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Summary of United States Wheatons and what we are missing.
Robert Wheaton Group B had 7 sons (There is a slight increase in mutations depending on the age of the father at conception) Those in bold we have results for. Those in red are needed.
1) Joseph bc 1641, (Robert was about 35). Joseph had no children (end of line)
bc 1646 Not proven to be a son (not mentioned in will could be cousin
or brother to Robert or be completely unrelated) He has one known son: that son having 3 sons. He lived in Hull and Hingham, MA. Known descendants in Barre, VT.
We have results from confirmed descendants of Ephraim, Benjamin, and John. (Lines of Jeremiah and Joseph ended) Need volunteers for descendants of Christopher, Obadiah.
Thomas Wheadon Group C 4 matches. He had 2 sons (several of these branches changed their name to Wheaton) Group C
1) Thomas Jr. 4 sons (3 surviving all with male issue)
What a difference a couple of years and new testing capabilities can make. This is our tree a couple of years ago. Please note that WHEATON Group C ended with the terminal SNP L48. The key is to remember each SNP is a mutation that happened once in the history of mankind. All patrilineal descendants of that man will carry that SNP. Every few hundred years one of the male descendants will have a new mutation or SNP. It is these SNPS that allow us to track through a man's Y-DNA the journey that a man's Y DNA has taken. If each SNP is followed from its terminal back up the Y Tree more and more men will share that SNP. Eventually we would get back to the first tribe of men who are of Haplogroup A0. Then to A1>B>C>F>K>P>R. From R>M269 where WHEATON GROUPS A, B and D part ways with GROUP C. Group C carried the U106 (S21) SNP and the rest P312 (S28) SNP. (Why they have double names and such confusing letters has to do with the Lab where they were discovered and the sequence in which they were discovered---maybe someday someone will revamp the names but for now that's what we are stuck with)
This next visual is an adaptation of Eupedia's chart.(click for a larger image). It shows where Group C has traveled from S21 aka U106 the Group C L48 above. Each square represents newly identified SNPS (mutations) that refine this S21 branch of the R-Haplogroup Y tree. I have placed colored boxes around the SNPs that our WHEADON Group C tests positive (or has) So the progression is S21 (U106)>Z381>L48>Z9>Z30>Z2>Z7>Z1>Z346>DF101>DF102. Each of these SNPS represents a one time Mutation in one position of the Y chromosome. Every man that carries that SNP is a direct descendent of the man in which the mutation occurred. Z346 is shared with the following surnames so it either happened long ago before surname adoption OR involves various non-paternal events along the way.:
So far DF102 is only shared with Frenckinck , Kincaid of Ireland, Bledsoe and Sinclair
This is where our WHEATON Group B stands before Full Y testing. We are negative -Z367, -L196, -Z49, and -L408. Which means simply we are not descended from the men in which these SNPs first occurred. The Full Y testing is to discover which SNPs downstream of L2* we can find and over time where they will map out on the tree. A SNP is private and not mappable until it is confirmed by another person testing positive. It can be a familial SNP and only be found in one or two family names. Or it can be like Z346 and determine a clan of families. It is my hope that through identifying downstream SNPS that we share with other families we can confirm the geographic origins of the WHEATON group B in the UK. And from there trace them back to the mainland of Europe.
Comparing 67 and 111 markers
WHY HAPLOGROUPS MATTER
Because even if two men have the same values on 65/67 markers they CANNOT BE RELATED in the past 1,000 years if they belong to different HAPLOGROUPS. And even Group A,B,D who are all R1b1 are further subdivided into groups whose common ancestry is 5,000 years ago or more.
AND our group shows the melting pot that is Britain because we have Representation of the THREE Major groups in Britain.
CELTS: Wheaton Group B (probably Group A & D)If you are interested in becoming more involved in citizen based science and learning even more about your deep origins you may want to participate in the Genographic 2.0 Project. This is a not for profit research project conducted through National Geographic but testing is done at the FTDNA labs.
VIKINGS: Wheaton Group E
ANGO-SAXONS: Wheaton Group C
There are 3 components to this new offering of about 146,000 markers (the first component is only relevant to males and is of most interest to our project):
For more information:
SO WHAT THE HECK ARE HAPLOGROUPS?
Haplogroups are the big branches of the Ancient Family Tree. They have letter names from A-R Unfortunately the naming does not always reflect the age so the oldest isn't A. However the most recent branch is R. Here's a link to the Wikipedia article on Haplogroups.
Here's an easy way to think of it-- the oldest branch of the human tree went along until their was a mutation in a Y-SNP and then every single male that descended from that man carries that mutation. Then every 3,000 years or so another mutation creeps in so you can sort all the men in the world into groups that identify their ancient origins. As we get further and further up the tree their are more and more mutations but you can only follow the branch you are on so this helps to break men into finer and finer groups.
Our project represents 2 different Letters on the Ancient Y-Haplotree: "I" & "R". However these are refined further if they have done a Deep Clade Test. Only Group B and Group C have done Deep Clade Tests and although they are Both "R1b1a2a1a" that is where they part ways and that is how we know that the predecessor of Thomas Wheadon of Branford CT and Robert Wheaton of Rehoboth, MA were not related in a genealogical time frame. They parted ways approximately 5,000 years ago. Excellent Tree on this site http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml (You can follow the tree down to the representative terminal SNPs) Wheaton Group's A & D are also R1b1a2 but until they are either Deep Clade tested or do the new GENOGRAPHIC 2.0 Test we don't know to which group they belong although I suspect that Group D is L21 and thus falls into the North Atlantic Modal
Wheaton Group A R1b1a2 Wheaton of Sidbury, Devon This could be related to either of the other 3 R1b1a2 groups represented below. Needs testing. My guess based on matches are this is R1b1a2a1a1b4 L21 The Atlantic Modal which is of Celtic origin. Approximately 25-50% of the male population of Britain fall into this group.
Wheaton Group B R1b1a2a1a1b3 Wheaton of Devon and Rehoboth, MA
"R1b1a2a1a1b3 (U152 terminal SNP L2*) is the Alpine subclade of P312. It is most frequent in North Italy and Switzerland (20-40%) and in South Germany and France (10-20%) with decreasing frequencies towards neighboring areas (England, Low Countries, North Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, South Italy, Iberia 5-10%). It also forms an isolated tribe among Bashkirs (Western Urals). Its diversity peak is in Germany and France, so up to our present knowledge, it more likely arose on the Northern slopes of the Alps, rather than the South of it. Its age is approx. 3500-5000 years BP or 3000-1500 BCE. It is usually connected with the spread of the La Tene Iron Age archeological culture and historical Central European Celtic tribes, but it is nearly absent from present-day Celtic-speaking territories on the Atlantic coast. There are also theories connecting it to the spread of the Italic languages and later Roman colonization due to its Italian frequency, but these are not verified yet. Its main subgroups are the U152*, L2*, L20 and DYS 492=14 groups, see the R1b-U152 project for more information."
Wheaton Group C R1b1a2a1a1a4 Wheadons of Devon and Branford CT
"R1b1a2a1a1a4 (U106 terminal SNP L48*) is the North-Eastern subgroup of L11. It is most common among Germanic speakers, with a frequency peak in the Netherlands (every third man is U106+) and decreasing frequency towards other Germanic-inhabited areas (15-25% in England, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Denmark; 5-15% in Poland, France and Northern Italy; less than 5% elsewhere, including non-Danish Scandinavia). It is dated between 5500 and 4000 years ago or 3500-2000 BCE. One interesting feature of U106 is that it shows greater diversity in Poland and around the Baltic coast than in Germany and the Netherlands, so it may have appeared more to the East than its present distribution would suggest. It is yet debated if U106 people were the carriers of the proto-Germanic language or rather represent a Germanized Northern Celtic group of people or a proto-Indo-European folk later assimilated to Germans. U106 has several subgroups which are under research, including U198, L1 (null 439), L48 (and its subgroups) and L257. None of these show a clear pattern which would make any connection to historical people possible. "Wheaton Group D R1b1a2 Wheaton of Brixham, Devon and New Jersey This could be related to either of the other 3 R1b1a2 listed above. Needs testing. My guess based on matches are this is R1b1a2a1a1b4 L21 The Atlantic Modal which is of Celtic origin. Approximately 25-50% of the male population of Britain fall into this group.
Wheaton Group E I2a of Wheaton / Wetton of Staffordshire, England
Haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing almost 1/5 of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting it began there. Estimates are it began prior to the last Glacial Maximum. Most likely ours are either I2a2a which occurs in Britain and northwest continental Europe OR I2a2a1which is almost exclusively in Britain.
And if I haven't succeeded in making your eyes glaze over yet. Here's a link with more info on the advancements in Private Y-SNPs http://www.rcasey.net/DNA/R_L21/HowTo/YSNPs_Genealogical_View.html
The latest comparisons:
This first uses the last four digits in your kit number & is comparing 37 markers. I may re-run these once we have 67 markers for most of our members. Genetic distance shows how many mutations between any two men. I have fudged a bit by adding modals for a couple of markers that Ralph has---these might change pending his updated results. The first person is Mr. Mallenby, the fourth is Mr. Hancock the last person on the chart is a Howell and 1313 is Mr. Raines the rest are all Wheaton Group B Wheatons.
I have used the highest level of confidence available at 95% to run these Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor. So Mr. Mallenby has a range of no more than 390 years with his closest matches. Mr Hancock has a range of 240 years with his closest matches. And Mr. Raines the closest range is 390. So either Mr. Hancock's match falls into the 5% level of confidence and a very stable set of markers for 350 years or we has a Robert Wheaton descendant returning to Devon. Also if note is that some of the Wheaton surnamed men are not as close as those with other surnames thus inferring a stronger likelihood of a TMRCA.
In case anyone is wondering about these mutations......during fertilization when the Y-Chromosome is passed from father to future son sometimes there occurs a copying error. When we look at a marker like DYS391=12 this means that at Single Tandem Repeat (STR) 391 there are 12 repeats of a set series of DNA. If one gets dropped in the transfer then the son would be
or if one did a hiccup we might have the father at DYS391=12 and the son
So when I say a marker is Fast or Slow mutating, I am looking at scientific studies that suggest the frequency with which these copying errors happen at a given marker. Some seem more prone to errors than others.
When I am talking about SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) these are a mutation that happens at a SNP and then all men descended from where that man had a mutation carry this SNP. Just remember STRs mutate much more frequently than SNPs.
Here's a question from FTDNA's FAQs:
Are Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) SNPs ever related to recent times and genealogy? Are they always for historic periods and more ancient ancestry?
No. Y-chromosome DNA SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) are not always from anthropological or even historic times. Some Y-chromosome DNA SNPs are restricted to a single family that is related in genealogical times (1 to 15 generations). These are family SNPs or private SNPs. Other SNPs are slightly older. They represent paternal lineage groups that predate the adoption of a family surname. These are semi-private SNPs.
So although STRs are generally used for recent genealogy and SNPs for ancient ancestry the too can and is beginning to overlap. That's why we participate in the newest SNP testing as these SNPs are discovered. We have been negative for most SNPs the Terminal SNP is the last SNP (up the tree for which we tested positive) in the case of Group B that is L2+.
This chart shows our two Sidford, Devon cousins Ben and A. David. Suggesting a time frame of 425 years. Although it could be earlier.
We have our first two perfect matches at 67 markers Glenn and David J.
This from FTDNA:
Very Tightly Related: A 67/67 match between two men who share a common surname (or variant) means they share a common male ancestor within the genealogical time frame. Their relatedness is extremely close. All confidence levels are well within the time frame that surnames were adopted in Western Europe with the common ancestor predicted, 50% of the time, in 3 generations or less and with a 90% probability within 5 generations. Very few people achieve this close level of a match.
Analysis using FTDNA criteria:
Related: A perfect 25/25 match between two men who share a surname (or variant) means they likely share a common male ancestor within the genealogical time frame. The probability of a close relationship is very high. WE HAVE 8 PERFECT MATCHES
Who is Closest to the Mode (less deviations)
Bill and Lori are Tied with 4 deviations each but the winner is Bill who had more Mode values. This may change with new results for Jerry and Dave
Y-STR's (Y chromosome Single Tandem Repeats) include markers that mutate rapidly within 175 years or more. These are used for proving relationships in the past 1,000 years
SNP's (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) mutate much more slowly maybe once every thousand or ten thousand or more years so they point to our deepest ancestry. (Where we came from).