Age 0 to 5
This guidance is from the Early Years Outcomes guidance document published in 2013. The full document can be found on the Early Years website.
Birth to 11 months
• Notices changes in number of objects/images or sounds in group of up to 3.
8 to 20 months
• Develops an awareness of number names through their enjoyment of action rhymes and songs that relate to their experience of numbers.
• Has some understanding that things exist, even when out of sight.
16 to 26 months
• Knows that things exist, even when out of sight.
• Beginning to organise and categorise objects, e.g. putting all the teddy bears together or teddies and cars in separate piles.
• Says some counting words randomly.
22 to 36 months
• Selects a small number of objects from a group when asked, for example, ‘please give me one’, ‘please give me two’.
• Recites some number names in sequence.
• Creates and experiments with symbols and marks representing ideas of number.
• Begins to make comparisons between quantities.
• Uses some language of quantities, such as ‘more’ and ‘a lot’.
• Knows that a group of things changes in quantity when something is added or taken away.
30 to 50 months
• Uses some number names and number language spontaneously.
• Uses some number names accurately in play.
• Recites numbers in order to 10.
• Knows that numbers identify how many objects are in a set.
• Beginning to represent numbers using fingers, marks on paper or pictures.
• Sometimes matches numeral and quantity correctly.
• Shows curiosity about numbers by offering comments or asking questions.
• Compares two groups of objects, saying when they have the same number.
• Shows an interest in number problems.
• Separates a group of three or four objects in different ways, beginning to recognise that the total is still the same.
• Shows an interest in numerals in the environment.
• Shows an interest in representing numbers.
• Realises not only objects, but anything can be counted, including steps, claps or jumps.
40 to 60+ months
• Recognise some numerals of personal significance.
• Recognises numerals 1 to 5.
• Counts up to three or four objects by saying one number name for each item.
• Counts actions or objects which cannot be moved.
• Counts objects to 10, and beginning to count beyond 10.
• Counts out up to six objects from a larger group.
• Selects the correct numeral to represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 10 objects.
• Counts an irregular arrangement of up to ten objects.
• Estimates how many objects they can see and checks by counting them.
• Uses the language of ‘more’ and ‘fewer’ to compare two sets of objects.
• Finds the total number of items in two groups by counting all of them.
• Says the number that is one more than a given number.
• Finds one more or one less from a group of up to five objects, then ten objects.
• In practical activities and discussion, beginning to use the vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting.
• Records, using marks that they can interpret and explain.
• Begins to identify own mathematical problems based on own interests and fascinations.
There is guidance for Shape, Space and Measures as well in the document that can be found on the website above.
Primary School
The new National Curriculum starts in 2014. The documents for Maths can be found here.
There are statements as to what each year group is to be taught. In helping your child at home, make sure they have a good grasp of number, and can do many of the things in the 40-60+ months list above. At home you have a chance to make sure your child has firm foundations upon which to build their mathematical understanding.
I have picked out the section on Place Value. Get the whole document if you want more information.
Year 1
Pupils should be taught to:
- count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
- count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
- given a number, identify one more and one less
- identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least
- read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words.
Year 2
Pupils should be taught to:
- count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
- recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (tens, ones)
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
- compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
- read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
- use place value and number facts to solve problems.
Year 3
Pupils should be taught to:
- count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
- recognise the place value of each digit in a three-digit number (hundreds, tens, ones)
- compare and order numbers up to 1000
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
- read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and in words
- solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas.
Year 4
Pupils should be taught to
- count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
- find 1000 more or less than a given number
- count backwards through zero to include negative numbers
- recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)
- order and compare numbers beyond 1000
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
- round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
- solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
- read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.
Year 5
Pupils should be taught to:
- read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 000 000 and determine the value of each digit
- count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1 000 000
- interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through zero
- round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000
- solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above
- read Roman numerals to 1000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals.
Year 6
Pupils should be taught to:
- read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 000 000 and determine the value of each digit
- round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
- use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero
- solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above.