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The Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway opened in 1846, operated by the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
It branched off from the Middlesbrough Dock line NZ4920 and followed the high water mark to Redcar NZ6025. The station at Redcar was opposite the west end of Redcar High Street. The first train is said to have been hauled by Locomotion No 1, taken out of retirement.
National Library of Scotland - Yorkshire "Six inch" sheet 7, surveyed 1853, published 1857, showing the old and new stations in Redcar.
National Library of Scotland - NLS map of Redcar ("six-inch" 1888-1913), showing Queen Street following the original railway route.
Over the years there have been stations on this line called Cleveland Port, Cargo Fleet, South Bank, Eston, Eston Junction, Eston Grange, Grangetown, Lackenby, Lazenby and Warrenby. The only one now open is a new South Bank Station NZ5321. There is a station serving the Steel Works NZ5724 on a 1978 diversion across Coatham Marsh. The line now continues to an 1861 Redcar Station.
The Eston Branch Railway was opened by Bolckow, Vaughan and Company in 1851 to carry ironstone from Eston Mines NZ5618 to the new ironworks at Grangetown NZ5421.
There were three inclines running down from the Old Bank Drift, the Trustee Drift and the New Bank Drift.
Tramway branches eventually reached Lazenby Pit NZ5818 and Chaloner Mine NZ6018.
Ironstone was carried underground from Upsall Pit NZ5717 to Eston.
The Eston Mines lease expired in 1950 just as the ironstone extraction ceased to be economic due to cheaper imports.
National Library of Scotland - NLS map of the tramway crossing Eston High Street at California ("six-inch" 1888-1913).
The Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway opened in 1853, operated by the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
It branched off from the Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway at Guisborough Junction NZ5020 and ran via Ormesby, Gypsy Lane, Nunthorpe, Pinchinthorpe and Hutton Gate to Guisborough NZ6115
Branches ran to ironstone mines at Hutton Cod Hill Mine NZ6013, Belmont Mine NZ6114 and South Belmont Mine NZ6214.
National Library of Scotland - NLS map of Guisborough Railway Station ("six-inch" 1888-1913).
The line is still open from Middlesbrough to Nunthorpe Junction NZ5514 as part of the passenger service to Great Ayton NZ5710, Battersby Junction and Whitby.
The Redcar and Saltburn Railway opened in 1861, operated by the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
It branched off from the 1846 Middlesbrough and Redcar line at Warrenby NZ5825. This required a new Redcar Station NZ6024, built in red brick. The original 1846 station was sold and became the Central Hall. The railway land was developed into the Queen Street area of Redcar, which was built in what is locally called yellow brick.
Near Marske Station were the World War 1 hangars of Marske Aerodrome NZ6222.
Redcar East Station and Longbeck Station were opened in the 20th century. The line is still open to passengers and mineral traffic.
The Cleveland Railway opened in 1861 as a mineral railway from Slapewath NZ6315 to the River Tees at Normanby Jetty NZ5221. Ironstone was shipped over the River Tees to Bell Brothers ironworks on the north bank at Port Clarence. The earthworks NZ5615 of this line can still be seen running parallel to the A171, west of Guisborough. Closer to Guisborough the line was carried on a wooden structure NZ5915, leaving no trace on Ordnance Survey maps.
In 1862 the line reached Boosbeck NZ6517. The line continued in 1865 to Brotton Ironstone Mine NZ6820, curving around Warsett Hill to Huntcliffe Mines and Carlin How NZ7019.
The line around Warsett Hill is still open as part of the mineral railway to Teesside. Corus Skinningrove Steel Works is still in operation near Carlin How.
In 1865 a zig-zag railway ran down inclines to Loftus Mines NZ7119 in the valley of Skinningrove Beck.
Branches served ironstone mines at Ormesby Mine, Normanby Mine, Chaloner Pit, Waterfall Mines, Skelton Shaft, Skelton Park Pit, Slapewath Mines, Aysdale Gate Mines, Stanghow Mines, Kilton Mines and Lingdale Mines.
The NER closed the Cleveland Railway from near Guisborough to Normanby. The Cleveland Railway route remained open from the Brick and Tile Works NZ5516 to the River Tees.
The North Eastern Railway in Cleveland
The NER took over both the Cleveland Railway and the Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway. A junction was made between the two at Hutton Junction NZ6115, leaving Guisborough Station on a spur. The Cleveland Railway was then closed from Guisborough NZ6115 to Normanby NZ5516. In 1873 the branch from Chaloner Pit NZ6017 was extended to the Middlesbrough and Guisborough line at Chaloner Junction NZ5815.
In 1867 the NER continued the Cleveland Railway line from Carlin How NZ7019 to Skinningrove, Kilton Viaduct and Loftus NZ7118. Kilton Viaduct became unsafe due to mining subsidence. In 1913 it was filled in with mine waste to form an embankment, still in use today.
The NER opened Boosbeck Station NZ6517 and Brotton Station NZ6819. Passenger services between Loftus and Middlesbrough had to reverse into Guisborough Station.
The Saltburn Extension Railway was opened by the NER in 1872. This ran from Saltburn West Junction NZ6521, crossing Skelton Viaduct to join the Cleveland Railway at Lumpsey Mine NZ6819. A siding served Long Acres Mine.
Priestcroft Loop was opened by the NER in 1873 from Priestcroft Junction NZ6617 to North Skelton Junction NZ6718, so that mineral trains to Teesside did not need to reverse at Brotton. This loop was little used by passenger trains.
In 1902 the NER opened a short branch from the Cleveland Railway to a new Eston Station NZ5518. This station closed to passengers in 1929.
The Whitby, Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway was completed by the NER in 1883.
It ran from Loftus NZ7118 via Easington Station NZ7317 (later Grinkle Station), Easington Tunnel, Boulby Mines (ironstone from Boulby and Grinkle was carried on tramways through tunnels to Port Mulgrave NZ7917), Staithes Viaduct, Staithes Station NZ7818, Hinderwell Station NZ7916, Kettleness Station NZ8315, Kettleness Tunnel, (the original route near the cliffs was unsafe so the NER built tunnels), Sandsend Tunnel, Sandsend Station NZ8612, Sandsend Viaduct, East Row Viaduct, Newholme Viaduct and Whitby West Cliff Station NZ8911 (this station has been converted into private dwellings with the ironic name of Beechings Mews)
The line then descended from Prospect Hill Junction and passed under Larpool Viaduct in a steep curve. It joined the Whitby and Pickering Railway route of 1835 at Bog Hall Junction, continuing to Whitby Town Station NZ8910.
The route was closed in the 1960s by Doctor Beeching.
It has been reopened between Boulby Potash Mine NZ7618 and Loftus as part of the mineral railway to Teesside.
Paddy Waddell's Railway
The Cleveland Extension Mineral Railway was planned to run from a junction with the Kilton Mines Branch at Kilton Thorpe to a junction with the Esk Valley line near Rake Farm. There was thought to be a vast quantity of ironstone to be supplied to Glaisdale Iron Works. The line was never completed but earthworks from the 1870s are still visible.
The aerial photograph of Kilton Thorpe shows the 3-way junction, with Paddy Waddell's Railway in the centre.
The aerial photograph of Rake Farm shows the earthworks of Paddy Waddell's Railway curving away to the northeast.
Exploring Paddy Waddell’s Railway from the Rotary Club of Redcar.
Paddy Waddell's Railway by R F Moore
Cleveland Iron and Steel Industry
1830 - The Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended from Bowesfield Junction on a suspension bridge over the River Tees. The line terminated at Port Darlington staiths. Durham coal was then loaded into ships much nearer the mouth of the Tees than Stockton. A new town called Middlesbrough was built near the staiths.
1840s - Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan were importing ironstone which was mined down the Cleveland coast. This was known as Whitby Stone. It was sent by rail to blast furnaces at Witton Iron Works NZ1730 to be smelted into pig iron. This went back to the Middlesbrough puddling furnaces, emerging as malleable iron or wrought iron. It then went through the rolling mills to produce Finished Iron such as angles, plates, bars, rods and railway rails.
1850 - Bolckow, Vaughan & Co entered into a 99 year lease to work ironstone in the Eston Hills. The first quarry was called Bold Venture.
1851 - Eston Branch Railway was opened to carry ironstone from Eston Mines to the Tees. Blast furnaces were built at Middlesbrough to smelt the ironstone into pig iron.
1853 - Bell Brothers opened their ironworks at Port Clarence.
1855 - There were over 20 blast furnaces working in the Middlesbrough, Cargo Fleet, South Bank and Eston Grange area.
1857 - the Ordnance Survey map shows Tees Side Iron Works NZ4921 (Port Darlington), Middlesbrough Iron Works and Foundry NZ5021, Tees Iron Works and Ormesby Iron Works NZ5120 and Eston Iron Works NZ5421 (not yet called Grangetown).
1860s onwards - Blast furnace slag was used for road building and making retaining walls to reclaim land from the Tees marshes. Slag was used for decades to build breakwaters at North Gare and South Gare.
1877 - Bolckow, Vaughan & Co imported iron ore from Spain to produce Bessemer steel at Grangetown. The steel was rolled into railway rails.
1879 - Bolckow, Vaughan & Co used a new Thomas and Gilchrist process to make Bessemer steel from the local Eston ironstone.
1890s - Ironmasters District NZ4820, NZ4821 and NZ4921. The Ordnance Survey map shows Acklam Iron Works, Ayresome Iron Works, Ayrton Rolling Mills, Britannia Iron and Steel Works (Dorman Long & Co), Linthorpe Iron Works, Newport Iron Works (Samuelson & Co), Newport Rolling Mills, Newport Wire Works, North Eastern Steel Works, Marsh Wire Works and West Marsh Iron Works.
1920s - the Ordnance Survey map also shows -
1923 - Bell Brothers Ltd and Sir B Samuelson & Co taken over by Dorman, Long & Co.
1929 - Bolckow, Vaughan & Co taken over by Dorman, Long & Co.
Yorkshire - North Riding (Cleveland District) Iron Industries by Richard Mead, 1882
The Story of Eston by Maurice E Wilson, 1972
Cleveland Salt Industry
Salt was discovered under Middlesbrough in 1863 at a depth of over 1000 feet. Brine was pumped to the surface and evaporated in salt pans. These were heated by Durham coal brought in via the Clarence Railway and the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Some salt pans were heated by gas which was a by-product of the iron industry. Most of the salt was used for industries such as alkali production and fish curing. Brine is still pumped for the Teesside chemical industries.
The Cleveland Salt Company was at Middlesbrough NZ5021 and Cargo Fleet NZ5220
The Salt Industry of the River Tees by David M Tomlin
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broken links repaired 24 Feb 2015