Current version: 1.07 (ChangeLog)
wmctrl is a UNIX/Linux command line tool to interact with an EWMH/NetWM compatible X Window Manager.
The tool provides command line access to almost all the features defined in the EWMH specification. It can be used, for example, to get information about the window manager, to get a detailed list of desktops and managed windows, to switch and resize desktops, to make windows full-screen, always-above or sticky, and to activate, close, move, resize, maximize and minimize them.
The command line access to these window management functions makes it easy to automate and execute them from any application that is able to run a command in response to an event.
Please note that wmctrl only works with window managers that implement the EWMH specification. The tool is known to work - either fully or partially - with the following window managers:
In some of these window managers, EWMH is supported only in their current unstable/beta/developer releases (01/2005). Three simple criteria were chosen for including a window manager in the list above. The window manager must at least:
Notably missing are the following, mostly "light-weight" window managers, which are not yet supported. Their EWMH implementation is either non-existent, incomplete or buggy:
None of the lists above is exhaustive.
Usage: wmctrl [OPTION]... Actions: -m Show information about the window manager and about the environment. -l List windows managed by the window manager. -d List desktops. The current desktop is marked with an asterisk. -s <DESK> Switch to the specified desktop. -a <WIN> Activate the window by switching to its desktop and raising it. -c <WIN> Close the window gracefully. -R <WIN> Move the window to the current desktop and activate it. -r <WIN> -t <DESK> Move the window to the specified desktop. -r <WIN> -e <MVARG> Resize and move the window around the desktop. The format of the <MVARG> argument is described below. -r <WIN> -b <STARG> Change the state of the window. Using this option it's possible for example to make the window maximized, minimized or fullscreen. The format of the <STARG> argument and list of possible states is given below. -r <WIN> -N <STR> Set the name (long title) of the window. -r <WIN> -I <STR> Set the icon name (short title) of the window. -r <WIN> -T <STR> Set both the name and the icon name of the window. -k (on|off) Activate or deactivate window manager's "showing the desktop" mode. Many window managers do not implement this mode. -o <X>,<Y> Change the viewport for the current desktop. The X and Y values are separated with a comma. They define the top left corner of the viewport. The window manager may ignore the request. -n <NUM> Change number of desktops. The window manager may ignore the request. -g <W>,<H> Change geometry (common size) of all desktops. The window manager may ignore the request. -h Print help. Options: -i Interpret <WIN> as a numerical window ID. -p Include PIDs in the window list. Very few X applications support this feature. -G Include geometry in the window list. -x Include WM_CLASS in the window list or interpret <WIN> as the WM_CLASS name. -u Override auto-detection and force UTF-8 mode. -F Modifies the behavior of the window title matching algorithm. It will match only the full window title instead of a substring, when this option is used. Furthermore it makes the matching case sensitive. -v Be verbose. Useful for debugging. -w <WA> Use a workaround. The option may appear multiple times. List of available workarounds is given below. Arguments: <WIN> This argument specifies the window. By default it's interpreted as a string. The string is matched against the window titles and the first matching window is used. The matching isn't case sensitive and the string may appear in any position of the title. The -i option may be used to interpret the argument as a numerical window ID represented as a decimal number. If it starts with "0x", then it will be interpreted as a hexadecimal number. The special string ":SELECT:" (without the quotes) may be used to instruct wmctrl to let you select the window by clicking on it. The special string ":ACTIVE:" (without the quotes) may be used to instruct wmctrl to use the currently active window for the action. <DESK> A desktop number. Desktops are counted from zero. <MVARG> Specifies a change to the position and size of the window. The format of the argument is: <G>,<X>,<Y>,<W>,<H> <G>: Gravity specified as a number. The numbers are defined in the EWMH specification. The value of zero is particularly useful, it means "use the default gravity of the window". <X>,<Y>: Coordinates of new position of the window. <W>,<H>: New width and height of the window. The value of -1 may appear in place of any of the <X>, <Y>, <W> and <H> properties to left the property unchanged. <STARG> Specifies a change to the state of the window by the means of _NET_WM_STATE request. This option allows two properties to be changed simultaneously, specifically to allow both horizontal and vertical maximization to be altered together. The format of the argument is: (remove|add|toggle),<PROP1>[,<PROP2>] The EWMH specification defines the following properties: modal, sticky, maximized_vert, maximized_horz, shaded, skip_taskbar, skip_pager, hidden, fullscreen, above, below Workarounds: DESKTOP_TITLES_INVALID_UTF8 Print non-ASCII desktop titles correctly when using Window Maker. The format of the window list: <window ID> <desktop ID> <client machine> <window title> The format of the desktop list: <desktop ID> [-*] <geometry> <viewport> <workarea> <title>
The code is available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).