grude, Torstein (Director) (January 1, 1998). Satan rir media (motion picture). Norway: Grude, Torstein. http://home.no/metalra/reviews/videos/satan_rides_the_media.html.
  36. ^ Ihsahn Interview
  37. ^ Aquino, Michael (2002) (PDF). Church of Satan. San Francisco: Temple of Set.
  38. a b c Harvey, Graham (2009). "Satanism: Performing Alterity and Othering". Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1.
  39. ^ >Per Faxneld: Post-Satanism, Left Hand Paths, and Beyond in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds) The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity, Oxford University Press (2012), p.207. ISBN 9780199779246
  40. ^ Senholt, Jacob. Secret Identities in The Sinister Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles, in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds), The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199779246
  41. ^ FAQ About ONA
  42. ^ Angular Momentum: from Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles
  43. ^ Sinister Tribes Of The ONA
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