Vocabulary Words

A.Causes of War
  • Militarism-a strong military spirit or policy.
  • Alliances - a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes.
  • Imperialism -the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
  • Nationalism - devotion and loyalty to one's own nation; patriotism.
  • Central Powers -Germany and Austria-Hungary, often with their allies Turkey and Bulgaria, as opposed to the Allies.
  • Stalemate- any position or situation in which no action can be taken or progress made; deadlock.
  • Fourteen points-a statement of the war aims of the Allies, made by President Wilson on January 8, 1918.
  • Treaty of Versailles -the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
    Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) -an Archduke of Austria-Este
  • Gavrilo Princip -the man who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
  • The Black Hand - took over the terrorist actions of Narodna Odbrana , and worked deliberately at obscuring any distinctions between the two groups, trading on the prestige and network of the older organization.
B.The Great War
  • No man’s land - neutral territory
  • Trench Warfare - using trenches to fight
  • Central Powers - Austria-Hungary,Bulgaria,Germany,and Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers - Brittain,Italy,France,Japan,United States,Russia
  • Stalemate - A situation in which further action is blocked; a deadlock.
  • First Battle of Marne - conducted between 6-12 September 1914, with the outcome bringing to an end the war of movement
  • Battle of the Somme - also known as the Somme Offensive, took place during the First World War between 1 July and 18 November 1916 in the Somme department, either side of the river Somme. The battle consisted of an offensive by the British and French armies against the German Army, which, since invading France in August 1914, had occupied large areas of the country. The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the war; by the time fighting paused in late autumn 1916 the forces involved had suffered more than 1 million casualties, making it one of the bloodiest military operations ever recorded.
  • Battle of Argonne Forest-the final and the largest offensive fought by the AEF in World War I
C.America at War
  • Sussex pledge- was a promise made in 1916 during World War I by Germany to the United States prior to the latter's entry into the war.
  • Lusitania- was a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland.
  • The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note)- was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to 20.Mexico to make war against the United States
  • Selective Service Act of 1917, or Selective Draft Act,-  enacted May 18, 1917, for the American entry into World War I
  • John J. Perishing-a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.
D.War on the Homefront
  • Henry Cabot "Slim" Lodge- (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts
  • Food Administration-cutting consumption of foods needed overseas and avoided rationing at home.
  • Herbert Hoover- was the 31st President of the United States
  • War Industries Board- A committee created before World War I whose task was to help mobilize the American economy for possible war.
  • Bernard Mannes Baruch- was an American financier, stock-market speculator, statesman, and political consultant
  • The Great Migration- was the movement of 6 million blacks out of the Southern United States
  • National War Labor Board- was established by President Wilson after the declararation of World War I. It established an 8 hour work day
  • Committee on Public Information- (CPI), also known as the Creel Committee, organized publicity on behalf of U.S. objectives
E.Outcome of the War
    • Fourteen Points- was a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918
    • League of Nations (LON) - was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War
    • The Big Four - refers to the top Allied leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, following the end of World War I. The Big Four are also known as the Council of Four. The Big Four are also known as the Council of Four. It was composed of Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd Georgeof Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Georges Clemenceau of France.

    F.Red Scare

    • Red Scare - The First Red Scare, from 1919 to 1920,was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism.
    • Espionage Act -  was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies, or  to convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation.
    • Palmer Raids -  were a series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the United States.
    • Immigration Act of 1924 - was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890.
    • Emergency Quota Act of 1921 - The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910.
    • Sedition Act - was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds. One historian of American civil liberties has called it "the nation's most extreme antispeech legislation."
    • Scopes Monkey Trial - formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes,was a landmark American legal case in 1925 in which high school science teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school.
    • Sacco and Vanzetti trial - were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.
    G.Cultural Change
    • Irving Berlin - was an American composer and lyricist of Jewish heritage, widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history.
    • Marcus Garvey - was a Jamaican publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).
    • Eliot Ness - was an American Prohibition agent, famous for his efforts to enforce Prohibition in Chicago, Illinois, and the leader of a legendary team of law enforcement agents nicknamed The Untouchables.
    • Charles Lindburg - was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist.
    • Amelia Earhart - July 24, 1897–disappeared 1937) was a noted American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the U.S.Distinguished Flying Cross,awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.She set many other records,wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots.
    • Al Capone -  was an Italian-American gangster who led a Prohibition-era crime syndicate. The Chicago Outfit, which subsequently became known as the "Capones", was dedicated to smuggling and bootleggingliquor, and other illegal activities such as prostitution, in Chicago from the early 1920s to 1931.
    • Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald - was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century.

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