Eyeball Tutorial 4: Adding It all Together    home


Eyeball Data, Eyeball Anatomy, Constructing the Lids, Putting it All TogetherMorphing  Page             

Joining the Lids, Iris, And Cornea/Globe together.


Okay, did we go and have a rest yet?


Now I want you to go and do 150 sit ups and 112 proper push ups (not Nancy Boy ones ......).


Back already? Hmmmmm......


Okay. Let's go modelling.

  • Make a new object. Name it "The Eyeball".
  • Copy our iris and Globe/Cornea into the "Eyeball object".
  • Position the iris carefully (look at this diagram for reference).

Fig 1

  • When positioning and scaling the iris, make sure that the iris is wider than the cornea, but does not pierce through the conjunctiva.
  • Select both objects (iris and cornea/globe) and join them.
  • Now group them. Grouping them means that you can't change the mesh accidently (unless you have a point selected and hit any of the arrow buttons)


Now look at Fig 2 and Fig 3 of the eye in its orbit (all the fancy names are muscles)

Fig 2 (front view)

And this one seen from the side.

Fig 3 (side view)

  • Now its pretty easy to see from these diagrams that, though the eyeball is a sphere, if we model it as such we are wasting our time. Things like the extra ocular muscles hide the sphere shape quite well, as does the bony structure of the orbit and also the thick eyelids.

Fig 4


Fig 4 shows the globe we have made positioned in the socket.

  • We can safely trim off all the excess points we don't need so that we end up with this:

Fig 5 and not this:



  • Now we are going to mold the eyelids around the globe/cornea.
  • Firstly: copy the lids into the object we are working on. Make sure your globe/cornea/iris is still grouped so you don't rearrange the points accidently.
  • Position the eyelids and the globe group in their correct positions (see Fig 3) and sculpt the  eyelids around the globe group.

When you are done:


  • Fix movement to the x axis
  • Move the globe group away so that you can see  the points of both quite clearly. As an example see Fig 6:

Fig 6 (lids and cornea/globe/iris seen from above.)


Fig 7



  • Now Ungroup the globe group.
  •  Select all objects.
  • Join all objects with the Build>Join Objects command.
  • Now we join the objects with edges.
  • And looking back at fig 1 we can see where the Iris and the limbus join we have a kind of cul de sac.
  • Keeping this cul de sac in mind we are (later) going to attach the Globe/Cornea/Iris to the lids
    • Carefully sew the objects together going from the outer rim of the globe to the inner rim of the lid margin.


    • Start at the centre of both objects. Use the edge tool to join the points.

    Fig 8

    Until you have soemthing like this:

    Fig 9

    • When you have finished sewing all the way around select all edges and fill.

    NB: If some of the edges do not fill, use undo to remove the faces you created and look at the colours of the edges. From the manual:


    • Faces can only be added to complete connected loops of edges. If there are any gaps, no face will be added.
    • All edges in the loop must not already be part of two (or more) faces. Only edges that are part of at most one face will be considered. You can tell how many edges an edge participates in by its color when selected.
    Color of Edge
    Number of Edges
    VIOLET Three or More

    If everything has gone to plan you will now have a weird looking blob; like this.

    Fig 10

    (Okay, okay, it won't be subdivided nor textured yet)

    • Keeping all the faces selected apply a new material called scrap.
    • Now use the select by material drop down menu (Edit>Select etc) 
    • make sure the add button is clicked in, add the conjunctiva material you created before.
    • In the materials box, apply the conjunctiva material to all these faces.


    Now its ime to go searching for a conjunctival texture!

    Personally I'd look for a good anatomy site but a false eye making site will have great pictures as well!!

    Searching for this will give great rewards: http://artificialeyeclinic.com/anatomyarticle.pdf



    Hey I almost forgot eyelashes. What's an eyeball without eyelashes? It's like a bald man without err ... hmmm. Anyway...


    To build eyelashes onto out model we have to be a little sneaky.


    • Remembering that the top eyelid has between 100 and 150 eyelashes and the bottom half as much, then we decide to use transmaps to keep the poly count down.
    • Eyelashes grow out of the external part of the lid margin - as seen in this photograph of our attractive tee-totaller.

    Fig 12


    If they were to grow in the inner part they would be always poking us in the eye - which most people find uncomfortable.

    • So to recap, we can construct eyelashes by using extrude faces or by attaching little cylinders but that's not the w ay I want to do it because I am lazy.
    • Firstly we "sew" a a few faces that we can add a transmap to. (use the add edge tool)

    Fig 13

    • NOTE: To make life simple for the demonstration I've just taken part of the edge of the eyelid and started sewing our new faces.
    • So far I've added four edges......
    •  but when I go to fill them I cannot because I have broken the rules - ie the edge along the lid margin is already part of two faces - uggggh.
    • So I decide to cheat.
    • Using the knife tool I cut two new points on the edges and join them up with Add Edge tool.

    Fig 14

    • Now I can push this edge down so that it is superimposed on the lid margin itself.
    • Now when I select the edges I can fill holes and end up with a face.
    • Make another tranverse cut like so. That way you can curve the eyelashes.


    NB not until you finish making the eyelash edges should you use the "fill" command. That way, when all the faces are still selected (as they will be after a fill command) you can add the eyelash transmaps.


    Here is an example of an eyelash transmap. Note how often the eyelashes grow over each other.



    Okay, now we have a weird blob which looks like an anatomy specimen gone wrong so its time to add a little movement.




    But first I'd recommend you use the Build>Convert To Subdivided command before we start our morphs.


    Onto: Morphing  Page5