What is Educational Technology? Next
Eric Ashby (1967) has identified four revolutions in education:
v The first revolution occurred when the task of educating the young was shifted, in part, from parents to teachers and from the home to the school.
v The second came with the adoption of the ‘written word as a tool of education’.
v The third came with the invention of the printing press and books.
v The fourth revolution, with the advent of electronics, and development in communication.
According to the Ashby “Any technology, which increases the rate of learning, would enable the teacher to teach less and the learner to learn more.”
Meaning of educational technology:
1) First meaning of educational technology
Educational technology is science on the basis of which various strategies and tactics could be designed for the realization of specified goals.
Educational technology involves four steps;
Ø Functional analysis of the teaching learning process to identify the various components which operate at the stage of input to that of the output.
Ø To explore the various functions of these components.
Ø To observe the effect of manipulating the various components and their functions in the field
Ø To translate all these research findings into some kind of guidelines for a practitioner
2) Second meaning of education technology:
The second meaning of educational technology is the mechanization of educational process. The mechanization is done in all the three process of human knowledge;
Preservation of knowledge: -
First knowledge was orally transmitted by teachers to their students.
But with the advent of printing machine knowledge is preserved in books.
Transmission of knowledge: -
A large numbers of students sitting at far distant places can be taught with the help of radio and television. The Open University, corresponding education are the major contributions of this innovation.
Advancement of human knowledge: -
The function of research process is to advance new knowledge. The scientific researches are encouraged in the present time because their findings are based on the collection of data.
3) Third meaning of educational technology:
Educational technology is the mediator, necessary for blending the science of learning with the art of teaching.
B.F.Skinner states that “no teacher can provide the frequency of reinforces or the necessary contingencies for optimal learning and that a teacher needs machine aid for this job.”
If technology is to serve a blending function for a science of learning and for art of teaching, it may also be seen as an attempt to apply the science of education. Silverman called this view-point ‘constructive Educational technology’. It is the basic educational application dealing with:
v The analysis of the instructional problems
v The selection or construction of measuring instrument.
v The selection of appropriate techniques to produce the desired outcome.
Another view point of Silverman is no Educational technology is called “Relative technology’ it is a burrowing and applying technology that merely deals with procedures and devices which gathers material.
Misconceptions of educational technology: -
Engineering technology and Educational technology:
Engineering technology is concerned with the manufacturing devices—hardware for education like, audio-video aids, television, computer, etc.
Audio-visual aids and Educational technology:
Audio-visual aids can be termed as hardware approach to educational technology. It can be used to make the lesson more interesting.
Teacher and Educational technology:
It is a usual comment about Educational technology that it will replace the human teacher.
Definition of educational technology:
Definition of education: education is the development of the power of adaptation to an ever changing social environment.
Definition of education: It is a science of doing/getting things done, related to any art or science.
Definition of educational technology
“Educational technology is concerned with the development, application, and evaluation of systems, techniques and aids to improve the process of human learning.”
According to G.M.Leith, “Educational technology is a systematic application of scientific knowledge about teaching learning conditions of learning to improve the efficiency of teaching and training. In the absence of scientifically established principles, educational technology implements techniques of empirical testing to improve learning situations.”
According to B.C.Mathis: “educational technology refers to the development of a set of systematic methods, practical knowledge for designing, operating and testing schools.”
B.C.Mathis has emphasized the development of teaching methods and skills for testing the performance.
Robert Cox has defined the term educational technology in the following manner, “educational technology is an application of scientific process to man’s learning conditions to what has come recently to be called educational or instructional technology.”
E.E.Haddan defined educational technology as “Educational technology is that branch of educational theory and practice which is concerned primarily with the design and use of message which control the learning process.”
Haddan’s involves both the aspects-theory and practice and stresses on the application for the effective communication in the learning process.
S.S.Kulkarni has defined the term educational technology in the following manner, “educational technology may be defined as the application of the laws as well as recent discoveries of science and technology to the process of education.’
K.Mitra, “Educational technology can be conceived as a science of techniques and methods by which educational goal can be realized.”
Concept of Educational technology:
The concept of Educational technology is used in two ways;
1) Educational technology means the use of mass media and audio-visual aids in education or technology in education. It often projects the picture of educational hardware- teaching machine film-projectors, slide-projectors, language laboratories, tape recorders satellite television, computers, etc.
2) Educational technology means utilization of all available resources in a system in order to optimize teaching learning process or technology of education. It takes into account the available resources in the system and their uses to optimize teaching learning process ,may be that the software’s are used by the teacher in the class room effectively and efficiently so as to get the desired results.
Scope of Educational technology:
If the term Educational technology is used as the audio-visual aids, mechanical and electric gadgets, the scope is limited, to improve the educational messages.
If the term Educational technology is used as the process oriented technique, then its scope is limited to production of teaching-learning material.
Educational technology is basically the technique of developing software.
Learning, in a non-technical sense, can be thought of a pursuit which is some how related to the following functions:
a) Informative function.
b) Calculative function.
c) Concept development.
d) Performance improvement.
e) Development of interests, attitudes.
Characteristics of Educational technology
Following are the characteristics of Educational technology;
§ It involves input, output and process aspects of education.
§ It stresses upon developing methods and techniques for effective learning.
§ It is an application of scientific knowledge to education and training.
§ It includes the organization of learning conditions for realization goals of education.
§ It emphasizes designing and measuring instrument for testing learning outcome.
§ It facilitates learning by control of environment, media and methods.
Objective of Educational technology:
Alvin Toffler talks of responsible technology in this light we can think of the objectives of Educational technology as under;
1) To determine the goals and formulate the objectives in behavioral terms.
2) To analyze the characteristics of the learner.
3) To organize the content in psychological sequence.
4) To mediate between content and resources of presentation.
5) To evaluate the learners performance in terms of achieving educational objectives.
6) To provide feedback among other components for the modification of learner.
Aspects of Educational technology: -
Educational technology has three major aspects:
It involves the entering behavior of the learner.
1) Includes previous achievement, abilities of student and level fo motivation.
2) It concerns with the comprehension level of the student.
3) It considers availability and skill for teaching aids.
ii) Teaching learning process:
It involves the means and devices of learning experiences:
1) To generate the situation for presenting the subject matter systematically.
2) To employ appropriate teaching aids for desired behavioral change.
3) To identify and use suitable communication techniques for the comprehension of the subject matter.
4) To use suitable schedules of reinforcement for effective learning.
It includes mainly the terminal behaviors of the learner:
1) To identify the characteristics of the content.
2) To clarify the objectives achieved through the content.
3) To analyze the stimuli.
Major approaches of Educational technology or types of Educational technology:
Lumsdaine (1964) has suggested following Educational technology;
1) Hardware approach or first Educational technology
2) Software approach or second Educational technology
3) Systems approach
1) Hardware approach:
Its origin lies in the application of physical or engineering to education and training system. Technology of machines is closely related to a technology of teaching. Teaching machine is the only mechanical aid to be designed and invented to fulfill an instructional requirement.
All other audio-visual aids are designed and manufactured for improving communication system not for educational one, but radio, television, computer, satellite, internet, etc are used for instructional purpose.
In this way, the process of teaching teaching-learning has been gradually mechanized through the use of teaching machines, radio, television, computers, etc. The mechanization is being introduced in preservation, transmission, and advancement of human knowledge.
2) Software approach:
It refers to the application of the teaching-learning principles to the direct and deliberately shaping of behavior. Its origin lies in the application of behavioral science to the problem of learning and motivation; where as mechanization of teaching-learning is seen purely a problem of presentation.
Silverman (1968) termed this Educational technology, ‘constructive Educational technology’. In this technology some constructive work is to be performed.
3) Systems approach:
It is a new management approach, influencing management decision making in business, industry, government, military and education.
System analysis refers to the analysis and the development of systems. It includes utilization of scientific mathematical techniques applied to organizational operations.
The systems approach involves three instructional designs;
i) Training psychology:
It is related to problems of training and making teaching and learning more effective so as to make behavior modification through feed back and reinforcement.
ii) cybernetic psychology:
Cybernetics, interdisciplinary science dealing with communication and control systems in living organisms, machines, and organizations.
The term, derived from the Greek word kybernetes (“steersman” or “governor”), was first applied in 1948 to the theory of control mechanisms by the mathematician Norbert Wiener.
iii) systems analysis:
System analysis is more objective while making any system workable and worthwhile.
The systems of a system are as follows:
a) Sub-system: subsystem of a system is that which is not visible but can be felt and smelt. For example, the degradation of an institution can be felt on the basis of the groupism among teachers and students.
b) System: system of an institution or a place or a country should be understood in relation to education.
c) Supra-system: no system can be studied without
considering its supra-system. For example the teachers of an institution could
not get their salaries for the last six months, this will effect on the
efficiency and skill resulting into bad results.
Thus educational technology is not just an innovation; rather it is a bundle of many disquieting innovations put together.
B) Educational technology in modern India: -
In this modern world, the educational technology has spread everywhere and in every field and has revolutionized the human life. It is able to change the whole environment around him. It is also able to change life and outlook. The educational technology in education has also emerged as a result of new researches in the field of education. Modern techniques are being developed.
Educational technology in India: -
The various programmes taken in the field of Educational technology are as follows:
1) Educational technology programme or project: -
The government of India undertook an educational technology project in the central sector in the fourth plan in 1972 so as to envisage the stimulation and promotion of an integrated use of mass media and instructional technology at various level of education. The aim of this project is to bring about qualitative improvement, accelerate the rate of expansion and make instruction more interesting.
2) NCERT and Educational technology programmes:-
NCERT is regarded as the other centre of activities in the field of Educational technology in India. Through its departments such as the department of education psychology and foundation of education, department of teaching aids the NCERT has been able to implement a number of programme.
Educational technology cell in the NCERT:
Following programmes has been planned and implemented by the centre;
1) Multi-media package: -
The centre is able to develop the multi-media package which involves television programmes, radio programmes, activity guides, enrichment materials and tutorials for in-service training of primary teachers in science teaching.
2) Data bank and software bank: -
The nursery rhymes collected in four languages by the Indian council for child welfare were set to music and recorded on tapes.
3) Radio: - case studies on the using of school broadcast programmes in jaipur, Jalgaon, and many other places are also undertaken.
4) Directory of personnel: - director of personnel involving in the field of Educational technology has been published.
5) National seminar on Educational technology: - in June 1976, a national seminar on Educational technology was conducted in mysore. On the conclusion of the seminar, the director, NCERT appointed a committee for preparing a note on the framework for the development of Educational technology in India which has since been prepared.
6) Evolution of television programmes: - the ministry of education carried out evaluation studies of television programmes broadcast to primary schools under SITE.
7) Open school: - a sub-committee was setup to explore the possibility of starting an open school project. The sub-committee was in favor that an open school would be highly suitable and desirable to meet the educational needs of the age group 14 plus.
8) Programmes of Educational technology cells / state institute of technology: - centre of Educational technology cells / state institute of technology have been set up in almost all the states of India. These cells are involved in planning educational broadcasts.
9) Satellite instructional television experiment (SITE) programme : - the SITE programme was undertaken in the country in August 1975 for a period of one year to telecast programmes in six states namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.
10) Workshop on Educational broadcasting was held in New Delhi during December 1980 as part of UNESCOs Asian programme of educational innovation for development to develop national guidelines for educational broadcasting.
11) Indian National satellite: - with the operation of INSAT in 1983, live television programmes can be seen in all parts of the country. INSAT is used for programmes of enrichment of students in higher studies, enrichment of teachers, increasing agriculture production, restricting the population growth.
12) Open Universities: - open school was set up in Delhi in 1983. Indira Gandhi National Open Universities IGNOU in Delhi in 1985.
13) Central Institute for Educational technology (CIET): - the CITE was able to develop software materials relevant to educational needs, creates competencies and trained manpower through training, conducts research, and evaluation of the systems, programmes and materials in Educational technology.
Uses of Educational technology: -
1) Preparation of teachers: - Educational technology has been quite successful in training and retraining of large number of school teachers effectively and economically.
2) Distance education: - Educational technology is able to use media technology in the field distance education.
3) Telecast lesson: - with the advent of the satellite services, a beginning of a series of innovative and constructive television programmes has been taken place for National development and for educating the Indian masses living in remote areas.
4) Correspondence courses: - are offered by a number of universities in the country.
5) Audio-visual materials: -Educational technology finds use preparation, development and use of audio-visual material.
6) Radio and television educational programmes: - The University Grant Commission (UGC) and National Open University are successfully developing various Tv and radio programmes.
7) Language laboratories: - the most significant development of Educational technology is computer-assisted education development of language laboratories for teaching Indian as well as foreign language like English, German, French, and Russian etc.
Conclusion: - Educational technology is being used for achieving the macro and micro objectives of education of education in our country. It has caused a revolution in the field of education.