The ability to fluently decode words, numbers or symbols that have
been presented in an encoded format (e.g., visual symbols for text,
haptic symbols for Braille, algebraic expressions for relationships)
takes practice for any learner, but some learners will reach
automaticity more quickly than others. Learners need consistent and
meaningful exposure to symbols so that they can comprehend and use them
effectively. Lack of fluency or automaticity greatly increases the
cognitive load of decoding, thereby reducing the capacity for
information processing and comprehension. To ensure that all learners
have equal access to knowledge, at least when the ability to decode is
not the focus of instruction, it is important to provide options that
reduce the barriers that decoding raises for learners who are unfamiliar
or dysfluent with the symbols.
Tell Me More!
 Allow the use of TexttoSpeech
 Use automatic voicing with digital mathematical notation (Math ML)
 Use digital text with an accompanying human voice recording (e.g., Daisy Talking Books)
 Allow for flexibility and easy access to multiple representations of notation where appropriate (e.g., formulas, word problems, graphs)
 Offer clarification of notation through lists of key terms
