Alternate fuel

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Direct injection


Popularized by Toyota Prius and Honda Insights. 

Gasoline Gallon Equivalent 


The National Conference of Weights & Measurements (NCWM) has developed a standard unit of measurement for compressed natural gas, defined in the NIST Handbook 44 Appendix D as follows: "1 Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) means 2.567 kg (5.660 lb) of natural gas.

E85 study - 

85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. Many new vehicles are flex fuel which allows operation on 100% gasoline to E85. 


Liquid propane gas

 LPG conversion e-Book

California Conversions


Compressed natual gas 

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, usually cylinders.


During the 1970s and 1980s, CNG was commonly used in New Zealand in the wake of the oil crises, but fell into decline after petrol prices receded.

 CNG is also often confused with LPG, which is a compressed blend of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).


Mythbusters ran a Mercedes diesel on filtered fry oil with no other modifications.


Fuel cells

Direct injection

Not an alternate fuel, but an alternate fueling method. Generally engines that go from normal "port" style fuel injection to direct injection gain horsepower and improve fuel mileage.   


How long will our current fuel reserves last ?


What will happen to transportation when fossil fuels get expensive ? 


Gasoline useage by state.

Average 464 gallons per person per year.

California 414 gallons per person per year #45

Wyoming 615 gallons per person per year #1 


California fuel 


 California consumes substantial amounts of gasoline - about 16 billion gallons per year! Crude oil is made into gasoline, and the crude comes from within-state oil wells (39.46%), Alaska (20.16%) and foreign sources (40.39%).

 Fuel reserves

Copied from -

In the history of the world, according to AAPG presidential address, April 1993,

2 trillion is a common number you see for unproduced oil - but by no means does everyone agree on that number. "Peak Oil" people say half of all that can be produced has been produced (or soon will be) and half remains - maybe 1 trillion produced, 1 trillion remaining. A "Peak Oil" site.One moreAnd another.

 Even with all of this, the true price of gasoline has fallen more than 40% from its inflation-adjusted price of $3.11 per gallon in 1981. And in the US, at $2.50 per gallon (2005), we pay about one-half to one-third of the price western Europeans and others have paid for many years. Icelanders pay about $6.12 per gallon (2004). Much of that cost is in national taxes that support health care and other programs. 

Although the price of oil is ultimately governed by supply and demand -- with the greatest demand in the US (25% of world oil consumption; 45% of world gasoline consumption) and two-thirds of US demand in the transportation sector -- nervousness on the part of oil traders also impacts the short-term price. For example, in early 2006 real (e.g., Nigeria's shut-in 500,000 barrels per day of production) and perceived possible (e.g., jitters over Iran and political issues in Venezuela and elsewhere) supply problems DO result in increased prices, as buyers are willing to pay higher prices for something that they think may soon be in shorter supply.

 Why are California gasoline prices higher and more variable than others?

The State of California operates its own reformulated gasoline program with more stringent requirements than Federally-mandated clean gasolines. In addition to the higher cost of cleaner fuel, there is a combined State and local sales and use tax of 7.25 percent on top of an 18.4 cent-per-gallon Federal excise tax and an 18.0 cent-per-gallon State excise tax. Refinery margins have also been higher due in large part to price volatility in the region.

California prices are more variable than others because there are relatively few supply sources of its unique blend of gasoline outside the State. California refineries need to be running near their fullest capabilities in order to meet the State’s fuel demands. If more than one of its refineries experiences operating difficulties at the same time, California’s gasoline supply may become very tight and the prices soar. Supplies could be obtained from some Gulf Coast and foreign refineries; however, California’s substantial distance from those refineries is such that any unusual increase in demand or reduction in supply results in a large price response in the market before relief supplies can be delivered. The farther away the necessary relief supplies are, the higher and longer the price spike will be.


 Hubbert Peak Oil Theory

In 2004, 30 billion barrels of oil were consumed worldwide, while only eight billion barrels of new oil reserves were discovered. New discoveries of huge, easily exploitable oil fields are most likely a thing of the past. In August 2005, the International Energy Agency reported global demand at 84.9 million barrels per day, resulting in an annual demand of over 31 billion barrels. This means consumption is now within 2 Mbbl/d of production. At any one time there are about 54 days of stock in the OECD system plus 37 days in emergency stockpiles. In June 2005, OPEC admitted that they would 'struggle' to pump enough oil to meet pricing pressures for the fourth quarter of that year. The summer and winter of 2005 brought oil prices to a new high (not adjusted for inflation). On the other hand, some analysts attribute much of this new high to disruptions caused by the war in Iraq