### Liquid Measures

1 cup 8 fluid ounces 1/2 pint 237 ml
2 cups 16 fluid ounces 1 pint 474 ml
4 cups 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 946 ml
2 pints 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 0.964 liters
4 quarts 128 fluid ounces 1 gallon 3.784 liters
8 quarts one peck

4 pecks one bushel

dash less than 1/4 teaspoon

### Dry Measures

3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon 1/2 ounce 14.3 grams
2 tablespoons 1/8 cup 1 fluid ounce 28.3 grams
4 tablspoons 1/4 cup 2 fluid ounces 56.7 grams
5 1/3 tablespoons 1/3 cup 2.6 fluid ounces 75.6 grams
8 tablespoons 1/2 cup 4 ounces 113.4 grams 1 stick butter
12 tablespoons 3/4 cup 6 ounces .375 pound 170 grams
32 tablespoons 2 cups 16 ounces 1 pound 453.6 grams
64 tablespoons 4 cups 32 ounces 2 pounds 907 grams

Liquid Measure Conversion

1/2 fl oz = 1 tbsp = 3 tsp
1/8 cup
= 1 fl oz = 2 tbsp = 6 tsp
1/4 cup = 2 fl oz = 4 tbsp = 12 tsp
1/2 cup
= 4 fl oz = 8 tbsp = 24 tsp
1/4 qt
= 1/2 pt = 1 cup = 8 fl oz
1/2 qt
= 1 pt = 2 cups = 16 fl oz
1/4 gal = 1 qt = 2 pt = 4 cups = 32 fl oz
1/2 gal = 2 qt = 4 pt = 8 cups = 64 fl oz
1 gal = 4 qt = 8 pt = 16 cups = 128 fl oz

Candy - Making Chart
Thread
begins at 230°

The syrup will make a 2? thread when dropped from a spoon.
Soft Ball

begins at 234°

A small amount of syrup dropped into chilled water forms a ball, but flattens when picked up with fingers
Firm Ball

begins at 244°

The ball will hold its shape and flatten only when pressed.
Hard Ball
begins at 250°
The ball is more rigid but still pliable.
Soft Crack

begins at 270°
When a small amount of syrup is dropped into chilled water it will separate into threads which will bend when picked up.
Hard Crack
begins at 300°
The syrup separates into threads that are hard and brittle.
Caramelized Sugar

310° to 338°

Between these temperatures the syrup will turn dark golden, but will turn black at 350°.

Meat Temperature Chart

(Fahrenheit)

Beef
Rare                                  120° - 125°
Medium-rare                       130° - 135°
Medium                             140° - 145°
Medium-well                       150° - 155°
Well done                           160° and above

Lamb

Rare                                    135°
Medium-rare                         140° - 150°
Medium                               160°
Well done                            165° and above

Poultry

Chicken                               165° - 175°
Turkey                                 165° - 175°

Pork                                    150°