The origins of water polo can be traced to east India, where British army officers experimented with the «pulu» ball game on horseback.
FROM POLO TO WATER POLO
From there, polo was brought to Europe and was played as rugby and finally as football in the water to become water polo - and was practised in rivers and lakes. Originally, a pig's stomach bladder was used as the ball, but as this burst easily, it was soon replaced by a rubber ball.
THE BRITISH AGAIN!
In 1870, the London Swimming Club drew up the first rules for this football game in the water. They accepted brute strength. Ducking opponents was permitted, as well as diving with the ball and carrying it under the swimsuit in murky water towards the goal. A goal was scored by putting the ball in the goal with both hands, or in a boat or the full width of the pontoon. The goalkeeper stayed out of the water and jumped in when a player from the opposing team approached to score. Slowly, by trial and error, more appropriate rules were found. However, it was not until 1884 that the Swimming Association of Great Britain recognized the game as coming under its jurisdiction. By 1880 in Scotland, the introduction of the Trudgeon stroke permitted rule changes to make the game faster, and brute strength was replaced by more technique, speed and tactical moves. The game changed from a rugby style to a soccer style of play. The goal became a cage of ten feet by three, and a goal could be scored by throwing the ball.
A leather ball replaced the smaller rubber ball. Players could only be tackled if they held the ball, and the ball could be touched with only one hand at a time. The number of players in each team was finally settled at seven.
In the late I880s, these Scottish rules were generally adopted throughout England, after a four-member committee had been appointed in 1888 to revise the rules and submit a report to the London Water Polo League founded in 1889. Also, in 1888, the first national English championship was contested. In 1890, the league included London and parts of southern and middle England. In the same year, this league played the first international game against Scotland and lost 0:4.
The pioneers of the development of English water polo were A. Sinclair, founder of the London Water Polo League, W. Henry, President of the Royal Life Saving Society, T. Young and H.G. Hackett.
TOWARDS THE USA
The USA became the next country to adopt water polo in 1888 when John Robinson, a British swimming instructor, organized a team at the Boston Athletic Association. Two years later, more teams started playing water polo at the Sydenham Swimmers Club in Providence, Rhode Island, and at the New York Athletic Club.
As the American teams started prior to the adoption of the Scottish rules, the game was played in the old English style, but soon developed distinct American characteristics. It was a game of close formation and fierce scrimmages. The ball could be taken under water and held with two hands. Players grabbed each other where they chose, becoming locked in wrestling grips. It was about the survival of the fittest.
The first American championships were held in 1890, when the Sydenham Swimming Club defeated the Boston Athletic Association by 2 to 1. At the turn of the century, water polo was one of the most popular spectator sports in America.
OLYMPIC DISCIPLINE IN 1900
During the last decade of the 19th century, the game also spread over to western and central Europe. Hungary (1889), Belgium (1890), Austria and Germany (1894) and France (1895) all introduced it. In 1900, it became a part of the Olympic programme. The «Encyclopedia of Sport» published in 1898 in New York and London, reported that water polo was also played «on the continent and in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, India, the United States etc.»
The pioneer work in the development of the game served British water polo and contributed to its domination of the international scene until 1920. The British teams won the Olympic tournaments of 1900, 1908, 1912 and 1920.
The existence of different rule systems led to many misunderstandings. In order to counter this drawback, FINA made the British rules obligatory in 1911. What progress! The popularity of water polo was undeniable: twelve teams competed at the tournament of the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp, in spite of the suspension of Germany, Austria and Hungary.
A milestone in the further development of water polo was the creation of the International Water Polo Board (IWPB) by the FINA Congress on the occasion of the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam. This Board, the forerunner of the current Technical Water Polo Committee, consisted of four representatives from Great Britain and four from FINA. It issued a new set of rules to take effect from 1 January 1930, with amendments that provided the impetus for a faster and higher scoring game.
The next improvement was the development of a new ball. The leather ball absorbed water and became extremely heavy and slippery after short use. In the late 1930s, the American James R. Smith developed a ball with a rubber cover, which was later changed to nylon to further improve performance. A yellow ball was adopted after the Second World War for better visibility and had a longer life and better handling qualities.
These improvements were particularly appreciated in the USA, but it was not before the 1956 Games in Melbourne that this yellow nylon ball was officially recognized for international competitions, amongst which the Olympic Games.
In 1947, President Mario L. Negal of the South American Swimming Federation proposed a very important alteration. The "no-moving" rule, which prohibited any movement after the referee had blown his whistle, had been abolished in South America. This change, which permitted moving on a «dead ball» and made the game much faster, was recommended for adoption by FINA. At the 1948 FINA Congress on the occasion of the Olympic Games in London, the IWPB members Jan de Vries (NED) and Alphonse Delahaye (BEL) suggested that this South American rule be recognized. Finally, the IWPB decided on 25 July 1948 that this rule would take effect from 1 January 1950.
New significant rule changes occurred in the 1960s. In 1966, a system of penalty points for major fouls was devised by which a free throw and a penalty point were awarded against the offending team; but the offender was not ordered out of the water until a goal had been scored, as the rule had been before in the case of major fouls. After three penalty points against one team, a penalty shot at goal was awarded to the other.
In 1969, this system was changed again and major fouls were now punished by ordering the offender from the water for one minute or until a goal was scored. Any player having three penalty points marked against him had to leave the match and be substituted after one minute or a goal. Another important alteration was the introduction of the time wasting rule. If the ball in continuous possession was not shot within 45 seconds, a free throw was conceded to the defending team. This time was to be further limited to 35 seconds in 1975.
Until 1952, the game consisted of two periods of ten minutes each. Then four periods of five minutes each with two minute breaks between them were adopted. In 1980, the periods were extended to seven minutes. After it became the Olympic rule that a team might enter eleven players of which seven could be picked for any particular match, it was decided in 1961 that a team consisted of seven players plus four reserves who could also be changed during every single game. In 1975, the TWPC recommended the use of plastic ear guards to prevent injuries. These were to become obligatory later.
The growing physical, technical and tactical abilities of the players, the increasing speed of the game and the steady refinement of the rules, became too much for one referee to handle by himself. Thus, at its meeting held in Rome on 5 February 1977, the TWPC recommended the use of a second referee. Following the adoption of this recommendation, eight officials formed the judging staff of a match: two referees, two goal judges, two timekeepers and two secretaries.
SUCCESS OF MEN'S WATERPOLO ...
Men's water polo has been an Olympic sport since 1900, and on the regional and continental level, the LEN was the first body to include the game from its first European Championships held in 1926. Of course, water polo was included in the programme of the World Championships at the first edition in 1973 in Belgrade. The first World Cup was held in 1979, and the first junior men's World Championship in 1981. In 2002, a first edition of a FINA World League with US$ 350,000 in prize money was launched. Since this yearly event opposed the best world national teams.
In 2006, to help the development of the game trough the five continents the FINA Bureau approved the creation of a new competition, in collaboration with the Continental organisations, the FINA World Water Polo Development Trophy.
Historically, the most successful water polo team of all time is the Hungarian team, winning medals at nearly all the Olympic Games, and at European and World Championships between 1928 and 1982. The game is without any doubt one of the national Hungarian sports. However, in recent decades, Russia, Yugoslavia, Spain and Italy have also produced top teams.
... WHAT ABOUT WOMEN'S WATER POLO?
The previously quoted «Encyclopedia of Sport» in 1898 listed as belonging to the objectives of the ASA of Great Britain «to promote and encourage the art of swimming and the game of water polo among both sexes... » In the early 1900s, water polo for women emerged in the Netherlands, particularly between HDV de Robben Hilversum and HVGB Haarlem. After 1914, women's championships were contested outside of the Netherlands in the USA, from 1926, in Australia, from 1968, in Canada, from 1980, and after in many other countries. In 1979, FINA created the Women's World Cup. The LEN added women's water polo to the European Championships in 1985 one year before the first FINA Women's Water Polo Championship. Consecration: the first Olympic Tournament took place in Sydney in 2000 with the victory of "Aussies". Finally a yearly Women's World League has been added to the FINA calendar in 2004.
The predecessor of modern waterpolo was the game which appeared for the first time in Great Britain in 1869, due to the attempts of sportsmen who wanted to introduce more vigour in the monotonous program of swimming competitions.
The game that was played at the time bore almost no resemblance with today's waterpolo, but raised a great deal of interest among the spectators. The game was called a "foot-ball in the water". A year later the London Swimming Association summoned the group of swimming professionals which made the rules for this new sport
The sports workers of the rowing club "Bournemouth" excelled in promoting the game and in 1876 they set out the dimensions of the playground ( 50 yards) and decided on the number of the players in the team ( 7) as well as the number of the referees (a head referee and two linesmen). Since there were no goals at the time, the task of the players was to put the ball on the opponent's float.
The first waterpolo rules were set out by William Wilson in 1876 in Glasgow, where the first official game had been played on the river Dee. The borders of the playground were defined, too. Even at those early times waterpolo had a growing number of fans and was introduced to the programs of swimming competitions and various maritime festivals. The rules set out the goal dimensions, the players were not allowed to catch and throw the ball with both hands, and the score was acknowledged only when the ball entered the goal compeltely.
English and Scottish waterpolo teams started to play waterpolo between themselves and the championships of Englans, Scotland and Ireland followed soon after that. The games were played according to uniform rules among which the goalie was not allowed to throw the ball across the half of the pool and the players were forbidden to keep the ball under the water. The rules of 1883 determined the length of the game ( 20 minutes). Until the match between Birmingham and Portsmouth in 1885, each team had 12 players.
By the end of the 19th century waterpolo became popular on the American continent as well. It was played in the swimming halls but there were no goals, the players scored by touching the marked spot on the side of the pool with the ball.
In Europe waterpolo appeared in Germany in 1894, then in Austria, Belgium, France and Hungary.
Since 1900 waterpolo has been in the program of the Olympic Games ( with the exception of 1904).The first Olympic winner was from Great Britain ( Osborne Club from Manchester ) at the Olympic Games in 1900 in Paris.
The first European championship was held in 1926 in Budapest, the first European champion was the Hungarian national team.
A leather ball was used in the 1912 Olympics and was very heavy, slippery, and lopsided because thee ball took on water. In 1936 after the Olympics the ball was made out of a cotton blatter, then changed to nylon, which was covered by rubber fabric for good gripping. The original ball was red then changed to yellow for better visibility. This ball became the offical ball in 1956
The original picture of the Water Polo match held at Corbaceiras, Pontevedra in 1930's.
Source: courtesy of Mr. Javi de Sáa, Technical Director Técnico of C.N. Pontevedra Water Polo
Water Polo match in front of the premises of A.S.Aris into the bay of Thermaikos, Thessaloniki Greece in 1949.
Source: A.S.Aris 1914-2004; archive Mr.Giorgios Meimaridis
Monday, Aug. 22, 1932
X th Olympiad
Water Polo. First riot of the Xth Olympiad occurred after the first match in the water polo tournament, when Germany had beaten Brazil, 7 to 3. Angered by the decisions of the referee, huge Bela Komjadi of Hungary, two of the Brazilians crawled out of the pool and attacked him. Their teammates helped them. The Germans helped Referee Komjadi. Dr. Leo Donath of Hungary, secretary of the International Swimming Federation, tried to stop the fight. Police arrived and whacked him as well as the battling contestants. Bruised and bitter, Dr. Donath left the arena. Said Referee Komjadi: "The Brazilians have no idea of how to play water polo. ... It stands to reason that if I were to be unfair I, as a Hungarian, would be prejudiced against the Germans, our big rivals. . . ." The Brazilians were disqualified and Hungary won three games, the last one 16 to 0 against Japan, for the Olympic water polo championship.
בריכת בת גלים : לפי עדויות בני המקום ועדויות בני בעלי הבריכה(משפחת בונשטיין ומשפחת מרגוליס) בנייתה החלה ב1932 ונסתיימה ב 1935 .בבריכה נערכו הרבה ארועי ספורט בינלאומיים.
מפגשים בין ארציים בין ארץ ישראל ומצרים,לבנון,יוון וכמובן המכביות הראשונות
Source: private collectionWater Polo legends
Water Polo ball used May 1964, during the qualification game between the National teams of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in view of Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games.
באמצע המגן של הקבוצה של הנלייז מבריסטול ישנו " מגן דוד" .....מעניין
The Water Polo team of “Henleaze Swimming Club”, England in 1924. Henleaze is a northern suburb of the city of Bristol in the South West of England. Home of the “Henleaze SC” has been since 1919 the Henleaze Lake, a flooded former quarry on the northern edge of Henleaze near Southmead and Westbury on Trym.
Water Polo game held at the lake of Henleaze, Bristol in 1950’s.
The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals Men's water polo was the among the first team sports introduced at the modern Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around the world, notably Europe (particularly in Hungary, Greece, Italy, Russia and the former Yugoslavia), the United States, Canada and Australia. The present-day game involves teams of seven players (plus up to six substitutes), with a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of waterproof nylon
Development of the game
The rules of water polo were originally developed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by William Wilson. The modern game originated as a form of rugby football played in rivers and lakes in England and Scotland with a ball constructed of Indian rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength, wrestling and holding opposing players underwater to recover the ball; the goalie stood outside the playing area and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by placing the ball on the deck.
By the 1880s, the game evolved to include fast-paced team play with a soccer-sized ball that emphasized swimming, passing, and scoring by shooting into a goal net; players could only be tackled when holding the ball and could not be taken under water. To deal with variations in regional rules, in 1888, the London Water Polo League was founded and approved a set of rules to allow team competition, forming the basis of the present game. The first English championships were played in 1888. In 1890, the first international water polo game was played; Scotland defeated England, 4-0.
Between 1890 and 1900, the game developed in Europe, with teams competing in Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, Hungary and Italy, using British rules. A different game was being played in the United States, characterized by rough play, holding, diving underwater, and soft, semi-inflated ball that could be gripped tightly and carried underwater. As a result, European teams did not compete in the 1904 Olympic championships in St. Louis. By 1914, most US teams agreed to conform to international rules. An international water polo committee was formed in 1929, consisting of representatives from Great Britain and the International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA). Rules were developed for international matches and put into effect in 1930; FINA has been the international governing body for the sport since that time.
Over the years, both technical and rule changes affected the character of the game. In 1928, Hungarian water polo coach Bela Komjadi invented the "air pass," or "dry pass", a technique in which a player directly passes the ball through the air to another player, who receives it without the ball hitting the water. Previously, players would let the ball drop in the water first and then reach out for it, but the dry pass made the offensive game more dynamic, and contributed to Hungarian dominance of water polo for 60 years.In 1936, James R. ("Jimmy") Smith, California water polo coach and author of several books on water polo mechanics, developed a water polo ball made with an inflatable bladder and a rubber fabric cover, which improved performance. The previous leather ball absorbed water and became heavier during the game. In 1949, rule changes allowed play to continue uninterrupted after a referee whistled an ordinary foul, speeding up play. In the 1970s, the exclusion foul replaced a point system for major fouls; players guilty of this foul were excluded for a 1 minute penalty and their team forced to play with fewer players. Possession of the ball was limited to 45 seconds before a scoring attempt. Time of penalties and possession have been reduced since then. The direct shot on goal from the seven (7) meter line after a free throw was allowed in 1994, and changed to a five meter throw in 2005
Local rule variations
In 2006, revisions were made to the NFHS 2006-2007 swimming/diving and water polo rulebook (USWP and NCAA rules still vary). The four and seven meter lines were merged to a five meter line. Under the revised rules, a goalkeeper may use two hands and stand on the bottom of the pool (if shallow) until the 5 meter line, and go beyond the 5 meter line according to the field rules (one hand on the ball no standing), but still not not pass the half line. The goalie may strike the ball with a clenched fist, although this is not recommended.
New cap rules were also enacted. A goalie cap must now be in quarters alternating red/dark for home and red/white for away. The goalie must be number 1, 1a, or 1b. For women, a red swim cap must be worn under the goalie cap. A team's dark swim cap is no longer acceptable as it is hard to distinguish a goalie from field players if official cap is off.
אתר/בלוג תמונות היסטוריות מדהים מכל רחבי העולם
שמידי שבוע נוספות אליו תמונות
Men's water polo at the Olympics was the among the first team sports introduced at the 1900 games (along with cricket, rugby, football (soccer), polo (with horses), rowing and tug of war. Women's
water polo became an Olympic sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games
after political protests from the Australian women's team. Such protests were rewarded when Australia won the gold medal match against the United States with a "buzzer-beater" last-minute goal, taken from outside the seven meter line.
Some of the best ever include Spain's Manuel Estiarte who played in a record six Olympics and led in scoring for four of them. Dezső Gyarmati of Hungary won water polo medals at five successive Olympic Games (gold 1952, 1956, 1964; silver 1948; bronze 1960), a record in water polo.Another major figure in the sport was Tamas Farago. who led Hungary to Olympic Medals in 1972, 1976 and 1980. The play of American Terry Schroeder. led the United States to its first Olympic
silver medals in 1984 and 1988.
Main article: Blood In The Water match
The most famous water polo match in history is probably the 1956 Summer Olympics semi-final match between Hungary and the Soviet Union. As the athletes left for the games, the Hungarian revolution began, and the Soviet army crushed the uprising. Many of the Hungarian athletes vowed never to return home, and felt their only means of fighting back was by victory in the pool. The confrontation was the most bloody and violent water polo game in history, in which the pool reputedly turned red from blood. The Hungarians defeated the Soviets 4-0 before the game was called off in the final minute to prevent angry Hungarians in the crowd reacting to Valentin Prokopov punching Ervin Zador's eye open. The Hungarians went on to win the Olympic gold medal by defeating Yugoslavia 2-1 in the final. Half of the Hungarian Olympic delegation defected after the games. A documentary by Lucy Liu, Freedom's Fury, premiered in April 2006, recounting the events of the 1956 Hungarian uprising and climaxing with this politicized game.
Every 2 to 4 years since 1973, a men's Water Polo World Championship is played together with the World Swimming Championship, under the auspices of FINA. Women's water polo was added in 1986. A second tournament series, the FINA Water Polo World Cup, has been held every other year since 1979. In 2002, FINA organized the sport's first international league, the FINA Water Polo World League, in which the best national teams compete against one another in an annual season format with nearly half a million dollar purse.
Internationally, the biggest water polo competition in the world is played in the Netherlands. Prince William of England was the captain of his collegiate water polo team at St Andrew's University, Scotland. The annual Varsity Match between Oxford and Cambridge Universities is the sport's longest running rivalry, first played in
Water polo at the Summer Olympics
- Olympic medals in men's water polo
Water polo at the Summer Olympics
- Olympic medals in men's water polo
- Olympic medals in women's water polo
|2000 Sydney||Australia||United States||Russia|
|2004 Athens||Italy||Greece||United States|
Water polo at the FINA World Aquatics Championships
- FINA Men's Water Polo Records)
- FINA Women's Water Polo Records)
|Year and City||Gold||Silver||Bronze|
|1986 Madrid, Spain||Australia||Netherlands||United States|
|1991 Perth, Australia||Netherlands||Canada||United States|
|1994 Rome, Italy||Hungary||Netherlands||Italy|
|1998 Perth, Australia||Italy||Netherlands||Australia|
|2001 Fukuoka, Japan||Italy||Hungary||Canada|
|2003 Barcelona, Spain||United States||Italy||Russia|
|2005 Montreal, Canada||Hungary||United States||Canada|
|2007 Melbourne, Australia||United States||Australia||Russia|
|2009 Rome, Italy|
FINA Water Polo World Cup
- FINA Men's Water Polo Records)
- : FINA Women's Water Polo Records)
|Year and City||Gold||Silver||Bronze|
|1979 Merced, California||United States||Netherlands||Australia|
|1980 Breda, Netherlands||Netherlands||United States||Canada|
|1981 Brisbane, Australia||Canada||Netherlands||Australia|
|1983 Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada||Netherlands||United States||Australia|
|1984 Irvine, California||Australia||United States||Netherlands|
|1988 Christchurch, New Zealand||Netherlands||Hungary||Canada|
|1989 Eindhoven, Netherlands||Netherlands||United States||Hungary|
|1991 Long Beach, California||Netherlands||Australia||United States|
|1993 Catania, Italy||Netherlands||Italy||Hungary|
|1995 Sydney, Australia||Australia||Netherlands||Hungary|
|1997 Nancy, France||Netherlands||Russia||Australia|
|1999 Winnipeg, Canada||Netherlands||Australia||Italy|
|2002 Perth, Australia||Hungary||United States||Canada|
|2006 Tianjin, China||Australia||Italy||Russia|
FINA Water Polo World League
|Year and City||Gold||Silver||Bronze|
|2004 Long Beach, California||United States||Hungary||Italy|
|2005 Kirishi, Russia||Greece||Russia||Australia|
|2006 Athens||United States||Italy||Russia|
בקרוב טבלאות מסכמות למדליות בהן דכתה כל מדינה באולימפיאדות,אליפויות עולם ואליפויות אירופה*
אתר/בלוג תמונות היסטוריות מדהים מכל רחבי העולם
שמידי שבוע נוספות אליו תמונות
WATERPOLO ISRAEL WATERPOLO.ISRAEL@GMAIL.COM