Savanna C cycle processes
As part of a major project funded by the Sid Kyle Endowment, we have initiated new research on C cycle processes in temperate savanna ecosystems. Research will emphasize vegetation-mediated C cycle processes and how these respond to direct anthropogenic drivers (fire, herbivory). The work will encompass a range of spatiotemporal scales (from short-term leaf-level processes to long-term regional to global processes) and utilize a range of experimental and observational tools. Two new PhD students and one new MS student have joined the lab this year to work on this project. Welcome to Toby SantaMaria, Nicole Havrilchak, and Harrison Raub! Dr. Aline Jaimes is a postdoctoral scholar working on the project and Ane Fortes, a visiting Brazilian student, is working with us as well. Aline has extensive experience in eddy covariance and Ane brings experience in measuring C stocks and fluxes in seasonally dry habitats in Brazil like the Caatinga. We are excited to have great group of new folks hitting the ground running this year, so watch this space for more as these projects get under way!

Water and CO2 fluxes during leaf gas exchange
With partial support from the Fulbright Research Scholars program and in collaboration with the EcoFun team at INRA Bordeaux-Aquitaine and Bernard Genty at CNRS-CEA-Université Aix-Marseilles we are utilizing laser spectrometry and other tools to better constrain uncertainties in CO2 exchange with leaves and the interactions of CO2 with leaf water during photosynthesis and respiration. We are currently focusing on internal conductance to CO2, patterns of leaf water enrichment in 18O, and the role of carbonic anhydrase.

Deep rooting in seasonally dry ecosystems
A project led by PhD student Rachel Roenfeldt seeks to explore the role of deep rooting in woody plants and to close key gaps in our understanding of this potentially important phenomenon. The project is focused on the degree to which climate, species characteristics and regional geology interact to affect the occurrence of deep rooting, as well as the dependence on deep water sources during dry periods. We're taking advantage of access to deep roots in caves located in Texas and Mexico and are developing new field experimental approaches to assess dependence directly.

Caatinga biogeochemistry
A collaborative project in the fascinating Caatinga of northeastern Brazil is ongoing, including the PhD project of Cynthia Wright who is focusing on key ecohydrologic processes. The Caatinga is a contiguous semiarid shrubland in northeastern Brazil that covers some 90,000 km2 or 12% of the country. From a socioeconomic standpoint it is of enormous importance—being home to a population of some 20 million people, many of whom are impoverished. The environmental conditions of the Caatinga are quite harsh; rainfall is generally low, the soils are poor, and droughts are frequent. In addition, the population of the region is continuing to increase.The goal of our project is to elucidate the fundamental ecophysiological, ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes that characterize Caatinga landscapes. We are collaborating in this effort with Brad Wilcox and several faculty at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco.

Isoscapes capacity building
Isoscapes are maps of spatio-temporal variation in isotope ratios and are typically gridded products of spatially explicit modeling. Isotopes modeled can be stable (e.g., 18O) or radioactive (e.g., 14C) and include radiogenic isotopes such as 87Sr. Our group is interested primarily in the stable isotope ratios of the "light" elements : carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), hydrogen (δ2H), and oxygen (δ18O) and their utility in understanding a range of questions and systems.
In a collaboration with Gabriel Bowen and colleagues at Purdue, we developed web-based cyberinfrastructure for isoscapes

products and modeling, including access to necessary data sets and interactive data and model sharing. The IsoMAP project web page containing more in-depth description of the project may be found here. This project was funded through a grant from the National Science Foundation Division of Biological Infrastructure (0743543-DBI).

Ongoing work focuses on the degree to which spatial variation in precipitation and hydrologic processes interact with plant biophysical processes to affect the H and O isotope ratios of organic matter. Much of this work is collaborative and is designed to permit better interpretations of lipid H isotope ratios derived from sediments (e.g., from river systems in the Alps and Himalayas), but it also includes interpretation of tree rings and other paleo-records.

Commercial forest species and climate change
In a collaboration with Jason Vogel, Jean-Christophe Domec, Carol Loopstra, Claudio Casola, and many other collaborators across the network, we studied the carbon cycle response to climate change and management in the PINEMAP Project. PINEMAP was one of three Coordinated Agriculture Projects (CAP) recently awarded by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The purpose of these CAPs is to encourage agriculture and forestry producers to increase carbon sequestration and adapt practices to reduce the impact of climate variation. PINEMAP, a 5-year, $20 million project, focused on planted pine forests in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states from Virginia to Texas, plus Arkansas and Oklahoma, that are managed by industrial and non-industrial private landowners. While the PINEMAP project has ended, we continue to collaborate with members of the network focusing on the underlying genetics of adaptation to drought stress in pines.