Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation

One important aspect of self-regulation is the personal knowledge each learner has about what he or she finds motivating, be it intrinsic or extrinsic. To accomplish this, learners need to be able to set personal goals that can be realistically reached, as well as fostering positive beliefs that their goals can be met. However, learners also need to be able to deal with frustration and avoid anxiety when they are in the process of meeting their goals. Multiple options need to be given to learners to help them stay motivated.

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  • Provide prompts, reminders, guides, rubrics, checklists that focus on:
    • Self-regulatory goals like reducing the frequency of aggressive outbursts in response to frustration
    • Increasing the length of on-task orientation in the face of distractions
    • Elevating the frequency of self-reflection and self-reinforcements
  • Provide coaches, mentors, or agents that model the process of setting personally appropriate goals that take into account both strengths and weaknesses
  • Support activities that encourage self-reflection and identification of personal goals
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