Royal Chakma Kingdom
(5th century-1947 AD)

 

Introduction:

Chakma, is one of the large Indigenous Nation living in the south-east Asia and recognised by the United Nations. Presently living in different parts of globe. They are 99% Theravada Buddhists and have own language and script. The nation that only write own nation as their title or family name as “Chakma” in the world. And also recorded in the World Buddhist History that the Chakmas never forget their own religion (Buddhism) and languages (Pali) even after 2550 years. If, anyone press in the internet world as “Chakma” than he/she easily able to experience about them, their origin, culture, dress, language, lifestyle, and son on.

The Chakmas are Mongoloid. They belong from Sakya clan, ancient Kingdom of Anga (now West Bengal and Bihar). They are divided into 2 main clans known as Anokya Chakma and Tanchangya Chakma. Further, they sub-divided into 32 sub-clans called as “ Ghoja” and “Gutti”. Some of the sub-clans also called Chak, Dainak, Thek, Tsak, Sak and so on. In Myanmar called them Chak, Dainak and Thek; in China called them Tsak; in Bangladesh called them Chakma, Tanchangya and Chak. But internationally recognised them as “Chakma or Chakma Nation”.


Location:

Royal Chakma Kingdom is located in the South-East Asia and comprised of the Jummaland (Chittagong Hill Tracts-CHT), Chittagong Division and Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh; 1/3 geographical area of the State of Mizoram in India; Budidaung and Mandu Division in Arakan State of Myanmar and Tripura State of India.


Geographical Features:

The Royal Chakma Kingdom was consisted of the 10 hilly divisions – Chittagong division, Cox's Bazar district, Jummaland, Lunglei district, Mamit district, Karta district, Saiha district, Chakma Autonomous District Council; Budidaung-Mandu Division and Tripura State. The Kingdom was bordering with Bengal (now West Bengal State of India) on the north; Aizawl city, Tuisen village, Lower Lunglei and Saiha town of Kuki Territory(now Mizoram State of India) on the north-east; Arakan State of Burma (now Myanmar) on the south; Comilla district of Bengal (now Bangladesh) and Bay of Bengal on the west. The terrain in the Kingdom is part of the great hill mass—an offshoot of the Himalayas range—occupying parts o India, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Jummaland . The hills inside the Royal Chakma Kingdom rise up to a maximum of 4,000- 5,000 feet, with the ranges running generally north-west to south-east and dividing the area into a number of large valleys. The valleys are covered for the most part with dense virgin forest, interspersed with small waterways and swamps of all sizes and description.

The Royal Chakma Kingdom was comprised with 13 main valleys formed by the Sajeek, Toijhong, Harinya, Tega, Hagu, Matrisora, Feni, Karnapuli, Chengi, Mayoni, Hajolong, Sangu, Matammuri Rivers and their tributaries. And also attracted with beautiful views of Bay of Bengal on the western coast. The ranges of the Royal Chakma Kingdom rise steeply thus looking far more impressive than what their height would imply and extend in long narrow ridges. There are numerous hills, ravines, and cliffs covered with dense vegetation. Geographically the Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two broad ecological zones: hilly valleys and agricultural plains. The highest peaks on the northern side are Thangnang, Langliang and Khantiang; on the eastern side Aizawl, Pulungsei, Bukmont, Lunglei, Puankai, Rajmandalsuk, Parva, Devagiri Hill,Damdev and Bajeitlang, while those on the southern side are Ramu, Taung, Keokradang, Tahjindong, Mowdok Mual, Rang Tlang and Mowdok Tlang; and only plain agricultural land on the west. The “Rajmandalsuk” (about 4,700 ft )and the “Tahjindong” (4,632 ft), is the highest peaks in the Kingdom. The Royal Chakma Kingdom is very rich in natural flora and fauna. Such as elephant, tiger, bear, wild boar, various kinds of monkeys, barking deer, wild goat and various kinds of birds and alpine flora is very common in the country.

The “Jamasuk” is situated in the heart of the country, about 25 km from the capital city of Rangamati. This is third highest mountain in the Kingdom. The name “Jam” is one of the ancient Spiritual Sage use to live and practice meditation on the top of the mountain. He was belong from Chakma indigenous community of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In Chakma language “Suk” means mountain. For instance, the name of the mountain became famous as “Jamasuk”. Its also mentioned in the Chakma folklore about the relation between him and the mountain. The biggest river in Royal Chakma Kingdom is known as “Borgang” which is also known as “Karnapuli”. The biggest Lake is called “Kaptai Lake”.



History:

The “Bijok” is the history in Chakma language. So, the “Chakma Bijok” is the chronological history of the “Chakma Nation”. About hundreds of Chakma history written by different authors and in different languages and in different periods. But, very few writers we can found amongst the Chakmas, that is lack of education and historical experiences. Some of the authors wrote that he/she belong from Chakma Nation or Sakya, but nothing knew about the religious historical background of the Chakmas or Sakyas. Some of the authors (Muslim) wrote about their origin that he/she knew nothing about Sakya national historical background as well as religious historical background of them that just to create a problem for political and religious interest for his/her own Nation or Party or Religion or Country. Some of the authors wrote that just collected some reports, recorded by the own Government. Some authors wrote an article about their origin that just he visited few Chakma villages. Here, you will get wide ranges of resources about their origin, both from religious as well as national historical background about the Sakyas or Chakmas.

According to the Chakma historians, the rulers of the Royal Chakma Kingdom was most powerful ever than others Raja (King) in this region in the 6th century. As per as Chakma historians as well as early Buddhist historical evident that the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, belong from Campa or Champaknagr (now Bhagalpur) in the Kingdom of Anga which was Bengal (now West Bengal and Bihar); came and settled down in the present Jummaland along with his Royal family and large military troops. His father, Raja Samargiri, who was belong from Sakya clan and was most powerful ruler of Kingdom of Anga in the early 6th century. He had two sons, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri.

In around 630 AD, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, left the Kingdom of Anga and first started march throughout the river of Brahmaputra and conquered the Tamarlipitka countries (now Assam, Arunachal, Meghalaya, etc.). After conquered this Region, he further went to conquered the Kingdom of Tripura in 641 AD. Thousands of local Sakyas, who migrated from Kingdom of Anga in 2nd century also joined with the Raja Bijoygiri army to fight against the Tripura army. (At present population approximately, 60,000; living in different parts of State of Tripura, mostly at Pechartal, Abhaynagar, Khanchanpur, Majmara, Danisora, Nabinsora, Manu, Sammanu, Halajari, Dolajari, Silasuri, Gumethul, Toichangma, etc.) Finally in 645 AD, they captured whole Kingdom with little effort and established Chakma Royal Dynasty in the Kingdom of Tripura. After conquered, the Kingdom of Tripura, he established his capital at “Rangamati” (now Udaipur) on the bank of Gomti River and later in 14th century Tripura Raja Manekya shifted to Anguli (now Agartala), and other administrative camps at “Champaknagar, it is 30 km from capital city of Agartala and “Chakma Ghat”. The Champaknagar, Rangamati and Chakma Ghat is an ancient city during the time of Royal Chakma Kingdom. Raja Bijoygiri was build Raj Benuvan Buoddha Vihar (Royal Buddhist Temple) in around 648-49 AD at Anguli. It is one of the oldest Buddhist temple in Tripura. After ten years rules in Kingdom of Tripura (645-665 AD), he further decided to march toward the east in order to conquered new territories. When they arrived in the eastern Region (Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar, Chittagong, Rangunia, etc.) was “no man land “ during that periods. So, without any battles and less effort, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri occupied and established the Royal Chakma Kingdom in the Regions.

So, in 666 AD, he was established his rule and transferred his capital city from old Rangamati of Tripura to new Rangamati in the Hill Tracts permanently. In 674 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Kuki up to Lunglei Mountain (now Lunglei town), Aizawl city, Bukmont, Amsuri, Saiha town and Parva areas. During the battle with Kuki army, his only son Prince Devagiri has been killed by the Kuki army. After that, he established a sub-capital administrative town at Devagiri in the memory of his son Prince Devagiri. Since than the named Devagiri became a famous in the Chakma history. His cremation ground was made a memorial stone by the Raja Bijoygiri. The memorial stone was stand until the British occupation in 1945 AD. Later, the local administrative government changed the name from Devagiri to Demagiri (now Tlabung change by the Mizoram government in order to removed Chakma historical evident). He was established three administrative division, namely; Devagiri division, Bukmont Division and Rajmandal Division. Many armies inter-married with Kukis and settled there permanently. Since than, the Chakmas started to live in Mizoram. At present, population approximately, 120,000 and the Central Government of India created “Chakma Autonomous District Council” for them in 1972 AD.

From 645- 680 AD, the areas of Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Rangunia, Kingdom of Tripura and Kuki Territory was under the Royal Chakma Kingdom control by the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, than most powerful King in this Region. During the 35 years of his rules in this r

Region, he established all sorts of well administrative system and Buddhism became State religion. Since than Chakmas or Sakyas people started living centuries to centuries in this Region with Peace and Harmony. After 35 years in this region, Raja Bijoygiri march toward the east. He conquered the Kingdom of Roang (now Arakan State of Myanmar) in 682 AD. Raja Bijoygiri became a great powerful King ever had seen in the history of Chagma Dynasty. Now, the Kingdom of Roang became under his control. After established his rule in Roang, he suppose to return to Champaknagar, Kingdom of Anga, but the news reached to him that his father Raja Samargiri was died and the younger brother Prince Udaigiri became successor of his father. So, he decided to settled with his large armies instead of going back to the Kingdom of Anga. His armies intermarried with local tribes and started settled permanently. Later, in 698 AD, he died in Roang with his old age. After he died, his successor gradually lost the whole territories from Roang King, Kuki King and Tripuri King.

From 7-10th centuries, no any Chakma Rajas appeared in the Chakma history that they was under the control of Roang Rajas and Tripura Rajas, who was the powerful Kings in the 300 years. In 953 AD, Arakan King (Roang) occupied the Hill Tracts, Chittagong and adjacent areas. Even though, the Chakmas never lost their identity and nationality as “Chakma”, their languages as “Chakma language” as well as their religion as “Buddhist”. Still thousand of Chakmas living in Arakan State of Myanmar; State of Tripura, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal, West Bengal in India; China, Jummaland and Bangladesh. But, some thousands are displaced and migrated from their original Homeland to another, because of political reasons. For example, Chakmas from Cox's Bazaar, Raja Nagar of Rangunia, Chittagong in Bangladesh shifted to Jummaland; 30,000 Chakmas migrated to Arunachal Pradesh in 1964 AD.

After 3 centuries, the Chakma Raja Kamal Chega reunified the Chakma movement in Roang in the early 11th century. His wife Queen Manikbi also morally supported the movement to unified the Royal Chakma Kingdom. After build his large armies, Raja Kamal Chega fought with Magh King of Roang in 1118 AD. The battle was lasted over one year. He was recaptured the Kingdom of Roang and bring the whole Kingdom under his control in 1119 AD. He established Royal Chakma Kingdom in Roang, Chittagong, Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar, Kingdom of Tripura and some adjacent areas of the Region. Later in 1122 AD, he shifted the Royal capital from Roang to Rangunia of Chittagong permanently. Since than Royal Chakma Dynasty became powerful and existed.

After Raja Kamal Chega died, his successors lost the Kingdom partly from the King of Tripura in 1240 AD, King of Tripura occupied the region up to Feni Valley and Khagrachari division. In around 14th century, Chakma Raja Marekyaja recaptured the whole Region again from the King of Tripura and King of Kuki and permanently established his ruled in Cox's Bazaar, Chittagong, Tripura, Kuki Territory and Hill Tracts. The whole Region was then was an independent Buddhist kingdom ruled by Chakma Raja's until 1575 AD. In 1575 AD, the Chakma Rajas lost the Roang Kingdom in the battle from Arakan King and continued possession the Region till 1666 AD. In fact this region frequently changed hands between the rulers of Chakma, Tripura and Arakan from 7th-15th centuries.

From 15th to 17th centuries, the Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, Tripura, Roang Kuki Territory and CHT came under the control of three feuding forces- the Mughal(Islam), the King of Tripura(Hindu) and King of Chakma (Buddhist). During these 300 years, Buddhism maintained a flickering existence in this Region. The Chakmas exerted the greatest influence and Chakma Raja's exercise total control over all indigenous communities who was under the areas of Roang, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, Kuki Territoy and Hill Tracts. The Mughal control all the Easter Region from Comilla to West Bengal and King of Tripura control the areas of Tripura state only.

In 1550 AD, a Portuguese cartographer named Joa De Barros shown the Royal Chakma Kingdom on his map as the Feni River to the north, the Roang including Namre or Naf River to the south, the 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

From 1666 to 1760 AD, the who whole Regions was totally gone under the control Mughal Empire. During the Mughal Periods, Raja Sulab Khan (1681-1686 AD), Raja Kalu Khan (1686- 1700 AD) Raja Fateh Khan (1700-1725 AD), Raja Jallal Khan(1725-1737 AD) and Raja Shermusta Khan (1737-1773 AD) was ruled the Roang, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, Kuki Territory and Hill Tracts for 87 years under the control of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. During the whole period of the Mughal ruled in this Indian sub-continent, the Chakma Raja's were internally supreme and externally free.

Of course in 1712-1729 AD, there were several encounters between the forces of Raja Fateh Khan and Raja Jallal Khan and on the other hand the Mughal because of border dispute and they captured two canons ( 1700-1725 AD) from the Mughal, which is still preserved at Royal Chakma Palace at Rangamati. However, in 1713 AD, Raja Fateh Khan made “Peace Treaty” with the Mughals and obtained permission from Farrukshiyar, the Mughal Emperor, to allow “Beparies”(Traders) to trade with the Indigenous People on payment of cotton. It also gave access the Indigenous people to Chittagong for buying their necessities i.e. salt, dry fish etc.

In 1725 AD, Raja Jallal Khan re-established the treaty with the Mughal Nawab. In the treaty was mentioned that the Royal Chakma Kingdom is Independent Kingdom, paying revenue only from cotton(Karpas) to the Mughal Nawab. During his rule, the area of Royal Chakma Kingdom was the Feni River to the north, the Mandu, Budidaung including Namre or Naf River to the south, the 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west. The Kingdom was huge production of cotton, that so why the region also known as “Karpas Region or Karpas Mahal”. The treaty was lasted till 1760 AD.

During the Battle of Plassey in 1757 AD brought many thousands of Bengali Muslim (who are now living in Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar and Hill Tracts) in the Royal Chakma Kingdom from Bengal, under the suzerainty of the British East India Company. After the battle of Plassey, the East India Company became the virtual master of the whole of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The East India Company took over the administration of Royal Chakma Kingdom too, on 15 October 1760 AD and led several military expeditions against the Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan to establish their colonial footing in the Region.

In 1763 AD, Mr. Henry Verlest, the First Chief Officer of the Chittagong, appointed by the East India Company officially proclaimed that the “Hill Tract” bounded the geographical area by the Nizampur Road and Bay of Bengal to the west, 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east, the Feni River to the north and Sangu Rivers to the south belonged to Royal Chakma Kingdom under the Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan. The first battle of the Raja Shermusta Khan with East India Company ensued in 1772 AD and subsequent battles with Raja Sher Dawlat Khan from 1777 to 1780 AD, it was lasted four years. In 1782 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan and his Supreme-General Rono Khan formally battles against the British East India Company. Supreme-General Rono Khan may be regarded as equal to such freedom fighters as Bhavani Pathak or Majnu Shah in courage and ability. This war was popularly known as “Carpus Revolt”, and the war was lasted for ten years.

In 1784 AD, under instructions from the British authorities Mr Irwin, who was then the Chief of Chittagong, conducted negotiations many times with the representative of the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan for a peaceful solution in this Region. But, Mr. Irwin failed to bring any success.

From 1772-1787 AD, after about one and half decade of fighting; Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan finally compelled to signed a “Peace Treaty” in 1787 AD, which named as “Cotton Treaty” with the East India Company at Fort William in Calcutta. The war ended when the British had imposed an economic blockade and forced the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan for a negotiation settlement. This was the beginning of the British hegemony over the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

The Royal Chakma Kingdom completely goes under control of the British. But, according to the treaty, the British pledge that not to intervene in administrative affairs of the Region. Under this treaty the Quasi-independent Status of Royal Chakma Kingdom was recognised. The subject matter of the treaty between the Governor General of British and the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan was as follows: (1) The East India Company recognised Jan Bux Khan as the Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; (2) It was agreed that the collection of revenue was the responsibility of Raja; (3) The British government would preserve Chakma Autonomy and migration from the plains; (4) Jan Bux Khan was bound by the treaty to maintain peace in his Royal Chakma Kingsom; (5) British troops would remain in the Royal Chakma Kingdom not to terrify the Chakmas but to protect the land from the inroads of the fierce tribes.

For long 22 years (1760-1787 AD), the Chakmas Raja's offered resistance against British authority. It was in fact a war of aggression conducted by the British rulers against the Chakmas who were conducting a war of defence. Though they were defeated by the British army they could not be subdued. Their fight for freedom added a new chapter to the resistance movement that was going on throughout Bengal in the latter part of the 18th century. All the Chakma Raja's demonstrated same degree of courage, fortitude and love of freedom like other contemporary freedom fighters of Bengal. Their resistance against imperialism is worthy of being remembered by the posterity.

In 1791 AD, the Board of the East India Company authorised the Collector of Royal Chakma Kingdom to replace the cotton tribute by a cash payment which was fixed at 1,775 rupees. In 1829 AD, Mr. Hunter and Mr. Halhed, the Commissioners of Chittagong, in their report clearly stated: “The indigenous tribes of the Royal Chakma Kingdom are not British subjects, but merely tributaries, and we have no rights on our part to interfere with their internal arrangements”.

From 1787 to till 1860 AD, the British government did not intervene in the internal administration of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. More than a hundred years afterwards on June 20, 1860 AD, the Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two parts as Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts-CHT or Parbatya Chittagong by the British without any concerned of Chakma Rani Kalindi. Former part is known as “Chittagong” which was included into Bengal as a regulated district and later part is known as CHT Region, which was retained as non-regulated district with a limited a

Autonomy under the Governor-General of British India. Since than the Chittagong district separated from the Royal Chakma Kingdom and administration gone from the hand of Chakma Rani Kalindi.

So, all the prominent Chakma Raja's (Raja Tabur Khan, Raja Jabbar Khan, Raja Dharam Box Khan, Raja Shukdev Roy, Queen Kalindi Rani and others) reigned independently in Royal Chakma Kingdom during the whole pre-British Periods until 1860 AD.

After creation of CHT , as “Independent District” by the British on June 20, 1860 AD, within the undivided British Bengal for Indigenous peoples and it was totally separated in regard of administration from Chittagong district without any concerned with Chakma Queen Rani Kilindi ( Notification No 3302). Chakma Rani Kalindi was strongly resisted against the British decision on the creation of CHT Region. The Boundary Commission tasked with partitioning India and Pakistan opted to include the CHT Region in Pakistan, despite the protests of some segments of the community. Pakistani rule saw the beginning of the end of the Autonomy that the Indigenous communities had since 1860 AD.

The first time in the history, CHT Region were administered from Bengal. The British administrator under the colonial state recognized the three Chiefs of the CHT Region, known as Mong, Chakma and Bohmong. Despite the Chiefs, public display of power, their jurisdiction was quite restricted. The Chiefs Power was also circumscribed by the fact that they were under the control of the state bureaucracy. From 1860's onward, British officials with the considerable power resided in the CHT Region. They oversaw the Chiefs doings and formed vanguard of an extensive and expanding bureaucracy with that the Chiefs and other inhabitants of the CHT Region. In 1861 AD, the Indian Council of Law had passed in the Parliament. This Law is recognizes the regulations passed by Governor General or local authorities with regards to areas outside the Law's jurisdiction. In 1867 AD, East India Company came to an end, while the British monarchy took over the power of whole India. In 1870 AD, the Government of India passed an “Act” that the Governor General can amend the law which is related to the “Special Areas”. In 1870's the Head of the Department of Forest proposed that the whole Marma and Chakma population should be removed from their native hills to protect the forest. In 1871 AD, almost entire area was declared as government forest. In 1871-72 AD, the first experiments with teak plantation were carried out. In 1874-75 AD, two forest reserves were demarcated, followed by 5 more up to 1883 AD. Thus in twelve years one-third of entire CHT Region was taken away from use of cultivator and put under forest department. In 1872 AD, it was found that only 2% were non-indigenous and more than 90 % indigenous populations in CHT Region till 1951 AD.

In 1873 AD, Bohmong Circle were created and later in 1883 AD, Mong Circle were created respectively. Consequently, the CHT Region was divided into three Circles, namely, Chakma, Bohmong and Mong. Each Circle was sub-divided into several Mouzas and the mouzas into Paras (villages). There were 33 blocks formed in 1880 AD for the census of 1891 AD and had been constituted permanent divisions and were called “Taluk'” in CHT. Subsequently, these Taluks were sub-divided “Mouzas”or taxation areas.

Chakma Queen Kalindi Rani (1830 – 1873 AD) was ruled the CHT Region until 1873 AD and after her died his successors Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became Raja in the CHT Region in 1873 AD. Its capital was Raja Nagar of Rangunia under the Chittagong district, later he transferred the capital at Rangamati under the CHT Region in 1874 AD.

Archaeological heritage and relics remnants of the Royal Chakma Palace of Chakma Raja Shukdev Roy, Ranir Pond (Raja Hat), Queen Kalindi, Raja Pagla Mama Daroga and Dharma Chakra Vihar (established in 1750 AD) are still preserved at Rangunia.

According to historical evident that 117 years (1757-1874 AD), Raja Nagar of Rangunia was the capital city of Royal Chakma Kingdom and ruled by the following prominent Chakma Raja's: Raja Shukdev Roy, Raja Sher Daulat Khan, Raja Jan Bux Khan, Raja Tabbar Khan, Raja Jabbar Khan, Raja Dharam Bux Khan, Rani Kalindi, Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur , Raja Pagla Mama Daroga and others. After the dead of Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur (1873-1876 AD), his son Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy(1876-1934 AD) became Raja in the Chakma Circle.

In 1881 AD, the CHT Police Regulation allows Indigenous people to form their own independent police force. Later on 7th December 1881 AD, for the maintenance of discipline among the police personnel in CHT Region, Frontier Police Regulation III of 1881 was promulgated and CHT Police Force was raised with Indigenous hill people. According to Lord Dalhousie’s permanent program for Indian forest management announced in 1885 AD, the ruling principle was to consider timber standing on a state forest as imperial property to which “Individuals or communities had no rights or claims” [Guha 1983, 1988].

On 1st May, 1900 AD, British enacted the Regulation 1 of the 1900 ActCHT Manual or CHT Regulation 1900 Act law had passed without any concerned with Circle Chief. The area is given exemption from administration as an “Excluded Area to help preserve minority “Indigenous culture and heritage”. On April 1900 AD, further the CHT Region divided into Chakma, Bomang and Mong Circle by the British. Headmens and Karbaris to act as local administrators. According to Manual's Regulation 34 banned non-hill people from buying or acquiring land in the area. In the CHT Regulation of 1900 it was clearly stated that: No person other than a Chakma, Mogh or a member of any indigenous tribes of CHT Region, the Lushai Hills, the Arakan Hill Tracts or the State of Tripura and plain districts shall enter or reside within CHT Region unless he is in possession of a permit granted by the Deputy Commissioner at his discretion. Thus, the CHT Regulation of 1900 provided for limited self-government by the people of CHT Region and this was strictly followed by the administration. Administrative changes were, however, made in CHT Region under British rule:

(1) On 1921 AD, the CHT Regulation of 1900 was amended to declare CHT Region as a “Backward Tracts'' and gave the Governor in council sole authority in the area;

(2) The Government of India Act of 1935 created CHT Region is a totally “Excluded Area” and so granted further recognition to the special status of CHT Region.

In 1900 AD, British colonial ruler enacted the CHT Manual , which provided the basic legal framework for civil, revenue and judicial administration in CHT Region. However, the original act has undergone considerable modification through subsequent amendments as well as the influence of new laws. The Regulation of 1900 also laid down specific rules on the rights of entry and residence in CHT Region, as well as land settlement and transfers. It included provisions designated to give special protection to the right of the hill people, while checking the further influx of Bengali, from the plain.

In 1915 AD, a organisation named “Chakma Juba Samitiwas formed at Rangamati under the leadership of Raj Mohan Dewan. This is the first political organisation amongst the Indigenous hill people in CHT Region. Through this organisation, some people from various classes tried to take initiatives to education and protection of national identity of the Indigenous people. Mr. Krishna Kishore Chakma was one of the educated scholar among the Indigenous, he was School Inspector during the British India. He established schools in several places and encouraged people to send their children into school. His initiatives for education supplied long-term input on national awareness among the Indigenous people in the CHT Region.

In 1920 AD, the CHT Manual had amended for the safety of the Tribal people and the Region was declared as a “Backward Tract” which gave governor-General in council the responsibility of administering the CHT Region as an excluded area. The Government of India Act of 1935 designated the CHT Region as a totally excluded area. In 1925 AD, the CHT Manual had amended for the safety of the Indigenous people in CHT Region. This status was reconfirmed in the 1930's, when the region was declared an excluded area under the Government of India Act.

The Indigenous people of the CHT Region had been associated with political activities since the second decade of the twentieth century. In 1919 AD, an organisation named “Chakma Jubak Sangha” headed by the Mr. Ganesshyam Dewan and Mr. Snehakumar Chakma was formed. The works of the organisation were basically limited within the interest of Headmen and elite class of the society. So, it did not put influence to the Indigenous society.

In 1920 AD, Mr. Kamini Mohan Dewan founded the “Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti (PCJSS)” which conducted varies social, cultural and economics activities for about two decades. Subsequently, in 1939 AD, Mr. Jamini Ranjan Dewan and Mr. Sneha Kumar Chakma were elected as President and General Secretary of PCJSS respectively, and it was at this stage that PCJSS started its political activities. Even though strict political stringency and bareness in the Region. Under their leadership that the organisation became a milestone in arousing political sentiment in CHT Region in later stages. In 1947 AD, just before the partition of India, PCJSS attempted to get the CHT Region allied to India. In 1935 AD, India Rule Law ratifies and recognizes validity of CHT Regulation 1900. In same year 1935 AD, the whole CHT Region became out of control of the Bengal administration and in the hands of the Indigenous Chiefs.

The British rule was over in 1947 AD. Indian subcontinent was partitioned on the basis of “Two-Nation Theory under the provisions of Indian Independence Act, 1947. The Muslim and non-Muslim. The Muslim dominated regions were to constitute Pakistan and the non-Muslim dominated regions were to constitute the Indian Union. It was quite natural for the Indigenous people who constituted 98.5% of the total population of the then CHT Region to express desire to be included in the Indian Union. But the result was quite opposite, Sir Cyrill Radcliffe, Chairman of the Bengal Boundary Commission with a stroke of pen trampled down the aspiration of the people of CHT Region. The Bengal Boundary Commission recommended that CHT Region to be part of Pakistan and on 17 August 1947 AD, two days after the declaration of Pakistan independence the CHT Region was declared as part of Pakistan.

In fact, according to the primary survey reports of the Boundary Commission that CHT Region was to form a part of India. The mystery lies in the fact that the district of Zira and Ferozpur sub-division of Punjab, predominantly a Sikh populated area fell into Pakistan as envisaged in the early reports of “Punjab Boundary Commission”. As the Sikh are a brave and worrier nation they might not abide by the decision of the Punjab Boundary Commission if a part of Sikh dominated area would fall into Pakistan. Lord Mount Batten, Governor of the then India that the plan for Indian division might go futile; so he took it with serious concern. Therefore, Lord Mount Batten cancelled his primary plan and awarded CHT Region to Pakistan two days later after the declaration of Pakistan independence in exchange of Zira district and Ferozpur sub-division with India. It was incompatible with the Indian independence Act of 1947 by the British government.

The Indigenous people of CHT Region could not abide by the decision of the Bengal Boundary Commission. So, on 15th to 20th August 1947 AD, under the banner of the PCJSS led by Mr. Ghanesshyam Dewan and Mr. Sneha Kumar Chakma hoisted Indian flag at Rangamati District Administrator's office, capital city of CHT Region and in under the leadership Bohmong Chief hoisted Burmese flag at Bandarban as a mark of protest against this injustice. After six days later the Indian flag at Rangamati was lowered by the Pakistani Army at gun point. The leaders of the Indigenous people resistance squads to defy the decision of the Bengal Boundary Commission. It was really an injustice to the Indigenous people meted out by the British at the fag end of their rule. The Indigenous vehemently protested against the decision but to no avail. All their efforts were thwarted when Baluch Regiment of Pakistan Army entered into CHT Region and proclaimed control over the area on 21 August 1947 AD.

On 17th August 1947 AD, as partition approaches, Lord Mount Batten pressures Sir Cyril Radcliffe to redraw his lines over the CHT Region and several Punjab districts. In the end, Radcliffe assigns CHT Region to the new state of Pakistan. Among the Indigenous leaders Mr. Kamini Mohon Dewan, Sneha Kumar Chakma, Mr. Kisto Mohan Chakma and others clash over whether Indigenous rights will be protected in Pakistan. A group of Indigenous leaders including Mr. Sneha Kumar Chakma, Mr. Kisto Mohan Chakma, and others that is fearful for their rights give up their land and cross over into India and Chakma Raja Tridiv Roy to Pakistan for safe their life.

Then on July 18, 1947 AD, when the Indian Independence Act was published, it showed that Radcliff had not listened to the submissions of the two Hindu members of the Bengal Boundary Commission, Justice Bijon Mukherjee and Charu Biswas, that CHT Region should be with India. Mr. Snehakumar Chakma , the representative of the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samity (PCJSS) ran to Delhi after hoisting the Indian Flag at Rangamati on 15th August 1947 AD, to meet the Indian leaders to try and revise the decision of Radcliffe. He had met Sardar Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru after waiting 50 days at Delhi. When he finally got an audience and told Jawaharland Nehru the CHT Region should be with India, and the Chakmas and other Indigenous peoples were ready to fight for this and would India help with arms, Nehru got up in anger and shouted “Do you propose to bring India under foreign rule again?” That decision sounded the death knell for the helpless Chakmas.

After decolonisation in 15th August 1947 AD, the CHT Region were incorporated into East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Since Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur (1853-1876 AD), Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy ( 1876 – 1934 AD ) Raja Nalininako Roy ( 1902 – 1952 AD), Raja Tridiv Roy ( 1933 - ), Raja Devshis Roy ( 1959 - ), Prince Tribhuwan Arydev Roy ( 1990 - ) to present ruling as a nominal head in the Circle Chief in the Chakma Circle in the CHT Region.


Major Historical Events:

1. From 630- 698 AD, Chakma Royal Kingdom was consisted - the Hill Regions (now Jummaland or CHT), Cox's Bazaar, Chittagong, Rangunia, Kingdom of Tripura (now Tripurara State of India), Kuki Kingdom (now Mizoram State of India), Kingdom of Roang (now Arakan State of Myanmar) and Tamarlipitka countries (now Assam, West Bengal,Meghalaya, etc.). All territories was under the Royal Chakma Kingdom control by the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri. He was most powerful Chakma Rajas ever had seen in the history of Chakma Dynasty. During 68 years of his rules in this Region, he established all sorts of well administrative system and Buddhism became State religion. Since than Chakmas or Sakyas people started living in this Region with Peace and Harmony.

2. From 698-1000 AD, lost the whole Royal Chakma Kingdom from Roang King, Kuki King and Tripura King.

3. In 1118 AD, Chakma Raja Kamal Chega, Chakma Raja Marekyaja and others fought with Magh King of Roang and reunified and established the Royal Chakma Kingdom until 1575 AD.

4. In 1550 AD, a Portuguese cartographer named Joa De Barros shown the Chakma Royal Kingdom on his map as the Feni River to the north, the Namre or Naf River to the south, the Kuki Territory to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

5. From 1575-1666 AD, lost the Royal Chakma Kingdom from Arakan King.

6. From 1666 to 1760 AD, the who whole regions was totally gone under the control Mughal Empire. During the Mughal Periods, the following Chakma Raja's was ruled for 94 years: Raja Sulab Khan (1681-1686 AD), Raja Kalu Khan (1686-1700 AD), Raja Fateh Khan (1700-1725 AD), Raja Jallal Khan (1725-1737 AD) and Raja Shermusta Khan (1737-1773 AD) . The whole period of the Mughal rule in this Indian sub-continent, the Chakma Raja's were internally supreme and externally free.

7. For long 22 years (1760-1787), all the Chakma Raja's offered resistance against British authority. Finally Raja Jan Bux Khan signed a treaty with the British.

8. From 1787 to till 1860, the British government did not intervene in the internal administration of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

9. From 1860-1947 AD, Royal Chakma Kingdom separated into two administrative divisions as “Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts”; recognized three Circle Chiefs (Mong, Chakma and Bohmong) in the CHT Region; CHT Manual or CHT Regulation 1900 Act; Two-Nation Theory; Pakistan and India Independence.


Geographical Area:

The total area approximately 25,000 sq. miles which was fifth times bigger than present Jummaland. It was a unique Kingdom with mountains and beautiful landscapes and completely different in physical features, agricultural practices and soil conditions from the other neighbouring Kingdom. The socio-economically and culturally stretching along West Bengal-Kuki Territory-Burma-Bangladesh border - was similar to Sri Lanka (25,097 sq. miles). It roughly runs 400 km from north to south and 380 km from west to east. It is divided into three coastal division's - northern, eastern and southern parts of the Kingdom constitute the hilly areas and the western parts of the region is coastal plains. It is commonly known as as “Royal Chakma Kingdom”. The western coastline consists of a 100 km long sandy sea beach on the Bay of Bengal and the remainder of the region consists of plains of Cox's Bazar district and Chittagong Division in the west.


Climate:

Royal Chakma Kingdom has a mild hot wet climate. April and May are the hottest months of the year where average temperatures of the months range from 50º F to 80º F. Average temperature in the cold seasons is below 25º F . In the cold seasons, temperatures fall as low as freezing point of water in the higher parts of mountains. Average annual rainfall is 70 – 110 inches. The southern part of Kingdom gets more due to the storms come from Bay of Bengal.


Population:

Since 5th century to 1872 AD, there was no any census. As per as recorded by the Chakma Royal family, the total population of the Royal Chakma Kingdom was more than 200,000 (approximately) until 1872. From 1872 to until 1951, the Indigenous population was found that 98%. But due to demographic engineering by the Mughal, British, India, Pakistani and Bangladeshi government, this overwhelming majority declined drastically. The total population approximately 50 millions in 2006, in whole Royal Chakma Kingdom ( Jummaland, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar, Arakan, Tripura and Mizoram).


Indigenous People:

The Indigenous people are of Sino-Tibetan descent belonging to the Mongoloid Race. From the time immemorial the Royal Chakma Kingdom have been the home of 12 indigenous ethnic minority groups. They was only one National identity known as “Chakma or Chakma Nation”. But very recently after Independent from the British in 1947, they all the Indigenous peoples designated themselves as “Indigenous Jumma” which is collectively identify themselves as the “Jumma people” or “Jumma Nation”. They are Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Tanchangya, Mro, Lushai, Khumi, Chak, Khyang, Bawm, Pankho and Murung. The word “Jumma” derives from the word “Jum or Jhum”, local dialect the literally means slash and burn style of shifting cultivation on hill slope. Thus, Jumma meant indigenous people or Jumma Nation of the Jummaland (Chittagong Hill Tracts) who occupationally engage in such cultivation in general. So, they designated the Kingdom as “Jummaland” in order to develop according to modern political pattern. The Jumma people are distinct and different from the majority Bengali population of Bangladesh in respect of race, language, culture, religion and ethnicity. There are diversities amongst the ethnic groups themselves, which have their own distinct languages, customs, religious beliefs, and systems of social organization. They even choose to live in different habitats. The Chakmas, Marmas, and Tripura live in valleys. The Khumi, Murung, Lushai, Bawm, Pankho, Khumi, Khyang, Tanchangya and Chak live on hill ridges. Among the hill people in the Jummaland, the Chakmas are the most dominant and largest group, comprising about 40 percent; they are Buddhists. The Marmas, the second largest, comprising about twenty percent of the population, are also Buddhists. The third largest—the Tripuras—are Hindus. The rest of the Jumma people—the Lushai, Pankho and Bawm—are Christians. There are minority groups who are animists or followers of variations of various religions. Religious statistic in Jummaland is found that Buddhist over 85% of the population; Christian 3%; Hindus 7% ; animist and others about 3%. But the people who are under the Indian State of Mizoram, they have their own district council named as “Chakma Autonomous District Council” which was created by the Government of India in 1972. The people who are under the Government of Bangladesh have their own council known as “Regional Council”.


Culture and language:

As Royal Kingdom is endowed by many dales and hills as well as enriched by various floras and faunas, the culture and literature of the Jummas are also diverse and rich though embedded in a single domain or ascended from a single domain. The national ideology of all 12 ethnic indigenous communities is one, which is “Jumma Nation” and “Free Jummaland”. However, the Jummas have minor differences in their language and culture to suit different environments accepting them as verities of tradition and as the richness of Jumma literature and culture. The Jummas are rich in folk tales, folk dances, folk music, as well as musical instruments. The Jumma cultural heritages are preserved, maintained, and transformed from one generation to another by oral history before the Jummas have writing system in early 1700s. Enhanced the culture and language of the Jummas into a more sophisticate ways.

The Jumma language descended from Tibeto-Burman language domain. However, each indigenous group speaks its own dialect, but Bengali is widely used in Jummaland due to Muslim regime for over six decades. But, the Chakma people who are under India, they are still speaking pure Chakma language without any mixed. The Jummas are known as honest, tolerant, brave, and religious people. This distinctness of language and culture indicate that the Jummas are one of the indigenous peoples in their own land.


1. Chakma : The Chakmas are the largest ethnic group of Jummaland. They call themselves “Chagma”. They are concentrated in the central and northern parts of the Jummaland where they live amidst several other ethnic groups. Exact population figures are lacking but the most reliable estimates put their number at 600,000 in 2006. More than 90% of them are concentrated in Rangamati and Khagrachari districts. They are Buddhist, have own dialect and scripts. More than 120, 000 (approximately) living in the State of Mizoram which was under the Chakma Royal Kingdom.

2. Marma : The Marma is the second largest indigenous ethnic group in the Jummaland. They have been Theravada Buddhists, like the Burmese, Thai and Sri Lankan, for many centuries. The Marma have their own script and speak a language which is almost identical to that of the Rakhine of Arakan state in Myanmar. The 1991 census puts the total number as 157, 301 and approximately 197,000 in 2006. They are living in Bandarban, Khagrachari and Rangamati district. The Marmas are great lovers of music and drama.

3. Tripura : Most Tripura call themselves “Tipra”. They have about 36 sub-groups called “Dafas”, such as Fatung, Jamatia, Nationg,Noatia, Riang and Usui. The Tripura language belongs to the Bodo branch of the Tibeto-Burman family of languages. They are Hindus by religion. In 1991, the total number of Tripuras in Jummaland was 79,772 and approximately almost 100,000 in 2006.

4. Tanchangya : Most of the Tanchangya live on the borders between the Rangamati and Chittagong districts. They are the sub-clans of Chakmas.In terms of population, they are ranks in fifth among the 12 indigenous communities of Jummaland, but in general reference they are mentioned as the fourth. According to the 1991 population census enumerated them at 21,057 and approximately 45,000 in 2006.They are traditionally Buddhist. Tanchangya are known to be very romantic and artistic. Love and romance are therefore never far away. They are very musical too. More than 10,000 (approximately) Tanchangya living in the state of Mizoram, which was under the Chakma Royal Kingdom.

5. Khumi : The Kukis claimed that Khumi is one of the sub-clan of them as like Lushai, Pankho, Mro, Khyang and Bonjoi. Khumis are Mongoloid. They are divided into two sub-clans. One is known as “Awa Khumi” and the other is “Aphya Khumi”. Both the clans once lived on the bank of the Koladain River. They are divided into “wife-giving” and “wife-taking” clans. They are mostly living Bandarban district of Jummaland. In 1869 their population was 2,000 and presently approximately 10,000 in 2006. The Khumis claim to be Buddhists, but their beliefs and religious rites are animist.


6. Mro : Mro is a a small indigenous minority group, who live scattered in the Jummaland. They mostly living in the Bandarban district. The Mors are animists. Their creator is “Turai”, they have two other gods: “Oreng and “Sungtiang”. They have an oral dialect which belongs to the Tibeto- Burmese linguistic family. The Mro population was 20,000 in 1981; and at present approximately 35,000 in 2006.

7. Lushai : Lushai or Lusei is a small indigenous community living in the Jummaland. They are the sub-clan of “Zo or Zomi ”. They belong to the Tibeto-Burman group of the Chino-Tibetan community. To the outsiders also known as “Zo” and “Kuki. They mostly living in the Khagrachari district. The total population was 1,041 in 1981 census. At present approximately 700 in 2006 that they left to Mizoram after their statehood in 1986. They are animists, “Pathian” is their chief god. The Lushais are divided into different sects. It is a patriarchal society. They have a language of their own known as “Lushai” or “Dolne” (Shafer 1955:107). During the British administration missionaries were active among them, as a result most of them took to Christianity. Their language too can be written in Latin script. About 2,000 Lushai living in Mizoram state which was under the Chakma Royal Kingdom.


8. Khyang : Khyang is a small indigenous hill tribe in the Jummaland. Some of their clans are known after cats, monkeys and mice. They are the sub-clan of “Zo”. They call themselves “Hyou”. They are Buddhists but they also pay homage to “Nada Ga” (household deity) and “Bogley” (water deity). Their language belongs to the Kuki-Chin group. According to the 1991 census, the total population of Khyang was 2,343. At present the total population approximately 5,000 in 2006. They are mostly living in Rangamati district and Bandarban district of Jummaland.


9. Bawm : Bawm is one of the small indigenous hill tribe living in the Jummaland. Ethnically, they belong to the Mongolian stock. They look like the Chagmas and the Marmas. The word “Bawm” means “ties”. The concept of such ties has developed from their culture of doing collectively all things of life, including hunting, singing and dancing, eating and drinking or offering homage to gods. Bawms are living in 70 villages in the Bandarban district. According to 1991 census, the total population is 6,978 and at present, approximately 8,000 in 2006.


10. Chak : Chaks are considered to be a sub-group of the Chakma. They call themselves “Asak”. The Sak population in Arakan also calls itself “Asak”. Their language resembles Kadu which is spoken in Myitkhyina district of northern Myanmar, and also with Andro and Sengmai languages of Manipur district in India. The Chaks are divided into two sects: “Ando” and “Ngarek”. They are Buddhists. The population of Chaks are very little in scatter in the district of Bandarban of Jummaland. The total population approximately 10,000 in 2006. But the population figure is not available recorded in the Government statistics.


11. Pankho : Pankho is one of a small hill tribe of Jummaland and considered a sub-branch of the Mongoloid race. The Pankho people are divided into two clans are “Pankho and Bonjoi”. Their languages and social lifestyles t have a lot of similarities with one another. Pankhos and Banjoi are short in height, have brown complexion, flat nose and small eyes. They live in the Bandarban district of CHT. The Chagmas called them as “Pankho Hugi” and “Bonjoi Hugi”. However, many believe that Pankhos and Banjois are two branches of what was once one ethnic group. Their population in 1869 was about 3000. The total population of Pankhos is 6,000- 7,000 in 2006 approximately.


12. Murung : Murung is a indigenous hill tribe of Jummaland. They are divided into five major clans and ten sub-clans. The five major clans are Dengua, Premsang, Kongloi, Maizer and Ganaroo Gnar. And other ten different sub-clans are Yarua, Yaringcha, Tang, Deng, Kough, Tam-tu-chah, Kanbak, Prenju, Naichah and Yomore. The Yarua is said to be the most influential and powerful among the Murung clans. According to 1991 census, the Murung population was 22,178 and constituted the fourth largest tribe in Jummaland. At present, approximately 35,000 in 2006. They are mostly in the Bandarban district. Most Murungs are Buddhists and recently some are converted into Christianity.


Ancient Cities:

1. Chadigang: Chadigang was the most biggest populated city of Royal Chakma Kingdom in around 630-1874 AD. The name has been changed from Chadigang to Chittagong in 1666 AD by the Mughal and in 1860 AD, Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two parts namely Chadigang (Chittagong) and Hill Tracts by the British. It is well documented in the Chakmas folklore that about their settlement and departure from the Chadigang is called “Chadigang Chara-Pala” as commonly known “Genghuli Geet”.


2. Roang City: Roang city was the metropolitan capital city of the Kingdom of Roang. But, about two decades, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri was ruled that country. It was Royal Chakma Kingdom until 698 AD. Now, it is located in Arakan State of Myanmar.


3. Devagiri: Devagiri was one of administrative division during the rule of Chakma Raja Bijoygiri. His the only son, Prince Devagiri was killed at Devagiri with the battle of Kuki army in 674 AD. It was under the control of Royal Chakma Kingdom. But, now it is under the Mizoram State of India. The Devagiri named had changed into Demagiri by the local administrative and later the present government changed into Tlabung in order to removed Chakma historical evident. The memorial stone was stand until British occupation in that area in 1947 AD. It is about 20 km to the east, international border of Jummaland.


4. Champaknagar (Tripura): Champaknagar of Tripura was one of the ancient capital city of Royal Chakm Kingdom in the middle of 6th century, during the rule of Chakma Raja Bijoygiri. It is located at the Bank of Gomti River(Gomet-hul) in south Tripura State of India. About 15 km international bordering to the north of Jummaland.


5. Campa or Champaknagar (Anga): Campa or Champaknagar was the capital city of Anga in 6th century. Presently, it is located at Bhagalpur in West Bengal. The geographical areas of an ancient Kingdom of Anga was situated in Bihar and West Bengal. The ancestral of the Chakmas or Sakyas lived in the city of Champaknagar (now Bhagalpur in West Bengal)and their King was Chakma Raja Samargiri.


6. Rangamati ( Tripura): Rangamati is situated in State of Tripura in India. It was also a capital city of Royal Chakma Kingdom during the rule of Chakma Raja Bijoygiri in around 6th century. Now, the named has been changed into Udaipur by the local administration. The named Agartala was also Anguli during the rule of Raja Bijoygiri and he was established Royal Benuvan Buddhist Vihar.


7. Rangunia: It is the oldest capital city of Royal Chakma Kingdom. It consists of 9 wards and 21 streets. It has an area of 18.35 sq km. The city has a population of 29,196; male 52.74%, female 47.26%; population density per sq km 1,591. Literacy rate among the city people is 38.9%. In 1983, the city of Rangunia, was turned into an upazila administration system. The Upazila consists of 11 Union parisads, 71 mouzas and 149 villages. According to archaeological heritage and relics remnants of the Royal Palace of Chakma Rjaa Shukdev Roy (18th century), Ranir Pond, Raja Hat, remnants of the Royal Palace of Chakma Queen Kalindi (1844 AD), Raja Pagla Mama Daroga (19th century) and Dharma Chakra Vihara (1750 AD).

The historical events of the Chakma Raja's: Raja Shukdev Roy, Raja Sher Daulat Khan, Raja Jan Bux Khan, Raja Tabbar Khan, Raja Jabbar Khan, Raja Dharam Bux Khan, Rani Kalindi, Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur and others was ruled this area from 1757-1874 AD. Chakma Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur transferred the Royal capital from Raja Nagar of Rangunia to Rangamati in 1874 AD.

The Rangunia has been marks of the three War of Liberation Memorial monuments. That was the Rangunia College, Rangunia Ideal Multilateral Pilot High School and Ichakhali. The religious institutions are 359 Mosque, 3 tom, 42 Buddhist temple, 41 Buddhist pagodas and 1sacred place, most noted of which are Royal Dharma Chakra Buddhist Vihar, Bedir Mandir, etc. The two main indigenous nationals are living in city are Chakmas and Marmas.


Some Historical Cites:

Old Rangamati : The Old Rangamati city along with Chakma Royal Palace was submerged under water in 1964, after construction of Kaptai Hydroelectric Project by the Government of Pakistan. Thousands of Indigenous people lost their land and properties along with Royal Palace. In months of December and January sometimes still visible the old Royal Palace, when Kaptai Dam water became low. Thousands of tourist are attracted and visit in the memory of old Royal Chakma Palace.


New Rangamati : New Rangamati is the Metropolitan capital city of the Royal Chakma Kingdom (present Jummaland ) since 1874 AD. As we know that Chakma Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur was transferred from Raja Nagar of Rangunia to Rangamati. It is became most favourite tourist place. It is about 77 km away from Chittagng city, which is first biggest city in Jummaland. It is also called “Lake City” as it is situated at beside of Kaptai Lake. It is well connected by road communication system with Khagrachari city, Bandarban city, Mahalchari Town, Gagra Town, etc. within the Jummaland and Chittagong city of Bangladesh. Also well connected water-systems of transportation with a dozen of towns and hundred of Jumma villages. On the east of Rangamati connected waterway with International border of Mizoram State of India. It consists of 9 wards and 35 streets. The area of the town is 64.75 sq km. The town has a population of 65,294; male 57.68%, female 42.32%. Density of population is 1008 per sq. km. Literacy rate among the city people is 60.8%.

Thousand of illegal Bengali Muslim settlers also found in different parts of the Region and the Chakmas is the largest group in the city and with other minorities ethnic Jummas living together. This city is totally different then from other towns for its lake and landscape in the Jummaland. Before the Peace Agreement in 1997, it was full of unrest and inaccessible especially for foreign national. But now for foreign nationals it is needed to take permission and security guard to move around. Here have some mentioning why Rangamati is one of the first choice for foreign and domestic tourists and travellers. An annual average temperature is maximum 34.6°C, minimum 13.4°C; annual rainfall 3031 mm. The major rivers are Borgang (Karnafuli), Tega, Horina, Hassalong, Suvulong, Chengi, Rengkhong and Kaptai.

According to archaeological heritage and relics of Royal Chakma Palace, Dighi of Raja Jan Bux Khan, remnants of the residence of Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahaudur and the Hanging Bridge. Historical evident that even before the Mughal conquest, Rangamati was the capital city of the Royal Chakma Kingdom during the ruler of Chakma Raja Bijoygiri in 666 AD and also was a contesting ground between the Kings of Tripura, King of Arakan and Chakma Raja. In 1966 this region came under the Mughals. It was leased to the English East India Company in 1760-61 AD. In 1737 AD, Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan took refuge with the Mughals.


Rangamati Hill District (RHD): The Rangamati Hill District with an area of 6116.13 sq km, is bounded by the Khagrachari Hill District on the north; Bandarban Hill District and Cox's Bazaar District on the south; Mizoram State of India and Chin State of Myanmar on the east; and Chittagong District on the west. In 1983, it was set up and turned into a separate administration system in the RHD of Jummaland. It consists of 10 upazilas, 1 metropolitan city, 9 wards, 35 streets, 50 union Parisads, 162 mouzas and 1347 villages. The Upazilas are Baghaisuri, Barkal, Kawkali, Bilaisuri, Kaptai, Jurosuri, Langadu, Nanniachar, Rajasthali and Rangamati Metropolitan city. The population approximate 707,180 in 2006; male 53.59%, female 46.41%; Muslim 39.28%, Hindu 5.62%, Christian 1.12%, Buddhist 53.83%, and others 0.15%. The indigenous nationals are Chakma, Bawm, Chak, Khumi, Khyang, Lushai, Mro, Murung, Pankh, Santal, Manipuri.


Kaptai Lake : It is the biggest men-made lake of Asia, whose area is more then 900 square km for hydroelectric plan in 1962, crystal-clean water flanked by hills and evergreen forests lies in the capital city of Rangamati. The lake was formed when the Karnapuli River Dam (153 feet high, 1800 feet long crest) was built for the purpose of Hydroelectric power project at Kaptai. The old Rangamati town was submerged under lake water and a new town had to be built later. The lake is full of fish and provides facilities for cruising, swimming and skiing. There are also facilities for angling and short trip by Sampan, local name for country boats. Cruising and swimming in blue water can be something an unforgettable experience for rest of your life. You can visit some Jumma village or market in remote islands or hills and its wildlife by mechanized country boat. Hundred of traders, travellers, sporter, fishermen, etc. out coming and going everyday from different direction for their own purposes.


Jumma Indigenous Museum : This museum is the only the museum has displays on the Jumma Indigenous hill people at the capital city of Rangamati, including costumes, bamboo flutes, coins and silver and ivory necklaces. There is also a map showing where in the region the different Jummas live . It is open Sunday to Thursday from 10 am to 4 pm.


Old Royal Chakma Palace: The old Royal Chakma Palace along with old Rangamati city was submerged under the water in 1964 after construction of Kaptai Dam by the Pakistan Government. Thousands of Indigenous people lost their lands along with Royal Palace without any proper compensation. More than 30,000 Indigenous people, mostly Chakma fled to India.


New Royal Chakma Palace : The Chakma Raja has his own Royal Palace is called “Raja-Ghar” in a close island of Royal Forest Monastery. It is not open for visitor but they are allowed to enter in complex to see the pictures of the chronological Chakma Raja's, who was in the past and get experience in brief history of the Chakma Dynasty . On the same island has a large bronze statue of Shakyamuni Buddha along with Royal Buddhist Temples. It also a Canon, which the Chakma Rja Jan Bux Khan captured from Mughal in 1774 AD.


Royal Forest Monastery : There are more than hundreds Buddhist Monasteries, Temples and Meditation Centre in the Jummaland. The Royal Forest Monastery is the biggest and its located on a headland at the northern end of the capital city of Rangamati. Most respected Bhante known as “Ban Bhante or Venerable Sadanananda Mahathera” is the the Lord Abbot of the Monastery. He established more than 500 branches within and outside the Jummaland. He was first established Forest Tradition among the Chakmas in the world. There are many building structure designated by the Thai architecture. At present many building constructed inclucing Main Shrine Hall, Dhamma Hall, Resident Monks building, Katina Ceremony Hall, Dinning Hall and many others small kutis surrounding areas where hundreds of monks and novices practice meditation.


Bandarban City: The Bandarban city is third biggest Metropolitan city lies in the southern part of Jummaland and 80 Km away from Chittagang city and 45 km from capital city of Rangamati linked by good transportation system. It was inaccessible for tourists and traveller before. After signing Peace Agreement in 1997, it was open to all this hidden beauty for adventurous people, aid workers, journalist. And makes opportunity to access in a large part of this hill region. The attraction of soft slopping hills and the anthropological appeal of the Jummas have been the dream of all tourist and traveller. Still now this place is completely untouched and very refreshing nature. The Jumma people are mostly belong to Marma community living in this area. Tourist are interested to visit to resource on Marmas community and other ethnic Jummas in this region. People are extremely self-reliant, they grow their own food, their girls weave their own clothes and generally speaking, they live a simple life. Each tribe has its own dialect, distinctive dress and rites and rituals. The common feature is their way of life.


Keokradang : Keokradang the highest peak in Jummaland from where you will observe the infinite hill, Bandarban city, the blue water of the Bay of Bengal and blue sky over the head. Wild flowers, orchids, birds, wild life in lush evergreen forest. It is a memory and moment that you will never forget.


Boga Lake : It is a beautiful and highest lake situated in Bandarban district of Jummaland, which is in the middle of hill surrounded by high mountain. Rocks are scattered everywhere in cold water. Many hilly spring are connected with it.


Forest : The valleys of the Jummaland are covered with thick-planted forests. The vegetation in semi-evergreen to tropical evergreen dominated by tall teak trees. The natural vegetation can be seen best in the Rain-khyong valleys of the Bandarban district. This district provides valuable wood which is used for various purposes, besides supplying wood and bamboo for the Biggest Paper Mills situated at Chandorgona. Tourist are interested and lucky to see how huge logs of wood are being carried to the plain by the tamed elephants.

Khagrachari city : Khagrachari metropolitan city is the second biggest city in the Jummaland. It is situated in the northern part of Jummaland. The population mostly Chakmas , Marmas and Tripuras. One of the oldest and famous Orphanage institutes named “Parbatya Bouddha Mission” situated at Pilotpara, 4 kms away from the city of Khagrachari.


Rajmandal Suk : Rajmanda Suk is one of the highest mountain in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in around 645 AD, during the reign of Chakma Raja Bijoygiri. He was capture 1/3rd Kuki Territory under his control. He was set up a military cantonment at Rajmandal Suk in the south-eastern part of the Kingdom. At present it is under the Chakma Autonomous Dististrict Council of Mizoram State of India. The CADC was created by the Central Government of India for the Chakmas who are living in that area since 6th century.


Parva: Parva is one of the southern fringe of Royal Chakma Kingdom. The people are mostly Tanchangya, who are the sub-clan of Chakmas. It is very beautiful mountain international bordering with Chin State of Myanmar. It is under the CADC area of Mizoram.


Kamalanagar: Kamalanagar is the headquarters of CADC of Mizoram. It is located in the Saiha district of Mizoram and about 250 km from Lunglei city. It is well connected by road with Borapansuri town, Tripuraghat, Toijhonpul and Devagiri. Waterways connection is develop during the rain season. The historical sites are CADC office, State Bank of India, College, Mahamuni Buddhist Temple, Tallest Buddhist Pagoda in North-East India, Sub-Divisional Office, etc. are located.


Marpara: Marpara is the biggest Chakma villages in Mizoram. More than 1000 houses are living in that village. It is under the Mamit district of Mizoram. But, only one High School and few primary school provided by the Government of Mizoram. The area of the village plain surrounded by hills and in the heart of the village flows the River Mar. For instance, the name of the village became Marpara.


Chandobi-Ghat: It is a Chakma Typical Village, mostly living Chakmas and population approximately 300. The village is excellent with green trees, such as coconut, mango, guava, papaya, date and so on. The ancient Romantic story was occurred at that village. The love story was

in between Nuaram-Chandobi. Nuaram was the male and Chandobi was the female lover. The Chandobi grand-daughter still living at Nunsuri-I, in Mizoram. It is bordering with Mizoram and Jummaland. But the village is located in Jummaland. Both Nuaram and Chandobi was the meeting place at the Ghat. For instance, the name became Chandobi-Ghat.


Amsuri: Amsuri village also one of most populated Chakma village. It is located in Karta district of Mizoram. It the triangular international border with Tripura State, Mizoram State and Jummaland. In ancient time, it was the boundary point of the Royal Chakma Kingdom to the north. More than 500 houses are living in that village. But mostly Chakmas. But now named had been changed as Tupuibair by the Mizoram government in order to removed Chakmas historical evident.


Chakma Typical village : There are many Chakma villages scattered around the Jummaland. Master Para is one of them which decorated and designated by the Chakma architecture. The tourist visit often as it is in suitable location and on the way to Suvolong channel by waterway. It is the oldest village almost on 2000 ft. high from the water level of Kaptai Lake surrounded by water and evergreen forest. More than 50 Chakma typical houses made of natural materials on hilltop. Tourists are interest to get experience from the old generation of the Chakma man that able to provide sufficient evident about the history of Royal Palace, Rangamait and Jummaland . And also an brief experience of Jumma people and its culture.


Shuvolong market-cum-Village : It is an 500 ft. high island and a camp of security force 12 Km away from Rangamati city surrounded by water in an amazing location with hill view. Water transport is the only means to get there and it takes almost 3 hours . The way to go is very interesting as you will proceed through the narrow channels beside of high Rocky hills and mountains sometimes. There is a Guest House for Tourist made by Military personnel, where one night sleeping can be a highlight. Only fire fly, silence, hills and water will be accompany in night. The light of moon or stars will be reflected directly if it is moonlight night. Counting stars can be one of your significant memory. There is also a market where Jumma people come by water transport from many far places to sale their products and to buy the daily necessary commodities.


Tabalchari Market : There are a few dozens of Jumma market in the Jummaland. But, among them, Tabalchari Market is one of famous in the city of Rangmati, the market held twice in a week. Every Wednesday and Saturday. Boys, girls, men and woman come from remote places to make shopping. They display their fruit, creeper, vegetable, handicrafts and other things. Most of them are Chakma woman and girls with attractive and colourful traditional dresses. It is a good opportunity for tourist to mix and to talk with them and friendship with them.


Duleya Rega : In Chakma language, Hanging Bridge is called “Duleya Rega” and it is a very popular spot for walking to enjoy the view of Kaptai Lake. This bridge connect to another hill over the channel close to Rangamati Tourist Motel. It is about half an hour to cross the bridge by walking.


Kaptai Town: Kaptai is a small flat town 3 hours boat drive from Rangamati city southern end of Kaptai Lake .Today it's the site for a 50m High Dam Wall and a Hydroelectric Project constructed in 1964 by the Pakistani Government, and the atmosphere is rather oppressive. The Kaptai shore looks picturesque at night. There is crane at the dam wall that lifts stacks of bamboo ferried in rafts across the lake over and into the Karnapuli River, from where it floats down to Chittagang.


Bandarban : The Bandarban is third biggest city lies in the southern part of Jummaland and 80 Km. away from Chittagang city and 45 km from capital city of Rangamati linked by good transportation system. It was inaccessible for tourists and traveller before. After signing Peace Agreement in 1997, it was open to all this hidden beauty for adventurous people, aid workers, journalist. And makes opportunity to access in a large part of this hill region. The attraction of soft slopping hills and the anthropological appeal of the Juumas have been the dream of all tourist and traveller. Still now this place is completely untouched and very refreshing nature. The Jumma people are mostly belong to Marma community living in this area. Tourist are interested to visit to resource on Marmas community and other ethnic Jummas in this region. People are extremely self-reliant, they grow their own food, their girls weave their own clothes and generally speaking, they live a simple life. Each tribe has its own dialect, distinctive dress and rites and rituals. The common feature is their way of life.


Hillside Resort : This is a perfect Holyday Resort for the tourist from local, national and international. It is just 4 kilometers away from Bandarban city through the zig-zag hilly road. It meets the demand of all kinds of tourist and travellers wishing to explore the secret beauty of this hilly region. These days it is a very popular tourist spot for its suitable location and offers. It will take quite a while to finish a cup of tea or copy sitting on the hilltop balcony of the “Marma Traditional Restaurant” from where you will observe the moving blue skies overhead and the infinite beauty of soft sloping hills around. The Resort is beautifully decorated with terracotta and Jumma handicrafts and is well equipped with various facilities. All types of food are available which is prepared in quick time. Accommodation is very comfortable which are provided in either bamboo huts or in wooden cottages designed with Jumma architecture. The surrounding landscape is amazing. Most of the activities are operated from this Resort while staying in Bandarban city. When in Bandarban city, there are many activities you can do as a side trip depending on your time, physical fitness and financial abilities.


Tripura Typical Village : This village is also very close to the Resort and will take about an hour time to reach by foot. There will be some steep ascents on this short trip. A good part of the journey will be along a stream. The ethnic village you will visit on this trip is named “Hatibanda” and only the Tripura people live in this village. It is a beautiful village situated in the valley. About 30 houses in the village, but mostly typical house. Like majority of the Jumma ethnic people, the Tripura people living in this village are quite impoverished, but they are very hospitable and their village is very clean. The whole return trip including the time you spend there will take about 2-3 hours depending upon your stay at the village. We strongly recommended you to take this walking trip when your physical condition is good.


Bawm Typical Village-cum-Watefalls : The popular waterfall is called “Sailapropat” in Bawm dialect is closed to Bawm village. This spot is very famous for the local tourists, which is about 4 km. from the Hillside Resort . You can visit this place on foot, otherwise you can use a transport too. It takes almost one hour time to reach there on foot. Walking is very interesting as it will involve several ascents and descents along hillsides. For physically fit individuals, this trip is not likely to be challenging. while you are there, you may spend your time enjoying the Shailapropat which is located in a scenic setting. If it is not too dry you may take a swim but take care to save some energy for the walk back if you plan to back on foot. Instead, you may also choose to visit the Bawm village close by, named “Faruk Para”. The houses in the villages mostly typical Bawm house. Generally this road is safe and you will meet some local passers-by.


Murung and Mro Village-cum-Chimbuk hill : Chimbuk hill is the third highest peak and 22 Km. from the Resort in the Jummaland. Though the road is good condition now but you can make this trip only by a four-wheel drive Jeep or by a local transport named “Chander Ghari” as the whole drive through some big ups and downs. First you may visit the Chimbuk Hill, where you can stay sometime on the top to see the view. You will find only hill till to the end of eyesight in one side and Bay of Bengal to another side. Whole Bandarban city is visible from there. On the way back you can visit a Murung and Mro village. Most of these villages are a bit away from the main road and therefore you will need to walk to reach them. While you will be in the village the accompanying guide will assist you in explaining their lifestyle and their history. It is better to visit on foot will take about 2 hours time including your stay at the village. Here at this villages you will meet members of the Murung and Mro peoples. The accompanying guide will help you to communicate with them. Murung is known as a most peculiar Jummas in Jummaland as they are almost disconnected from outside world. This trip takes almost 6/7 hours totally.


Keokradang : Keokradang the highest peak in Jummaland from where you will observe the infinite hill, Bandarban city, the blue water of the Bay of Bengal and blue sky over the head. Wild flowers, orchids, birds, wild life in lush evergreen forest. It is a memory and moment that you will never forget.


Darjiling Para : This is the second highest populated Jumma village in Jummaland. In this village, Bawm, Marma and Khumi Jumma people are live together. It was completely disconnected with the Bandarban city even five years before. Whole village in hill top in deep forest. The Bawm and Khumi people are mostly Christians and Marma are Buddhists. They grow some vegetable and spice in far places from their houses. There is a spring where the Jumma boys and girls take bathing. It takes a full day trip from Ruma River to reach this village.


Saikat Para : This is the highest populated Jumma village in Jummaland comprising with few houses on hilltop. Only physically fit people can reach there. The way to go there is very dangerous but interesting. You have to cross some big ups and downs, channels and small river. Facilities are very limited. Jumma people live on fruit and vegetable mostly. One can be fallen two thousand feet ditch for a little mistake. It will take full two days to go and back there from the Resort where you will stay in Bandarban city.


Boga Lake : It is a beautiful and highest lake situated in Bandarban district of Jummaland, which is in the middle of hill surrounded by high mountain. Rocks are scattered everywhere in cold water. Many hilly spring are connected with it.


Ramu Bazar : Ramu Bazar is about 60 Km away from Bandarban city. It is on the south-east from the Resort. One can go there by a Jeep. The times take about 2 hours to reached. The scenery on both sides of the road is excellent, and definitely like to stop at places. It is more interesting that while you are in a group, you may charter a boat for this purpose. Otherwise you will take a regular service boat for the journey back. You must remember that this boat journey to back will only be possible between May and November when there will be enough water in the river. The boat journey will be something for you to treasure for the rest of your life. It will take full day to make this trip.


Bandarban Jumma Market : There is a Jumma market on every Sunday and Wednesday, where trading is conducted in Marma rather Bengali. They come from remote villages by boat to sale fruits, leaves, vegetable and some other necessary staff. Most of the Jumma people are women with their traditional and colourful dresses. It can be a good opportunity to see their lifestyle and culture.


Forest : The valleys of the Jummaland are covered with thick-planted forests. The vegetation in semi-evergreen to tropical evergreen dominated by tall teak trees. The natural vegetation can be seen best in the Rain-khyong valleys of the Bandarban district. This district provides valuable wood which is used for various purposes, besides supplying wood and bamboo for the Biggest Paper Mills situated at Chandorgona. Tourist are interested and lucky to see how huge logs of wood are being carried to the plain by the tamed elephants.

Khagrachair : Khagrachari is the second biggest city in Jummaland and the district headquater. It is situated in the northern part of Jummaland. The population mostly Chakmas. One of the oldest and famous Orphangage institutes named “Parbatya Bouddha Mission” situated at Pilotpara, 4 kms away from the city of Khagrachari.



Major Rivers:

Borgang (Karnafuli) River: The river Borghang is principal river of this region. It originates in the Devagiri division of Mizoram (India), flows through Rangamati division and the port city of Chittagong and discharges into the Bay of Bengal near Patenga. A number of streams flow upstream of Rangamati. The last stream originated in Hagu river in Devagiri division and the name Borghang has been disappeared. The River Hague again sub tributaries and the right one flows toward the Lungei city and the left one flows toward the Tuishen village near the capital city of Aizawl in Mizoram. There are few Chakma village in the bank of the River Hague. The name of the villages are: Matrisora village (Hagu Duar) and Hagu village (near Lungsen village). Here, it very important to know that in Chakma language “Duar” means “mouth”. But, not the human mouth, it is significant for river only.One of the stream originated as “Thoijhong” in Devagiri division flows upward to Kamalanagar and finally met to Arakan State of Myanmar; one originated as Sajek flows upward to Samuksuri, Hagulongsora, Bogahuli, Marpara, Hnava, Silsuri,Andermaneg, Amsrui finally met with Jampui Hill in Tripura and Cachar in Assam; one originated as Tega flows upward to Tripuraghat, Borapansuri, Silsuri, Ugudosuri and finally Arakan State of Myanmar.

The one stream originated as Baraharina in the Rangamati division flows upward to Balukyasuri, Kalapani, Batneyasora and finally met with Sajek River; the Mrisshya flows through Myanimukh, Langadu, Subulong, Barkal till reaching Harina; one flowing through Dangumura to Myanimukh; one flows through Mahalchari to Rangamati. The streams meet near Rangamati and their combined flow is known as Borgang (Karnafuli). The river is flashy and its length is about 131 km. Reikkhong, Suvulong, Tega, Hajalong(Kasalong), Ichamoti and Halda are its main tributaries. Its major dis tributaries are Saylok and Boalkhali.

The only hydro power station of the Jummaland was built in 1964 by constructing a dam on this river at Kaptai. The Borgang is navigable at Barkal and Kaptai but above Barkal it is shallow. With the construction of the Kaptai dam, this river has been blocked, and a large artificial lake has been created, and the bed of the river has also been much widened. This man-made lake provides a network of all-weather navigable routes in the area. Downstream of the dam the Borgang receives very little water in the dry season. The opening of the sluice gates of the dam creates water movement from the lake downstream. The river finally discharges into the Bay of Bengal. The port city of Chittagong is situated at the mouth of the river. Jummaland collects water level data through its 3 hydro metric stations located at Kodala, Chittagong and Patenga.


Thoijhong (Tuichang) River: The next river is originated as River Thoijhong. In distant, about five to six kilometres the origin of the two rivers. From the Duar, about 10 kilometres inside the river the Chakma village “Thoijhong pool” had situated. This village quite like a epicentre for businessman and also Chakma population about one to two thousands. Because, well connected with motor roads in between Thoijhong town to Lunglei city, Kamalanagar via Lungsen village in the east and Devagiri, Tripuraghat, Khojoisur and Borapansuri in south west of Thoijhong pool. And also well connected by waterway in between the following villages as Diblibagh, Devagir town, Kamalabagan, Nunsuri, Tablabagh, Harina Bazar, Barkal finally Rangamati through River Borghang in the western part of Thoijhong pool village; Matrisora in the east; Samuksuri Hagulongsora (Tuikai), Bogahuli, Marpara, Hnava, Silsuri, Andarmaneng and finally Amsuri (Tuipuibari) in the north (Assam and Tripura border) through the River Borghang and Sajek; And the River Thoijhong flows upward to Kamalanagar, the Headquarters of Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) in the south and finally its met with the hill of Arakan State. Its also well trading connected by waterway in between the two town, especially during the rainy season. Kamalanagar is about fifty kilometres by waterway from Thoijhong pool and 200 km by motor way. The Devagiri is the nearest town from Thoijhong pool about 50 km by motor way.


Sajek River: The River Sajek originated from Tripura and Assam state of India. It is situated in the Devagiri division. It flows toward the downstream of Devagir and joint with Borgang. In the bank of the river about 15-20 Chakma villages are found. Its also have many small tributaries like Amsuri, Silsuri, Marpara, Bogahuli, Habulongsora, Ugudosuri, Samuksuri and so on. It is current flows during the rainy season. Landslide occurred frequently. Even sometime people also lost their life. This is a flashy and has a length of about 200 km. The area kept for Reserve Forest for Wild Life.


Tega River: It is one of the main tributaries of the Borgang. It meets the Borgang above Harina and finally drains into Kaptai Lake. It is also one of the longest river in the Devagiri and Rajmandal division in Jummaland. Its runs from Arakan state of Myanmar and flows side of the Matammuri Reserve Forest and finally met with Borgang. In this river have many ancient Chakma story related with its. Such as “Chandobi Ghat, Chandobi Baramaj, etc.”. Its compared to other rivers no deep at all but length about 160 km.


Reikkhong: A number of small streams originated from the eastern hills of Rajmandal division meet together at the uppermost part of the Reikkhong reserves. The river makes a torturous journey through the deep reserve forests and falls into Kaptai Lake near Bilaisuri in Rangamati division, about 30 km above Reikkong Duar, its original place of confluence with the Borgang. The river is flashy and is 77 km long. During the wet season it is navigable up to Gabasuri Duar but further above it is used only for floating timber tree and bamboo, etc.


Hazolong(Kasalong): A number of small streams originated in the eastern hills of Devagiri division meet at Baghisuri (Baghaichari) in Rangamatya (Rangamati) division than form into Hazolong river. It falls into Borgang at Kedarmara. It is a flashy river and has a length of 65 km.


Halda: It originates in the Harangatali hills of Hagarasuri(Khagrachari). It flows south and meets the Borgang near Madhunaghat in Chadigang (Chittagong) division. It is a flashy river and is 88 km long. It has 13 hydro metric stations on it, and data are available since 1959 AD.


Ichamoti : A number of small streams meeting near Kawkhali in Rangamatya division forms the Ichamoti. It is a small tributary of the Borgang and has a length of 30 km. It falls into the Borgang near Rangunia of Chadigang. It is also a flashy river. It has 3 hydro metric stations on this river, and data from 1956 AD are available.


Bakkhali : A number of small streams originated in the south-eastern hills of Rajmandal division meets the Naikhongsuri of Bandarban division to form the Bakkhali. It flows through Naikhongsuri and Ramu of Cox's Bazar division and falls into Maheshkhali channel. This is also a flashy river and has a length of about 67 km.


Meyoni :A number of small streams originated in the eastern hills of Tripura state of India meet near Dighinala of Hagarasuri division. The combined flow is known as Meyoni River. The river flows through Dighinala and Langadu in Rangamatya division and falls into Kaptai Lake near Kedarmara. It is 91 km long and flashy.


Chenghe :A number of small streams originated in the eastern hills of Tripura state of India meet at Pansuri (Panchari) in Hagarasuri division. The combined flows, known as the Chenghi and it flows south through Pansuri, Hagarasuri, Maalsurri in Hagarasuri division and falls into Kaptai lake near Nainyachar in Rangamatya division. This is also a flashy river and has a length of about 85 km.

Sangu River : From the Resort, the river Sangu is visible and one can easily walk there in about an hour's time. The entire walk is a soft downhill descent and will pose no particular problem. If you are interested, you can surely go for a refreshing swim in the river, however you must remember that during the monsoons there will be strong currents in the river due to the rain. Coming back to the resort will obviously involve an uphill climb of one and a half-hours and may be come too physically exerting. However, you may take a boat- trip and go down to Bandarban downstream, coming back to the resort from there by road.

This river originates in the Kos Mohol of Arakan state of Myanmar and enters Jummaland near Remarki of Bandarban division. It flows north through Thanchi, Rowangsuri and Bandarban of Bandarban division. Then it flows west through Satkania and Banshkhali to meet the Bay of Bengal near Khankhanabad Chadigang division. The length of the river is 295 km. The major tributaries of the river are Chandkhali Nodi and Dolu khal. There are 7 hydro metric stations on this river and data are available from 1965 AD.


Matammuuri: This is a flashy river that originates in the Moyvar hills of Alikadam in Bandarban division. It flows north-west through Alikadam and Lama of Bandarban divisionand Chakaria of Cox's Bazaar division. The river discharges into Maheshkhali channel near Saflapur in Chakaria. The length of the river is 148 km. Yanchha khal and Bamu khal are its important tributaries. It has only 2 hydro metric stations on this river and data are available from the year 1956 AD.


Naf or Namre River: It flows along the southernmost border line of the Jummaland. It originates in the northern hills of Myanmar and enters Jummaland near Palong Khali of Cox's Bazaar division. The river flows through Ukhia and Teknaf and discharges into the Bay of Bengal near Sabrang in Cox's Bazaar division. Most of the downstream reach of the river demarcates the Myanmar-Jummaland border. The river is 62 km long and it has one hydro metric station on the river at Teknaf and data from 1968 AD are available.


Feni: Originates in the eastern hills of Tripura state and enters Jummaland at Belsuri of Matiranga in Hagarasuri division. If flows through Ramgarh in Hagarasuri, Fatiksuri in Chadigang division and then flows along the border of Mirsharai, Chagalnaiya and discharges into the Bay of Bengal near Sonagazi. The length of the river is 108 km. It has 6 hydro metric stations on the river and data are available from 1958 AD.


Kutubdia Channel: It lies in-between the mainland of Cox's Bazaar and Kutubdia Island in Jummaland. The length of the channel is 24 km. The channel is connected with the Bay of Bengal at its both ends.


Maheshkhali Channel: It lies between Cox's Bazar and the Maheshkhali island in Jummland. The channel carries the combined flows of the Matammuri and its tributaries and of other rivers such as Baruakhali Khal, Burua(old) Matammuri, Mangla Khal, Maneksuri Khal, etc. The length of the channel is 35 km. The channel is connected with the Bay of Bengal. 

 Read more about Kshastriyo tribe:  http://www.ciil-ebooks.net/html/folklore2/ch3.htm

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