Chapter 1.7: The Philippines is Ophir, but what part of the country was the seat of Ophir?


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the region mentioned in the Bible. For other uses, see Ophir (disambiguation).

Ophir (/ˈoʊfər/;[1] HebrewאוֹפִירModern OfirTiberian ʼÔp̄îr) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. King Solomon received a cargo of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes, and peacocks from Ophir every three years.


Biblical references

Ophir in Genesis 10 (the Table of Nations) is said to be the name of one of the sons of Joktan.[Note 1] The Books of Kings and Chronicles tell of a joint expedition to Ophir by King Solomon and the Tyrian king Hiram I from Ezion-Geber, a port on the Red Sea, that brought back large amounts of gold, precious stones and 'algum wood' and of a later failed expedition by king Jehoshaphat of Judah.[Note 2] The famous 'gold of Ophir' is referenced in several other books of the Hebrew Bible.[Note 3]

Early Christian traditions

The New Testament apocrypha book Cave of Treasures contains a passage: "And the children of Ophir, that is, Send, appointed to be their king Lophoron, who built Ophir with stones of gold; now, all the stones that are in Ophir are of gold."[2]


In 1946 an inscribed pottery shard was found at Tell Qasile (in modern-day Tel Aviv) dating to the eighth century BC.[3][4] It bears, in Paleo-Hebrew script the text "gold of Ophir to/for Beth-Horon [...] 30 shekels"[Note 4][5] The find confirms that Ophir was a place where gold was imported from,[6] although its location remains unknown.

Theorized or conjectural locations



A Dictionary of the Bible by Sir William Smith, published in 1863,[7] notes the Hebrew word for parrot Thukki, derived from the Classical Tamil for peacock Thogkai and Cingalese "tokei",[8] joins other Classical Tamil words for ivory, cotton-cloth and apes preserved in the Hebrew Bible. This theory of Ophir's location in Tamilakkam is further supported by other historians.[9][10][11] Locations on the coast of Kerala conjectured to be Ophir include Poovar and Beypore[12][13]

Earlier in the 19th century Max Müller and other scholars identified Ophir with Abhira, near the Indus River in modern-day state of GujaratIndia. According to Benjamin Walker Ophir is said to have been a town of the Abhira tribe.[14][15]


Ophir is known in the Philippines as the Lakanate of Lawan

        In a book found in Spain entitled Colección General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas (General Collection of Philippine Islands related Documents), the author has described how to locate Ophir. According to the section "Document No. 98", dated 1519-1522, Ophir can be found by travelling from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, then finally Ophir facing the Pacific Ocean , occasionally, to Taiwan (China) and some other Polynesian Islands to collect precious stones and commodities, and then back to Ophir and eventually to Israel using the same route. Ophir was said to be "[...] in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade..." this group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there, nor Taiwan, since it is not composed of "many islands." Only the present-day Philippines, could fit the description. Spanish records also mention the presence of Lequios (big, bearded men, probably descendants of the Phoenicians, whose ships were always laden with gold and silver) in the Islands to gather gold and silver.Some historians believe that the  seat of Ophir in the Philippines is the Pacific Ocean side of the Island of Samar which was led once upon a time by a Samaritan Hadi Iberein (according to historian Henry Scott), who was a staunch ally of the Kingdom of Tondo. The Pacific side of Samar is also recognized by some historians as the ancestral homeland of the Polynesians. Ophir is more formally called by some historians as the Lakanate of Lawan.

The Timeline of the Pre - Hispanic Philippines       

        The Dawn man (Prof. Otley Beyer) and Callao man (recent diggings) existed in the Philippines as early as 250,000 and 70,000 years ago, but only the following  ancient settlements appears in most Philippine history books:

1800 BC – ancient Lawan pacific settlement: Ophir, the ancestral homeland of the Polynesians and forebear of Tondo settlement, and other  Philippine ancient settlements because travel by sea was the fastest and easiest mode of ancient migration compared to migration by land (some historians believe that the estimated location of Ophir settlement is in the present  - day Northern Samar, the name Samar was derived from Samaria, the ancestral homeland of Lawan chieftain Hadi Iberein)
1000 BC -  Igorot Society (CAR)
601  AD - Chiefdoms of Zabag and Wak-Wak (Pampanga and Aparri
800 AD - Namayan (Mandaluyong, Sta. Ana Manila)
900 AD - Tondo (Tondo, Manila)
971  AD - Huangdom of Ma-i
1176 AD - Kingdom of Tondo (Manila)
1200 AD - Rajahnate of Cebu, Madjas-as Confederation, Dapitan, Butuan
1252 AD - Lupah Sug (Sulu)
1376 AD - Bruneian Empire
1408 AD - Caboloan Vassal State of Ming China (Pangasinan)
1430 AD - Sultanate of Sulu
1450 AD - Kingdom of Tondo reached its peak with the largest territory in the archipelago 
1470 AD - Namayan became a vassal state of Tondo
1492 AD - Kingdom of Taytay (Palawan)
1499 AD - Brunei conquered Ma-i and Sulu
1500 AD - Brunei conquered Tondo's Manila territory and established the puppet Kingdom of Maynila
1501 AD -  Maguindanao established
1502 AD - Brunei totally took-over Tondo which lost its territories up north of Luzon.
1521 AD -  Magellan reaches the Philippines & is killed by Lapu-Lapu in the battle of Mactan
1522 AD - Maranao established
1532 AD - Lanao established
1564 AD - Sultanate of Ternate established, Spain conquered Cebu
1567 AD - Datu Pagbuaya established
1573 AD - Spain conquered Madjas-As and Tondo
1577 AD - Spain conquered Caboloan

    During the WWll, Philippine President Manuel L.Quezon, a native of the Pacific side of the Philippines within the influence of the ancient Lakanate of Lawan (Ophir), saved more than thousand Jews from Europe to be butchered by the Nazis by accepting them into the Philippines and settling them in his properties in Marikina Valley.

    The rest is history.


Biblical scholars, archaeologists and others have tried to determine the exact location of Ophir. Vasco da Gama's companion Tomé Lopes reasoned that Ophir would have been the ancient name for Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the main center of sub-African trade in gold in the Renaissance period — though the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are now dated to the medieval era, long after Solomon is said to have lived. The identification of Ophir with Sofala in Mozambique was mentioned by Milton in Paradise Lost (11:399-401), among many other works of literature and science.

Another, more serious, possibility is the African shore of the Red Sea, with the name perhaps being derived from the Afar people living in the Danakil desert (EthiopiaEritrea) between Adulis and Djibouti.

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the Carthaginians, who dwelt in North Africa, in modern-day Tunisia. This name, that later gave the rich Roman province of Africa and the subsequent medieval Ifriqiya, are from which the name of the continent Africa is ultimately derived, seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe originally, however, see Terencefor discussion. The name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis[16] has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran) meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[17] This is proposed[17] to be the origin of Ophir as well.[18]


The theologian Benito Arias Montano (1571) proposed finding Ophir in the name of Peru, reasoning that the native Peruvians were thus descendants of Ophir and Shem.[19]

Other assumptions

In 1568 Alvaro Mendaña the first European to discover the Solomon Islands, and named them as such because he believed them to be Ophir.[20]

In Jewish tradition, Ophir is often associated with a place in India,[dubious – discuss] named for one of the sons of Joktan.[21] The 10th-century lexicographer, David ben Abraham al-Fasi, identified Ophir with Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon).[22]

In literature

Johann Sebastian BachCantata Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65 Aria Gold aus Ophir ist zu schlecht.

Ophir is the subject of H. Rider Haggard's novel King Solomon's Mines, which places the lost city in South Africa.

H P Lovecraft mentions Ophir in his short story "The Cats of Ulthar", in the pulp magazine 'The Tryout' November 1920.

Charles Beadle published a three-part serial, The Land of Ophir, in the pulp magazine Adventure, issues of March 10, 20, & 30, 1922.

Ophir is also a kingdom in Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian series of stories; see Hyborian Age for more information.

Several of Edgar Rice BurroughsTarzan novels happen in and around the lost city of Opar, deep in the African jungles — with Opar evidently being another name for Ophir. The city appears in The Return of Tarzan (1913), Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar (1916), Tarzan and the Golden Lion (1923), and Tarzan the Invincible (1930).

Philip José Farmer took up the theme from the Tarzan books and wrote two books of his own, taking place in Opar at the height of its glory thousands of years ago: Hadon of Ancient Opar and Flight to Opar.

Wilbur Smith's novel The Sunbird is set in ancient Ophir (called Opet) and its modern ruins, located in modern Botswana.

Ophir is the name of the Nordic Utopia in M. M. Scherbatov's 1784 novel "Putishestvie v zemliu ofirskuiu" ("Voyage to Ophir").

Clive Cussler's The Navigator places the mines of Ophir on the eastern seaboard of the United States, postulating a pre-Columbian voyage by the Phoenicians.

Ophir is also referenced in Alexander Dumas's book The Count of Monte Cristo. "...but these two tears disappeared almost immediately, God doubtless having sent some angel to gather them as being more precious in His eyes than the richest pearls of Gujarat or Ophir."

John Masefield's poem "Cargoes" refers to Solomon's trade with Ophir.'Quinquereme of Nineveh from distant Ophir'

Ophir is the destination of the adventures in the movies The Mistress of the World (1919) and Legend of the Lost (1957).

Ophir is the name of a board game created by Jason D. Kingsley and Charles Wright in early 2015. It is published by Terra Nova Games.

Ophir is the suspected location of an archaeological discovery near Aden, in the novel Biggles Forms A Syndicate (1961), by W. E. Johns

The name appears in two Emily Dickinson poems, "Sister of Ophir" and "Brother of Ophir," written two years apart.

The name in turn appears in Hart Crane's poem "To Emily Dickinson."[23]

In his novel, "King Solomon's Pilot", Jerold Richert finds Ophir on the Indian mainland, and fictionally suggests its naming.

See also

·         Tarshish, another Biblical location providing Solomon with riches.

·         Ophur, Chicago, IL based rock band circa 1997 - 2004

·         Karl Mauch, an explorer who inadvertently discovered Great Zimbabwe when searching for Ophir.


Further Proofs that Points to the Philippines as the Ophir

             A comparative study of the two most prominent ophirians or Filipino authors claiming that Philippines is Ophir. Namely they are Isagani datu Aca Tabilog, the author of the article Ang Pilipinas ay nasa Biblia 2010, (Philippines is in Bible) and Dr. Richard Vincent Narag TH. D Dr. HUM author of the most controversial books like Rizal Code 2009, Philippines is Ophir “Greatest Ancient Sacred Secrets De Coded" and The Ophirian.

         The said books are copyrighted in the Philippine National Library Manila. In which the said controversy that Philippines is the ancient Ophir the place where king Solomon got gold to build the Temple of Jerusalem as written in I Kings 10:1-15. , this puzzled almost all scholars, historians and theologians all over the world. What is their basis of writing this? What is the importance of this to Filipino People and what will be the significance of this?

Isagani Tabilog in his writings emphasized more on the historical evidences on how Philippines became Ophir while Dr. R V Narag shed light on the Biblical evidence and the Scientific evidence  why Philippines is Ophir. This paper discussed the Biblical,   then the historical evidences.

Biblical Evidence that Ophir is Philippines    

          According to both authors I. Tabilog and Dr. R. Narag that  Shem the son of Noah become the father of  Eber ( Hebrew ancestors), which is the father of Peleg the Ancestor of Israel and Joktan the father of Ophir and Sheba  which is the ancestor of Southeast Asian countries including Philippines. Genesis 10:25-30. That is why Filipinos has Hebrew origin.  Tabilog stopped right here while Dr. R. Narag gave more evidences from the start why did Noah blessed Shem so much that is why he gave the three most sacred places on earth, The Mount Sinia, Zion and Garden of Eden as it is written in Jubilees 8.  Dr. Narag said just using only the Bible with prayer and fasting one may find Ophir and here are they.

           Dr. Narag emphasized that according to Antiquities of Jews by Flavius Josephus in Chapter 4. That Eber is where the Hebrew originated so Philippines have a Hebrew origin.

1. Ophirians live in Sephar.

          Sheba, Ophir and Hawilah , Obal and the some of Joktan sons went to Sephar. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mountain of the east. Genesis 10:30

            According to Dr. Narag , Sephar which is written in Hebrew SPR because according to him there is no bowels in Hebrew and getting the meaning of this through hermeneutics. Sephar in hermeneutics Se with the root word para means the place of budding or origin, also sephar means book, scribe and numbering. In Genesis 10:30 Sephar is the eastern border of earth.  This suggest that place in the eastern borders of Shem are China, Philippines, Indonesia and Japan. Using the location we can easily rule out all countries that do not fall on the Eastern parts of the world like India and Yemen.  

        The word eastern derived from the Hebrew  word  Qedem in which in Hebrew  it means  front of the rising sun  it also means , that which is before, aforetime.  front or east, in front, mount of the East ancient time, aforetime, ancient, from of old, earliest time; anciently, of old (adverb),beginning . So Sephar is the land where the sun rises, probably Japan or Philippines.

Sephar is linked to In Deuteronomy 33:15 as the ancient mountains that is very rich in natural resources  as it is written

 May Yahweh bless their land with crops, the best gift the sun can give, the best produce of each month, “And with the best things of the ancient mountains. Deu. 33:15

            According to Dr. Narag, Sephar is the old or the ancient mountain where Noah live before the flood as the word qedem implies, he seems  trying to convince us to believe the ancient eden location perhaps. With best things as stated in Deu 33:15 which includes gold and all natural resources.

             Tabilog consider Philippines as Ophir as the ancient land of Gold which is written in the Bible, while Dr. Narag Consider Philippines not only as the Biblical Land of gold Ophir but he is pointing out to be the ancient habitat of the ancient humanity, that’s why king Solomon knew it before.

2. Ophir is rich in gold.    

          The gold used for the building of temple Jerusalem is from Ophir. And they came to Ophir, where they got four hundred and twenty talents of gold, and took it back to King Solomon.I Kings 9:28

           King Solomon built a fleet of ships to Ezion Geber to get gold from Ophir because the gold there is numerous and high grade which is the best to be offered to the house of YHWH. The question now here according to Dr. Narag is why they built Fleet of ship as written in I kings 9:26-27.

           Philippines become the No.1 site of Gold during ancient times according to Morga and Pigafetta. Rare in India and Japan. Also claimed by Tabilog in which he gave more historical explanations.   

3. Ophir is Island or group of Islands

King Solomon built a fleet of ships to Ezion Geber to get gold from Ophir because it is an island or group of island. 26 King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber, which is near Elath in Edom, on the shore of the Red Sea. And Hiram sent his men—sailors who knew the sea—to serve in the fleet with Solomon’s men. I kings 9:26-27. I Chronicles 9:21

            The answer according to the Philippines is Ophir “Greatest Ancient Sacred Secrets De Coded" by Dr. Narag is that because Ophir is Island in the eastern part of the world. As written in. Psalm 72; 10. This is the Sheba the brother of Ophir that live in Sephar.  The kings of Tarshish and of the isles

Shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. Psalm 72:10.

4. Ophir has Almug wood the red sandal wood (Narra).

            King Solomon sent to Hiram, king of Tyre, saying, "Send me also cedar-trees, fir-trees, and algum-trees, out of Lebanon" (2 Chronicles 2:8). In 1 Kings 10:11 it is said that the navy of Hiram "that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug-trees and precious stones." In the parallel passage in 2 Chronicles 9:10 it is said that "algum-trees and precious stones" were brought.

            Almug or Narra is the Kopher wood or the wood of Atonement. The wood used by Noah to build the Ark.   According to Dr. Narag The letter G in the word Gopher (Genesis 6:14.) is interchangeable in Hebrew with letter K making it Kopher the wood of atonement. Like the word Gamel it came along to be Camel. Narra is endemic in Philippines and the no.1 producer in East during the ancient times but very rare in Japan.

5. Ophir distance takes Three years round trip from Ezion Geber

And three times in a year did Solomon offer burnt offerings and peace offerings upon the altar which he built unto the YHWH, and he burnt incense upon the altar that was before the YHWH. So he finished the house.  I Kings 9:22

         In a round trip travel we will conclude that from Ezion Geber by using a boat 30 miles per day this will took 3 years round trip.  6 months round trip to India and 4 years round trip to japan. So Only Philippines fit the description. This is both emphasize by Tabilog and Narag.

6. Ophir is known before by King Solomon

            According to Dr. Narag it is not accidentally discovered but planned and the building of the temple is a command from YHWH that it should be the same or similitude of the things used there. It is described there as the word Taybit which means same place you got it and same kind which is written in I Chronicles 28: 13-19 as follows: 13 He gave him instructions for the divisions of the priests and Levites, and for all the work of serving in the temple of the Lord, as well as for all the articles to be used in its service. 14 He designated the weight of gold for all the gold articles to be used in various kinds of service, and the weight of silver for all the silver articles to be used in various kinds of service: 15 the weight of gold for the gold lampstands and their lamps, with the weight for each lampstand and its lamps; and the weight of silver for each silver lampstand and its lamps, according to the use of each lampstand; 16 the weight of gold for each table for consecrated bread; the weight of silver for the silver tables; 17 the weight of pure gold for the forks, sprinkling bowls and pitchers; the weight of gold for each gold dish; the weight of silver for each silver dish; 18 and the weight of the refined gold for the altar of incense. He also gave him the plan for the chariot, that is, the cherubim of gold that spread their wings and overshadow the ark of the covenant of the Lord. 19 “All this,” David said, “I have in writing as a result of the Lord’s hand on me, and he enabled me to understand all the details (taybit) of the plan.

            The temple of Jerusalem is same as the shape of the Noahs ark because it is Taybit of it. That is why it is rectangle and the wood used is Narra. The Atonement wood used by Noah in Genesis 6:14.   According to Dr. Narag, Ophir is not accidentally discovered but King Solomon knew it before. Because of the word Sephar or Origin of Plants and Animals.

7. Ophir is in the place of Middle Earth in a not hot and cold region of the Earth.
             Shems land is in the middle Earth as stated by book Jubilees 8:12 and it is neither hot nor cold in Jubiless 8:30. And that is the temperature of places in Sephar. Philippines is a non - hot and non - cold country and it is found in the eastern limits of the middle earth. Japan and China is cold while Papua Guinea is hot. So Only Philippines fits the region.

8. Ophirians clothes are Blue and Purple.  Jeremiah 10:9

            Ancient Filipinos love to wear Blue and purple.

Historical evidences from the book “According to My Evidences That Philippines is Ophir in the Bible” 2004 by Isagani Tabilog

Isagani Tabilog sparks the truth on the historical evidences why Philippines is Ophir.

1. Magellan and the Search for Ophir

Magellan's contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, wrote that the people of Malacca (in modern Malaysia) had described to him an island group known as the Lequios whose people were as "rich and more eminent than the Chins (Chinese)," and that traded "much gold, and sliver in bars, silk, rich cloth, and much very good wheat, beautiful porcelains and many other merchandises." However, Barbosa was not the only one to mention the Lequios from the Pacific empire. The quest for spices and precious metals ushered in what is known as the Age of Exploration. Magellan’s personal documents indicated his desire to find the golden islands of Tarshish and Ophir. The explorer Sebastian Cabot was appointed as commander of an expedition “to discover the Moluccas, Tarsis, Ophir, Cipango and Cathay.” The expedition finally reached Samar, and declared that they had found Ophir and they decided to eventually colonize the Philippine archipelago after that Samar (Ophir) landing. The Boxer Codex was created on the order of Luis Pérez Dasmariñas, the 9th Governor-General of the Philippines (1593-1596).  The said codex depicts the life of the Filipinos including their clothing wherein the whole body of both male and female Filipino is adorn with gold. This suggests that Philippines is rich in gold. The Lakanate of Lawan in the pacific side of Samar is the seat of Ophir that for many earlier centuries had been the center of intermigration of  people to different Polynesians islands in the pacific and other islands in the Philippine archipelago. The people of Malacca called them Lequios. Later, the ten datus of Borneo decided to settle in Lawan due to its prosperity of the Lequios and peace in their land but they only reached Panay (Otley Beyer).

2. Trade Missions to China

               The name Lusung (LUZON) first appeared in Chinese History in 1373 AD in the Ming Annals. In this document, Lusung was one of the first to answer the call for tribute missions to the new Ming Dynasty [1368 - 1644]. It was Brunei who first responded in 1371 AD, followed by Liuchiu in 1372, and then by Lusung in 1373 AD*11. Despite the fact that it made its first appearance on Chinese records as late as 1373 AD, evidences suggests that the Chinese had long known the existence of LUZON as far back as the Sung Dynasty[960 - 1278 AD]. The presence of thousands of recognizable pieces of Sung and Yuan Dynasty porcelains found in ancient burial sites in the Provinces of Pampanga, Samar and Manila suggests an active trade with China long before the Ming period. In the book entitled Collecion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas, the author has described how to locate Ophir. According to the book, particularly in Documento No. 98, Ophir can be found by travelling from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, then finally Ophir in the Pacific, then to Taiwan (China), and other Pacific Islands and back to Ophir and then finally to Israel.The search for Ophir by different expeditions, including that of Magellan, ended up when they  found Samar (name derived from Samaria) island in the Pacific.


1.     Jump up^ This is also stated in 1 Chronicles 1:22

2.     Jump up^ The first expedition is described in 1 Kings 9:28; 10:11; 1 Chronicles 29:4; 2 Chronicles 8:18; 9:10, the failed expedition of Jehoshaphat in 1 Kings 22:48

3.     Jump up^ Book of Job 22:24; 28:16; Psalms 45:9; Isaiah 13:12

4.     Jump up^ Beth-Horon probably refers to the ancient city 35 km south of Tell Qasile; another interpretation is that Beth-Horon means 'the temple of Horon', (a Canaanite deity also known as Hauron), see Lipiński, p. 197 [1]


1.     Jump up^ "Ophir"Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

2.     Jump up^ Badge, William (1927). The Book of The Cave of Treasures by Ephrem the Syrian: Translated from the Syriac Text of The British Museum. London: The Religious Tract Society. p. 32 – via Google Books.

3.     Jump up^ Maisler, B., Two Hebrew Ostraca from Tell Qasîle, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), p. 265 [2]

4.     Jump up^ Boardman, John, The Prehistory of the Balkans: The Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C., Part 1, Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 480 [3]

5.     Jump up^ Kitchen, Kenneth A.; Handy, Lowell K. (ed.), The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium, BRILL 1997, p. 144 [4]

6.     Jump up^ Lipiński, p. 144

7.     Jump up^ Smith, William, A dictionary of the Bible, Hurd and Houghton, 1863 (1870), pp.1441

8.     Jump up^ Smith's Bible Dictionary

9.     Jump up^ Ramaswami, Sastri, The Tamils and their culture, Annamalai University, 1967, pp.16

10.  Jump up^ Gregory, James, Tamil lexicography, M. Niemeyer, 1991, pp.10

11.  Jump up^ Fernandes, Edna, The last Jews of Kerala, Portobello, 2008, pp.98

12.  Jump up^

13.  Jump up^

14.  Jump up^ Benjamin Walker (1968). The Hindu world: an encyclopedic survey of Hinduism. Praeger.

15.  Jump up^ The Hindu world: an encyclopedic survey of Hinduism, Volume 2-page-515

16.  Jump up^ Names of countries, Decret and Fantar, 1981

17.  ^ Jump up to:a b The Berbers, by Geo. Babington Michell, p 161, 1903, Journal of Royal African people book on ligne

18.  Jump up^ Lipiński, p. 200

19.  Jump up^ Shalev, Zur (2003). "Sacred Geography, Antiquarianism and Visual Erudition: Benito Arias Montano and the Maps in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible" (PDF). Imago Mundi. 55: 71. doi:10.1080/0308569032000097495. Retrieved 2017-01-17.

20.  Jump up^ HOGBIN, H. In, Experiments in Civilization: The Effects of European Culture on a Native Community of the Solomon Islands, New York: Schocken Books, 1970 (1939), pp.7-8

21.  Jump up^ JosephusAntiquities of the Jews (Book 8, chapter 6, §4), s.v. Aurea Chersonesus

22.  Jump up^ Solomon Skoss (ed.), The Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, Known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfā` (Agron) of David ben Abraham al-Fasi, Yale University Press: New Haven 1936, vol. 1, p. 46 (Hebrew)

23.  Jump up^ Crane, Hart (2001). The Complete Poems of Hart Crane. New York: Liveright Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-87140-178-6.

Further reading

·         Edward Lipiński (2004). Itineraria Phoenicia Studia Phoenicia 18. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1344-8.

External links

·         Onshore explorations at Sopara and Kalyan, India

·          Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ophir". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.


·         Hebrew Bible places

·         Torah people

·         Lost mines