Measures and Substitutions


Common substitutions and alternative ingredients.

Use substitutions in emergency situations,

and keep in mind they may not perform like the original ingredient.

Ingredient Amount Substitute


Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon and 1/2 tsp ground cloves
Apple pie spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom
Arrowroot 1 1/2 tsp 1 tbsp flour

1 1/2 tsp cornstarch
Baking powder 1 tsp 1/3 tsp baking soda and 1/2 tsp cream of tartar

1/4 tsp baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 cup.)

1/4 tsp baking soda and 1/2 tsp vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 cup.)
Bay leaf 1 whole 1/4 tsp crushed
Beau Monde 1 tsp 1 tsp seasoning or seasoned salt

1/2 tsp salt


1/2 tsp Mei Yen seasoning

Bread 1 slice dry

1 slice soft bread
1/3 cup dry breadcrumbs

3/4 cup soft breadcrumbs
Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

1 1/2 tsp powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Butter 1 cup 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp salt

7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt

1 cup margarine
Buttermilk (sourmilk) 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt

1 cup whole or skim milk plus 1 tbsp lemon juice or white vinegar

1 cup milk plus 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar
Chili sauce 1 cup 1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
Chives, finely chopped 2 tsp 2 tsp green onion tops, finely chopped
Chocolate, chips semisweet 1 oz 1 oz sweet cooking chocolate
Chocolate, semisweet 1  2/3 oz



6 oz package
1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar

1 cup semi-sweet chocolate chips
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz or square 3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp fat
Cocoa 1/4 cup or 4 tbsp 1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (Decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tbsp.)
Coconut cream 1 cup 1 cup whipping cream
Coconut milk 1 cup 1 cup whole or 2% milk
Corn 1 doz ears 2 1/2 cup cooked
Cornmeal, self-rising 1 cup 7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tbsp baking powder, and 1/2 tsp salt
Corn syrup 1 cup 1 1/4 cup light brown sugar and 1/3 cup water

7/8 cup honey (Baked goods will brown more.)
Corn syrup, dark 1 cup 3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses
Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 tbsp 2 tbsp all-purpose flour

2 tbsp granular tapioca
Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup 1 cup dry bread crumbs
Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
Cream, whipped
Chill a 13-oz can of evaporated milk until ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
Dates 1 lb 2 1/2 cup pitted
Dill plant, fresh or dried 3 heads 1 tbsp dill seed
Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large (3 tbsp) 2 1/2 tbsp sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tbsp lukewarm water

2 yolks and 1 tbsp water (in cookies)

2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixture)

2 whites as a thickening agent
Eggs, uncooked 1 cup 5 large eggs

6 medium eggs
Egg white 1 cup

1 large (2 tbsp)
8 large egg whites

2 tbsp sifted, dry egg white powder, and 2 tbsp lukewarm water

2 tsp thawed frozen egg white
Egg yolk 1 cup

1 yolk (1 1/2 tbsp)
12 large egg yolks

2 tbsp sifted, dry egg yolk

3 1/2 tbsp thawed frozen egg yolk
Fine Herbes 1/3 cup 3 tbsp parsley flakes + 2 tsp dried chervil + 2 tsp dried chives + 1 tsp dried tarragon
Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp 1 1/2 tsp cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch

1 tbsp granular tapioca

1 tbsp waxy rice flour

2 tbsp browned flour

1 1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour

1 tbsp quick-cooking tapioca

1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour and 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted 1 cup and 2 tbsp cake flour

1 cup rolled oats, crushed

1/2 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

1 cup rye or rice flour

1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, all-purpose 1 lb 4 cup sifted

3 1/3 cup, unsifted
Flour, cake 1lb

1 lb sifted
4 3/4 cup

1 cup minus 2 tbsp sifted all-purpose flour (7/8 cup)
Flour, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp baking powder, and 1/2 tsp salt


Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of white flour in a cake to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour.






Fruit, fresh, cut up 1 1/2 cups 16 oz can, drained
Garlic 1 clove, small 1/8 tsp garlic powder
Garlic salt 1 tsp 1/8 tsp garlic powder plus 7/8 tsp salt
Gelatin, flavored 3 oz 1 tbsp plain gelatin and 2 cup fruit juice
Ginger 1/8 tsp 1 tsp candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, then finely cut

1 tbsp raw ginger
Herbs, Fresh 1 tbsp, chopped 1/2 tsp dried crushed herbs
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water
Horseradish 1 tbsp 2 tbsp bottled fresh
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, and 2 tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking)
Lemon juice 1 tsp juice 1/2 tsp vinegar
Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp 1 to 2 tsp grated fresh lemon peel

grated peel of 1 medium lemon

1/2 tsp lemon extract
Lime 1 medium 1 1/2 to 2 tbsp juice
Maple sugar (grated and packed) 1/2 cup

1 tbsp
1 cup maple syrup

1 tbsp white, granulated sugar
Marshmallows, miniature 1 cup 8-10 regular
Mayonnaise (for salad dressings) 1 cup 1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise

1 cup sour cream

1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Mei Yen seasoning 1 tsp 1 tsp Beau Monde seasoning

1/2 tsp salt
Milk, buttermilk (or sour) 1 cup 1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar

1 cup minus 1 tbsp sweet milk and 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 20 minutes at room temperature.)
Milk, skim 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

4 to 5 tbsp non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 cup or follow manufacturer’s directions
Milk, sweetened condensed 1 can (about 1 1/3 cup) Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup plus 2 tbsp evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp butter or margarine.

Add 1 cup plus 2 tbsp dry milk to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and 3 tbsp melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.
Milk, whole 1 cup 1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2 tbsp butter or margarine, if desired.)

4 tbsp whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or follow manufacturer’s directions)

1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb 2 to 3 cup whole

3 oz dried

5 cup sliced

1 10-oz can (8 oz, drained weight)
Mushrooms, canned 4 oz 2 cup sliced fresh

6 tbsp whole, dried mushrooms
Mustard, dry 1 tsp 1 tbsp prepared mustard
Onion, fresh 1 small rehydrate 1 tbsp instant minced onion
Onion powder 1 tbsp 1 medium onion, chopped

4 tbsp fresh chopped onion
Onions 1 lb 3 large onions

2 to 2 1/2 cup chopped
Orange peel, dried 2 tsp

1 tbsp
1 tsp orange extract

2 to 3 tbsp grated orange peel

grated peel of 1 medium orange
Peppers, green bell 1 tbsp dried 3 tbsp fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, red bell 1 tbsp dried 2 tbsp chopped pimiento

3 tbsp fresh red pepper, chopped
Peppermint, dried 1 tbsp 1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Pimiento 2 tbsp 1 tbsp dried red bell peppers, rehydrated

3 tbsp fresh red bell pepper, chopped
Pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp allspice, and 1/8 tsp nutmeg
Rennet 1 tablet 1 tbsp liquid rennet
Shortening, melted 1 cup 1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if recipe calls for melted shortening.)
Shortening, solid (used in baking) 1 cup 1 1/8 cup butter (Decrease salt called for in recipe by 1/2 tsp.)

1 cup minus 2 tbsp lard (7/8 cup)
Sour cream, cultured 1 cup 3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese

3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

1 cup plain yogurt
Spearmint, dried 1 tbsp 1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Sugar, brown 1 lb

1 cup firmly packed
2 1/4 cup firmly packed

1 cup granulated sugar
Sugar, granulated 1 lb 2 1/4 cup
Sugar, powdered 1 lb 2 3/4 cup
Sugar, granulated 1 tsp 1/8 tsp noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer’s directions
Sugar, granulated 1 cup 1 1/2 cup corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup.)

1 1/3 cup molasses (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 cup.)

1 cup powdered sugar

1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed

3/4 cup honey (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup; for each cup of honey in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp soda.)
Tapioca, granular 1 tbsp 2 tbsp pearl tapioca
Tomato juice 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water
Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp 1 tsp bottled steak sauce
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

1 cup sour cream
Ingredient Amount Substitution