Complete Name: Jose Protacio Zhou Cai Cua Lam-co Ursua Morales de Quintos Alonzo Realonda Mercado Rizal
First Name: Baptized as Jose Protacio
Surname: Lam-co changed to Mercado and finally changed to Rizal during the Second Hispanization of surnames on November 21, 1849 by Governor General Narciso Clavería. The Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos was produced and approved names were assigned to families in all towns.
Bloodline: Malay (Muslim-Ilocano-Tagalog)-Chinese-Japanese-Spanish
Ancient Ancestors: Rajah Lakan Dula of the Sultanate of Manilah and Tundok (Tondo); Zhou Wu Wang, the political genius who started the Chou Dynasty
Jose Rizal’s Ancestors
He had Chinese blood from his father’s side and Spanish and Japanese blood from his mother’s side. Recent genealogical research even traces him to Lacan Dula (one of the chiefs met by the first Spaniards in Manila).
His paternal ancestor was Lam-Co, an immigrant from Fujian (Jinjiang,
Quanzhou, South China. At the age of 35, Lam-co was baptized in 1697. He became Domingo Lam-co.
Lam-co had a distinguished lineage. He belonged to the Cua clan of south China. The Cuas today are prosperous and distinguished families in Asia. The Cuas are a very ancient line, which can be traced to many generations to the times when unified China was still non-existent.
They are the descendants of Shu Du, the 5th son of Zhou Wu Wang, the
political genius who started the Chou dynasty. It was 600 years later when his descendants formalized the usage of the surname Cai.
Domingo Lam-co, Rizal’s great-great-grandfather, was the 19th generation descendant of the Cai Shu Du.
In his baptismal record, his parents were listed as Siong-co and Jun-nio.
He settled in Bi an, Laguna on the Dominican estate called San Isidro
Labrador. Domingo’s son was Francisco I, the first to use Mercado (Spanish for market) as a surname. It described the livelihood of Domingo’s family since they were traders. *
Later, Francisco II, Francisco I’s grandson, Rizal’s father, changed the
family name in 1859 to Rizal to suit his farming business. Rizal is derived
from the Spanish ricial, which means green fields.
Rizal’s mother Teodora Alonso came from the clan of Lakan Dula, known as the last Malay king of Tondo. She was also traced to Eugenio Ursua whose ancestors came from Japan. She was the second daughter of Lorenzo Alberto Alonso who was a former representative of Spanish Cortes and Brigida de Quintos whose parents were Manuel de Quintos, of a well-known family of Ilocanos in Pangasinan and Regina Ursua who was the daughter of Benigna and Eugene Ursua.
As already noted, Teodora Alonso had a trace of Japanese ancestry. Moreover, she was of Ilocano-Tagalog-Chinese-Spanish descent. Combining the paternal and maternal ancestry, therefore Jose Rizal was born with Malay, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish lineages in his blood. Teodora Alonzo died on August 16, 1911 at the age of 84.
Domingo Lam-Co, the great-great-grandfather of Jose Rizal, decided to use Mercado as his surname in 1731 to match his profession, being a merchant. He used this surname from 1731 to November 11, 1849 as soon as Governor-General Narciso Claveria posed a regulation that requires them to make use of Spanish family names. Meanwhile, for Don Francisco Mercado, Rizal’s father, Rizal was used, which means new pasture or greenfield.
Delmar Topinio taclibon, December 30, 2012
Philippine Genealogy Project
Ancheta, Celedonio A. Jose Rizal's Life and His Complete Works. Diliman, Quezon City: National Bookstore, Inc., 1977.
Bantug, Asuncion Lopez-Rizal. Indio Bravo: The Story of Jose Rizal. Manila: Tahanan Books, 1997.
Bantug, Asuncion Lopez. "Lolo José", 2nd edition. Quezon City: Vibal Foundation, 2008.
Craig, Austin. Lineage, Life and Labors of Jose Rizal. Manila: Philippine Education Co., 1913.
Laubach, Frank C. Rizal: Man and Martyr. Manila: University of the Philippines Press, 1936.
National Historical Institute. "Letters between Rizal and Family Members (1876-1896)." Manila: NHI, 1993.
Ocampo, Esteban A. de. "The Rizal Family." Manila: self published, 1954.
Sta. Maria, Felice Prudente. In Excelsis: The Mission of Jose P. Rizal – Humanist and Philippine National Hero. Makati City: Studio Five Designs, Inc., 1996.