BOOK PUBLISHED

Principles of Pharmacognosy


Vikas Anand Saharan, M.K. Moond, P.C. Chouhan and Manish K. Gupta, Agrobios, 2008, xxxii, 500 p, 114 figs, tables, ISBN : 81-7754-380-6


"In a broad sense, pharmacognosy embraces a knowledge of the history, distribution, cultivation, collection, selection, preparation, commerce, identification, evaluation, preservation and use of drugs and economic substances affecting the health of man and other animals. Such economic substances extend beyond the category of crude drugs and their derivatives and include a variety of commercial products: allergens, allergenic extracts, antibiotics, immunizing biological, flavoring agents, condiments, beverages, insecticides, rodenticides and herbicides. In a restricted sense, the definition of pharmacognosy implies a particular knowledge of methods of identification and evaluation of drugs. The present book is an attempt to provide overall information to the readers interested in pharmacognosy."

CHAPTERS: 

1. History, origin of pharmacognosy. 2. Definition, scope and future trends in pharmacognosy. 3. Classification of crude drugs. 4. Traditional system of medicine. 5. Collection and processing of crude drugs. 6. Plant hormones/growth regulators. 7. Plant tissue culture: principles and methodology. 8. Medicinal plant biotechnology. 9. Drug evaluation and adulteration. 10. General methods associated with phytochemical investigation of herbal products. 11. Basic metabolic pathways and the origin of secondary metabolites. 12. Hellucinogenic, teratogenic, allergic and other toxic plants. 13. Pesticides from natural origin. 14. Tumour inhibitors from plants. 15. Drugs containing carbohydrates. 16. Drugs containing alkaloids. 17. Drugs containing tannins. 18. Drugs containing volatile oils. 19. Drugs containing lipids (fixed oils, fats and waxes). 20. Drugs containing resins. 21. Drugs containing glycosides. 22. Enzymes and protein drugs. 23. Traditional medicinal plants. 24. Ayurvedic pharmacy. 25. Fibres, surgical dressing and sutures. 26. Marine drugs. 27. World Wide Trade in medicinal and aromatic plants and derived products. Appendixes. i. Chemical tests for plant constituents. ii. List of crude drugs. Glossary. References. Subject index.

CONTENTS: 
1. History, Origin of Pharmacognosy
    a. History of Pharmacognosy
2. Definition, Scope and Future Trends in Pharmacognosy
    a. Scopes of Pharmacognosy
    b. Future Trends of Pharmacognosy
3. Classification of Crude Drugs
    a. Classifications of Drugs
        i. Alphabetical Classification
        ii. Biological (Taxonomical) Classification
        iii. Morphological Classification
        iv. Chemical Classification
        v. Pharmacological Classification
4. Traditional System of Medicine
    a. Introduction
    b. Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine
        i. Acupuncture
        ii. Aromatherapy
        iii. urveda 
        iv. Chinese Herbalism
        v. Diet and Nutritional Therapies
        vi. Herbal Medicine
        vii. Homeopathy
        viii. Xaturopathy
        ix. Tibetan Medicine
        x. Transcendental Meditation
        xi. Unani System of Medicine
        xii. Yoga
5. Collection and Processing of Crude Drugs
    a. Collection of Medicinal Plants
        i. Season
        ii. Time
        iii. Age of Plants
        iv. Drying of Plants
    b. Hazard of Contamination
        i. Drug Spoilage by Biotic Factors
        ii. Drug Spoilage by Moisture
    c. Exogenous and Endogenous Factors Affecting Collection of Drugs
        i. Temperature
        ii. Rainfall
        iii. Day Length
        iv. Altitute
        v. Propagation
    d. Objective of Propagation or Cultivation
6. Plant Hormones/ Growth Regulators
    a. Status and Definition:
        i. her Plant Compounds which Affect Growth
        ii. Other Growth Regulators
    b. Quantification of Plant Hormones
    c. How Hormone Acts?
    d. Auxins
        i. Biological Effects
        ii. Agricultural Uses of Auxins
    e. Gibberellins
        i. Biological Effects
        ii. Mechanism of Action ofGA
        iii. Physiological Effects and Practical Applications of Gibberellins
    f. Cytokinins
        i. Biological Effects
        ii. Mode of Action ofCytokinin
        iii. Physiological Effects of Applied Cytokinins
        iv. Practical Uses of Cytokinins
    g. Ethylene
        i. Biosynthesis of Ethylene
        ii. Biochemical Action
        iii. Biological Effects
        iv. Ethylene Related Plant Growth Regulators
    h. Abscisic Acid
        i. Biosynthesis of ABA
        ii. de of Action of ABA
        iii. Biological Effects
7. Plant Tissue Culture: Principles and Methodology
    a. Importance of Tissue Culture Technique
    b. Plant Tissue Culture: Principles
    c. Concept of Totiprtency of Cells
    d. Plant Tissue Culture: Methods
        i. Media Preparation: Area/Room
        ii. Culture Media, Washing Powder/ Liquid Detergent, Disinfectants
        iii. Aseptic Transfer Chamber Area
        iv. Environmentally Controlled Culture Room
        v. Analytical Room
        vi. Acclimatization Room
        vii. Miscellaneous Items
        viii. Specifications of Laboratory Equipments
    e. Aseptic Technique
    f. Sterilization of Plant Tissues
        i. Cleaning (Preparation of Glasswares/Plastic Wares (Autoclavable)
        ii. Sterilization
        iii. Surfactants
        iv. ntrol of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminants by Antibiotics in Plant Tissue
        v. Culture
    g. In Vitro Environment
    h. Pretreatment to Explant Tissues Prior to Culture
    i. Procedure
        i. Micropagation through Organogenesis
    j. Culture Media and Preparation
    k. Media Components
        i. Inorganic Salts
        ii. Plant Growth Regulators
        iii. Carbon Source
        iv. Gelling Agent
        v. Acids and Amides
        vi. Antibiotics
        vii. Natural Complexes
    l. Additional Requirements
        i. Sterilization Nation of Media
        ii. Use and Storage of Coconut Water
    m. Related Procedures
        i. Ultraviolet Light
        ii. Preparation of Phenol
        iii. Working with r-P Labelled Compounds
        iv. Silanization of Plastic and Glassware
        v. Preparation of Dialysis Tubing
    n. Initiation of Embryogenesis in Suspension Culture
        i. Method
    o. Establishment of Embryogenic Suspension Culture
        i. Maturation of Embryos
    p. Important Parameters for Consideration
        i. Simplification of the Technique
        ii. Different Causes of Failures (and Remedies)
8. Medicinal Plant Biotechnology
    a. Genetics as Applied to Medicinal Herbs
        i. What is Genetics
        ii. Heredity
        iii. Variation
        iv. Problems Related with Genetics
        v. Research in Genetics
        vi. Genetics and its Application
    b. Biotechnology and Medicinal Plant
        i. The Power of Biotechnology
        ii. Genetic Engineering Techniques
    c. Tissue Culture Techniques
    d. Germplasm Conservation (Gene Bank)
9. Drug Evaluation and Adulteration
    a. Types of Crude Drug Evaluation
        i. Organoleptic or Morphological Evolution
        ii. Microscopic Evaluation
        iii. Chemical Evolution
        iv. Physical Evolution
        v. Chromatography
        vi. Spectrophotometry
    b. Drug Adulteration
        i. Type of Adulterants
10. General Methods Associated with Phytochemical Investigation of Herbal Products
    a. Introduction
    b. Traditional Methods of Extraction
        i. Methods of Extraction and Isolation
    c. Factors Affecting Extraction
    d. General Scheme for Extraction of Fresh Plant Parts
    e. Methods of Separation
    f. Methods of Identification
        i. Tracer Techniques
11. Basic Metabolic Pathways and the Origin of Secondary Metabolites
    a. Biosynthesis and Biogenesis
        i. Secondary Metabolites
        ii. Significance of Biosynthesis
    b. Enzymes and Genes
    c. Shikimic Acid Pathway
    d. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acid and Triglycerides (Compounds Derived from Acetate Biosynthesis of Isoprenoid/Terpenoid Compounds (Compounds Derived from Acetate)
    e. Biosynthesis of Glycosides
    f. Biosynthesis of Alkaloids
        i. Alkaloids Derived from Ornithine and Lysine'
        ii. Alkaloids Derived from Phenylalanine and Tyrosine
        iii. Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan
        iv. Alkaloids Based on a Terpene Skeleton
        v. Alkaloids Derived from Dopamine
        vi. Alkaloids Derived from a Nucleotide Precursor
12. Hellucinogenic, Teratogenic, Allergic and Other Toxic Plants
    a. Hallucinogenic Drugs
        i. Fungi
    b. Lysergic Acid Derivatives
        i. Lysergic Acid
        ii. Morning Glory Seeds
        iii. Peyote
        iv. Cannabis sativa
        v. Other Plants
    c. Teratogenic Drugs
        i. Conium
        ii. Veratrurn
        iii. Indigofora
        iv. Nicotiana
    d. Natural Allergens
        i. Pollens
        ii. Spores
        iii. Rhus Toxicodendron Species (Poison Ivy)
        iv. Sesquiterpenes Lactones
    e. Other Toxic Plants
        i. Mycotoxin
        ii. Anatoxins
13. Pesticides from Natural Origin
    a. Introduction
    b. Insecticides
        i. Neem (
Azadirachta indica)
        ii. Anonay Guanabana, Custard Apple (
Annona squamosaA muricata)
        iii. Capsicum and Black Pepper (
Capsicum annumPiper nigrum)
        iv. Tobacco (
Nicotiana tabacumj)
        v. Pyrethrum (
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium)
        vi. Castor Bean (
Ricinus communis)
        vii. Cacaute, Gliricidia (
Gliricidia sepium)
        viii. Garlic (
Allium sativum)
    c. (B) Natural Pesticides for Virus Diseases
        i. Bougainvillea (
Bougainvillea spectabilis)
        ii. Dahlia (
Dahlia pinnataj)
        iii. Ginkgo (
Ginkgo biloba)
        iv. Espinaca, Spinach (
Spinacea oleracea)
    d. Non-Plant Substances Used as Insecticides
        i. Chalk
        ii. Mineral Oil
        iii. Animal Urine
        iv. Cow's Milk
    e. Natural Pesticides for Fungi
        i. Papaya fCarica papaya}
        ii. Garlic and Onion (Allium sativum, A cepaj
        iii. Canavalia (Canavalia sp)
    f. Caution
14. Tumour Inhibitors from Plants
    a. Introduction
    b. Role of Plants in Cancer Treatment
    c. Vinca
        i. Geographical Sources
        ii. Description
        iii. Chemical Constituents
        iv. Uses
    d. Taxol
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Description
        iv. Chemical Constituents
        v. Uses
    e. Podophyllum
        i. Geographical Source
        ii. Description
        iii. Chemical Constituents
        iv. Uses
    f. Colocynth
        i. Geographical Source
        ii. Description
        iii. Chemical Constituents
        iv. Uses
    g. Colchicum
        i. Geographical Source
        ii. Description
        iii. Chemical Constituents
        iv. Uses
    h. Future Development
15. Drugs Containing Carbohydrates
    a. Introduction
        i. Monosaccharides
        ii. Disaccharides
        iii. Trisaccharides
        iv. Tetrasaccharides
        v. Polysaccharides
        vi. Oligosaccharide
        vii. UronicAcid
        viii. Glucosamine
        ix. Sugars
    b. Identification Tests for Carbohydrates
        i. Molisch's Test
        ii. Iodine and Potassium Iodide Test
        iii. Bial's Test
        iv. Seliwanoffs Test
        v. Benedict's Test
        vi. Barfoad Test
    c. Honey
        i. Geographical Source
        ii. Uection and Preparation
        iii. Description
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
        vi. Adulterant
    d. Starch
    i. Biological Source
        ii. Preparation of Starch
        iii. Description
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Adulterants
    e. Gums and Mucilages
        i. Gums
16. Drugs Containing Alkaloids
    a. Definition
    b. Physicochemical Properties of Alkaloids
    c. Chemical Tests for Alkaloids
    d. Classification of Alkaloids
    e. Role of Alkaloids in Plants
    f. General Scheme for Isolation of Alkaloids
    g. Indole Alkaloids
        i. Ergot
        ii. Nux Vomica
        iii. Physostigma
        iv. Rauwolfia
        v. Vinca
        vi. Isoquinoline Alkaloids
        vii. Opium
        viii. Ipecacuanha
    h. Quinoline Alkaloids
        i. Cinchona
    i. Tropane Alkaloids
        i. Belladonna
        ii. Hyoscyamus
        iii. Stramonium
        iv. Duboisia
    j. Pyridine Alkaloids
        i. Lobelia
    k. Imidazole Alkaloids
        i. Pilocarpus
    l. Purine Alkaloids
        i. Coffee
    m. Quinazoline Alkaloids
        i. Vasaka
    n. Proto Alkaloids (Amino Alkaloids)
        i. Ephedra 
        ii. A con ire
        iii. Colchicum
    o. Steroidal Alkaloids
        i. Veratrum
        ii. Ashwagandha
17. Drugs Containing Tannins
    a. Introduction
    b. Characteristics of Tannins
    c. Classification of Tannins
        i. Pseudotannins
        ii. Identification Test of Tannins
    d. Uses of Tannins
        i. Hydrolysable Tannins
        ii. Condensed Tannins
18. Drugs Containing Volatile Oils
    a. Physiochemical Properties
    b. Extraction of Volatile Oils
        i. Terpenoids
        ii. Characteristics of Umbelliferous Fruits,
    c. Uses of Volatile Oil
    d. Identification Tests for Volatile Oils
    e. Turpentine Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Turpentine Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Adulterants
        viii. Storage
    f. Peppermint Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation and Collection
        iv. Preparation of Peppermint Oil
        v. Description
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
    g. Cinnamon
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Sources
        iii. Cultivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Identification Tests
        viii. Uses
    h. Cassia Bark
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Identification Tests
        viii. Uses
        ix. Substitutes and Adulterants
    i. Cardamom
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterant
    j. Chenopodium Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Description
        iv. Constituents
        v. Identification Test
        vi. Uses
    k. Eucalyptus Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Description
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    l. Lemon Grass Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Description
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    m. Lemon Peel
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    n. Bitter Orange Peel
        i. Biological Sources
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Microscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Test
        vii. Uses
        viii. Substitutes and Adulterants
    o. Fennel
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Micr-oscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterant
    p. Coriander
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterant
    q. Dill
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. dtivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Substitutes
    r. Caraway
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Adulterant
    s. Jatamansi
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Cultivation
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterant
    t. Anise
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Constituents
        iii. Uses
    u. Camphor
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Sources
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Uses
    v. Pudina
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    w. Banafsha
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    x. Buchu Leaves
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Allied Drugs
    y. Clove
        i. Biological Source
        ii. History
        iii. Geographical Source
        iv. Cultivation and Collection
        v. Macroscopy
        vi. Microscopy
        vii. Chemical Constituents
        viii. Uses
        ix. Identification Tests
        x. Adulterants
    z. Tulsi
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    aa. Saffcron
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    bb. Nutmeg
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Substitutes and Adulterants
    cc. Mace
    dd. Calamus
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
        vi. Biological Source
        vii. Geographical Source
        viii. Collection
        ix. Macroscopy
        x. Microscopy
        xi. Chemical Constituents
        xii. Uses
    ee. Garlic
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    ff. Santonica
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Identification Tests
        vi. Uses
    gg. Suassurea
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
19. Drugs Containing Lipids (Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes)
    a. Fixed Oils and Fats
        i. Classification of Lipids
        ii. Classification of Fats and Oils
        iii. Rancidity
        iv. Hydrogenated Fats
        v. Analytical Parameters
        vi. Identification Tests for Fats and Fixed Oils
        vii. Uses
    b. Waxes
    c. Castor Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Castor oil
        iv. Description
        v. nstituents
        vi. ntification Tests
        vii. Uses
    d. Arichis Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation ofArachis Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Tests
        vii. Uses
    e. Slower Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation ofSafflower Oil
        iv. Description
        v. nstituents
        vi. Uses
    f. Beeswax
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Bees wax (Yellow)
        iv. White Beeswax
        v. Description
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterants
    g. Chaulmoogra Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Chaulmoogra Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    h. Almond Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Sources
        iii. Preparation of Almond Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Contituents
        vi. Uses
    i. Corn Oil (Maize Oil)
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Corn Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    j. Coconut Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Description
        iii. Constituents
        iv. Uses
    k. Kokum Butter
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Kokum Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    l. Mustard Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Description
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    m. Soya Oil
        i. Description
        ii. Constituents
        iii. Uses
    n. Shark Liver Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Shark Liver Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Tests
        vii. Storage
        viii. Uses
    o. Cod Liver Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Cod Liver Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Contituents
        vi. Uses
    p. Lanolin
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Lanolin
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
    q. Olive Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Olive Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    r. Linseed Oil
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Preparation of Linseed Oil
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Adulterants
    s. Spermaceti
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Prepararation Spermaceti
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
20. Drugs Containing Resins
    a. Classification of Resins
        i. Resin Acids
        ii. Resins Alcohols (Resinols)
        iii. Resin Esters
        iv. Resenes
    b. Isolation of Resins
    c. Ginger
        i. Biological Source
        ii. graphical Source
        iii. tivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulteration
    d. Turmeric
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Cultivation and Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Identification Tests
        viii. Uses
    e. Allied Drug
        i. Galang (Rasna)
        ii. Biological Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
    f. Colophony
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Grographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Chemical Constituents
        vi. Storage
        vii. Identity Tests
        viii. Uses
    g. Tolu Balsam
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
        viii. Adulterants
    h. Peru Balsam
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    i. Benzoin 
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
    j. Storax
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
        viii. Substitution
    k. Copaiba
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Adulterants
    l. Myrrh
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Tests
        vii. Uses
    m. Male Fern
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Tests
        vii. Uses
        viii. Substitutions
    n. Asafoetida
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
    o. Vidang
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Identification Test
        vi. Uses
    p. Indian Podophyllum
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Description
        v. Microscopy
        vi. Constituents
        vii. Identification Test
        viii. Uses
        ix. Toxicity
    q. Cannabis
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection and Preparation
        iv. Maroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Identification Test
        vii. Uses
        viii. Marihuana (Mexican cannabis)
    r. Long Pepper
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Uses
        vi. Allied Drugs
    s. Capsicum
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
    t. Kaladana
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Macroscopy
        iv. Constituents
        v. Identification Test
        vi. Uses
    u. Jalap
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Allied Drugs
    v. Ipomoea
        i. Botanical Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
        vii. Allied Drug
    w. Colocynth
        i. Biological Source
        ii. Geographical Source
        iii. Collection
        iv. Macroscopy
        v. Constituents
        vi. Uses
21. Drugs Containing Glycosides
    a. Introduction
    b. Classification
    c. Identification Test of Glycosides
        i. Cardiac Glycosides
        ii. Saponin Glycosides
        iii. Anthraquinone Glycosides
        iv. Cynogenic Glycosides
        v. Coumarin Glycosides
    d. Indian Senna
    e. Alexandrian Senna
    f. Senega
    g. Strophanthus
    h. Ginseng
    i. Chirata
    j. Quassia
    k. Thevetia
    l. Cascara
    m. Gentian
    n. Psoralea
    o. Saffron
    p. Rhubarb
    q. Aloe
    r. Squill
    s. Sarasparilla
    t. Digitalis
    u. Glycyrrhiza
    v. Ammi
22. Enzymes and Protein Drugs 
    a. Enzymes
        i. Diastases
        ii. PEPSIN
        iii. Pancreatin
        iv. Hyaluronidase
        v. Rennin
        vi. Penicillinase
        vii. Trypsin
        viii. Papain
        ix. Chymotrypsin
        x. Urokinase
        xi. Streptokinase
        xii. Muramidase
        xiii. L- Asparaginase
        xiv. Serratiopeptidase
    b. Protein
    c. Amino Acids
        i. Qualitative Test of Protein
        ii. Gelatin
        iii. Protamine Sulfate
        iv. Yeast
        v. Malt Extracts
        vi. Lecithin
        vii. Casein
        viii. Collagen
        ix. Heparin
23. Traditional Medicinal Plants
    a. Introduction
    b. History of Medicinal Plants
    c. Bhilwa
    d. Apamarg
    e. Nirgundi (Chinese Chaste Tree)
    f. Nerium (Kaner)
    g. Majith
    h. Kantkari
    i. Chitrak
    j. Tylophora
    k. Baheda
    l. Amla
    m. Malkangni
    n. Satavari
    o. Shankhpushpi
    p. Punarnava
    q. Vasaka
    r. Rasna 
    s. Gokhru
    t. Guggal
    u. Kalijiri
    v. Bach
    w. Lehsun 
    x. Brahmi
    y. Palash
    z. Gaduchi
24. Ayurvedic Pharmacy
    a. Asava and Arista
        i. Asava
        ii. Methods of Preparation
        iii. General Precautions
        iv. Characteristics
        v. Preservation
        vi. Standardization ofAristas
        vii. Standardization ofAsavas
        viii. Examples of Commonly used ASAVAS and ARISTAS
        ix. Examples of ARISTA Ayurvedic Formulations
        x. Examples of ASAVAS Ayurvedic Formulations
    b. Avleha
        i. Methods of Preparation
        ii. Characteristics
        iii. Preservation and Storage
        iv. Standardization of Avleha
        v. Examples Commonly used Avleha
    c. Churna
        i. General Methods of Preparations
        ii. Chai-acteristics and Preservation
        iii. Standardization ofChurna
        iv. Examples of Commonly used Churna
    d. Bhasma
        i. Methods of Preparation: First Stage (Sodhana)
        ii. Characteristics
        iii. Preservation
        iv. Standardization ofBhasmas
25. Fibres, Surgical Dressing and Sutures
    a. Fibres
    b. Animal Fibres
        i. Wool
        ii. Silk
    c. Plant Fibers
        i. Cotton
        ii. Jute
    d. Flax
        i. Hemp
    e. Regenerated Fibres
        i. Regenerated Carbohydrates
        ii. Regenerated Protein Fibres
    f. Synthetic Fibres
        i. Nylon
        ii. Terylene
        iii. Orion
        iv. Polythene
    g. Mineral Fibres
        i. Asbestos
    h. Surgical Dressing
        i. Function and Properties of Dressing
        ii. Classification
    i. Sutures
        i. Properties
        ii. Classification
        iii. Absorbable Suture
        iv. Non Absorbable Suture
26. Marine Drugs
    a. Classification
    b. Antimicrobial Compounds
    c. Antibiotic Compounds
    d. Anti-Inflammatory and Antispasmodic Agents
    e. Others
    f. Miscellaneous Compounds
27. World Wide Trade in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Derived Products
    a. Introduction
    b. Resources and Distribution
    c. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPS): Benefits and Challenges
        i. Traditional, Affordable Health Care
        ii. Widespread Demand for MAPs
        iii. Impacts of Commercialization
    d. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPS): Uses and Value-Added
        i. Phytomedicines
        ii. Herbal Remedies
        iii. Herbal Teas and Infusions
        iv. Homeopathic Drugs
        v. Ayurvedic Drugs
        vi. Dietary Supplements
        vii. Functional Foods
        viii. Xutraceuticals
        ix. Cosmeceuticals
        x. Aromatherapy Oils
        xi. Modern Western Medicine
        xii. Popular or Folk Medicine
        xiii. Alternative Medicine
        xiv. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
    e. Public And Private Sector Research And Development Capability: Boosting
    f. ility Of Plant Derived Medicines
    g. International Trade In Medicinal Plants
    h. E merging Economic Benefits
28. Appendix
29. Chemical Tests for Plant Constituents

    a. Alkaloids
    b. Carbohydrates
    c. Fixed oils and fats
    d. Glycosides
    e. Gums and Mucilages
    f. Proteins and Amino acids
    g. Phenolics and Tannins
    h. Saponins
    i. Sterols and triterpenes
    j. Volatile oils
    k. Specific chemical test for identification of drugs
30. List of Crude Drugs
31. Glossary
32. References
33. Subject Index

Comments