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Li J, Caviness AC, Patel B. Effect of a Triage Team on Length of Stay in a Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]
CONCLUSIONS:: Overall, although we did not find a statistically significant decrease in the LOS with the use of a dedicated triage team, we did find statistically significant decreases in the stratified analysis for urgent, nonurgent patient, and discharged patients. An important reason statistical significance may not have been reached in this study may have been our hospital's current staffing model, and therefore, the use of a triage team as additional staffing versus reallocation of existing staffing may depend on an institution's current level of staffing and its ability to meet patient demand.

Griffin E. Conducting triage research: lessons learned in a pediatric emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2011 May;37(3):258-60.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the important decisions made based on triage assessment in a pediatric ED, there is wide variability in the parameters assessed and the methodology used. Additional research should focus on the validity and reliability of each assessment to determine the best practices.

Velly C, Caron A, Geneau A, Courtois E. [Pain assessment in children by triage emergency nurses]. Soins Pediatr Pueric. 2011 Jan-Feb;(258):34-6.

van Veen M, Teunen-van der Walle VF, Steyerberg EW, van Meurs AH, Ruige M, Strout TD, van der Lei J, Moll HA. Repeatability of the Manchester Triage System for children. Emerg Med J. 2010 Jul;27(7):512-6. Epub 2010 Jun 1.
CONCLUSIONS: The MTS showed good to very good repeatability in paediatric emergency care.

Thompson, Tonya; Stanford, Kendall; Dick, Rhonda; Graham, James. Triage Assessment in Pediatric Emergency Departments: A National Survey. Pediatric Emergency Care. 26(8):544-548, August 2010.

Thompson T, Stanford K, Dick R, Graham J. Triage assessment in pediatric emergency departments: a national survey. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010 Aug;26(8):544-8.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the important decisions made based on triage assessment in a pediatric ED, there is wide variability in the parameters assessed and the methodology used. Additional research should focus on the validity and reliability of each assessment to determine the best practices.

Durani Y, Brecher D, Walmsley D, Attia MW, Loiselle JM. The Emergency Severity Index Version 4: reliability in pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Nov;25(11):751-3.
CONCLUSIONS: ESI v.4 is a reliable tool for triage assessments in pediatric patients when used by experienced pediatric emergency medicine physicians and PT nurses. It is a triage system with high agreement between physicians and nurses.

Travers DA, Waller AE, Katznelson J, Agans R. Reliability and validity of the emergency severity index for pediatric triage. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Sep;16(9):843-9.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliability of the ESI for pediatric triage is moderate. The ESI provides a valid stratification of pediatric patients into five distinct groups. We found several areas in which nurses have difficulty triaging pediatric patients consistently. The study results are being used to develop pediatric-specific ESI educational materials to strengthen reliability and validity for pediatric triage.

Stewart B, Lawson J, Williams K. In support of observational pain tools for emergency medicine triage in children. Emerg Med J. 2009 Jun;26(6):466-7.

van Veen M, Moll HA. Reliability and validity of triage systems in paediatric emergency care. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Aug 27;17:38.
CONCLUSION: The MTS and paedCTAS both seem valid to triage children in paediatric emergency care. Reliability of the MTS is good, moderate to good for the ESI and moderate for the paedCTAS. More studies are necessary to evaluate if one triage system is superior over other systems when applied in emergency care.

Piccotti E, Magnani M, Tubino B, Sartini M, Di Pietro P. Assessment of the triage system in a pediatric emergency department. A pilot study on critical codes. J Prev Med Hyg. 2008 Sep;49(3):120-3.
CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to improve compliance with the guidelines and to evaluate green and white codes.

Bradman, Kate; Maconochie, Ian. Can paediatric early warning score be used as a triage tool in paediatric accident and emergency? European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 15(6):359-360, December 2008.

Maconochie I, Dawood M. Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care. BMJ. 2008 Sep 22;337:a1507. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1507.

van Veen M, Steyerberg EW, Ruige M, van Meurs AH, Roukema J, van der Lei J, Moll HA. Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care: prospective observational study. BMJ. 2008 Sep 22;337:a1501. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1501.
CONCLUSIONS: The Manchester triage system has moderate validity in paediatric emergency care. It errs on the safe side, with much more over-triage than under-triage compared with an independent reference standard for urgency. Triage of patients with a medical problem or in younger children is particularly difficult.

Ma W, Gafni A, Goldman RD. Correlation of the Canadian Pediatric Emergency Triage and Acuity Scale to ED resource utilization. Am J Emerg Med. 2008 Oct;26(8):893-7.
CONCLUSIONS: The Ped-CTAS level correlates well with resource utilization for
patient management in the ED. Further research should focus on measuring nursing
and physician time use for each Ped-CTAS level to more accurately document ED
resource utilization.

Hohenhaus SM, Travers D, Mecham N. Pediatric triage: a review of emergency education literature. J Emerg Nurs. 2008 Aug;34(4):308-13. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Ewings EL, Pollack J. Pediatric upper extremity burns: outcomes of emergency department triage and outpatient management. J Burn Care Res. 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1):77-81.
Conclusion: Education to parents and primary care physicians should be reemphasized. It appears that minor upper extremity burns treated by our urban ED staff are handled appropriately and result in favorable outcomes.

Patel VL, Gutnik LA, Karlin DR, Pusic M. Calibrating urgency: triage decision-making in a pediatric emergency department. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2008 Nov;13(4):503-20. Epub 2007 Mar 16.
Conclusion: These results suggest that explicit guideline information becomes internalized and implicitly used in emergency triage practice as nurses gain experience. Implications of these results for nursing education and training, and guideline development for emergency care are discussed.

Portas M, Firoloni JD, Brémond V, Giraud P, Coste ME, Lescure P, Jouve JL. [Impact of a triage scale in a pediatric emergency department]. Arch Pediatr. 2006 Dec;13(12):1507-13. Epub 2006 Oct 18.
CONCLUSION: Patients suffering from severe illnesses were taken care without injurious delay which was the main purpose of this list.

  Peter A. Maningas, Derek A. Hime, Donald E. Parker. The use of the soterion rapid triage system in children presenting to the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 31, Issue 4, November 2006, Pages 353-359

Roukema J, Steyerberg EW, van Meurs A, Ruige M, van der Lei J, Moll HA. Validity of the Manchester Triage System in paediatric emergency care. Emerg Med J. 2006 Dec;23(12):906-10.
CONCLUSIONS: The MTS has moderate sensitivity and specificity in paediatric emergency care. Specific modifications of the MTS should be considered in paediatric emergency care to reduce overtriage, while maintaining sensitivity in the highest urgency categories.

Baumann MR, Strout TD. Evaluation of the Emergency Severity Index (version 3) triage algorithm in pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;12(3):219-24.
CONCLUSIONS: The ESI triage algorithm demonstrated reliability and validity between triage assignment and resource use in this group of ED pediatric patients.

Gilboy N, Tanabe P, Travers DA. The Emergency Severity Index Version 4: changes to ESI level 1 and pediatric fever criteria. J Emerg Nurs. 2005 Aug;31(4):357-62.

Baumann MR, Strout TD. Evaluation of the Emergency Severity Index (version 3) triage algorithm in pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;12(3):219-24.
CONCLUSIONS: The ESI triage algorithm demonstrated reliability and validity between triage assignment and resource use in this group of ED pediatric patients.

Serge Gouin, Jocelyn Gravel, Devendra K. Amre, Sylvie Bergeron. Evaluation of the Paediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale in a pediatric ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 23, Issue 3, May 2005, Pages 243-247

Maldonado T, Avner JR. Triage of the pediatric patient in the emergency department: are we all in agreement? Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114(2):356-60.
CONCLUSIONS: The level of agreement of triage assignment within each group was only fair. GEM participants and PEM participants agreed on most scenarios. However, GEM participants were more likely to triage children with certain febrile illnesses at higher acuity levels as compared with their PEM counterparts.

O'Neill, Kathleen A.; Molczan, Kenneth. Pediatric Triage: A 2-Tier, 5-Level System in the United States. Pediatric Emergency Care. 19(4):285-290, August 2003.

Crellin DJ, Johnston L. Poor agreement in application of the Australasian Triage Scale to paediatric emergency department presentations. Contemp Nurse. 2003 Aug;15(1-2):48-60.
CONCLUSION: Inconsistent allocation of ATS category implies variable patient waiting times, which may have detrimental effects on patient condition. Hence, efforts must be made to address the inconsistency that exists in paediatric triage decision-making.

Bergeron S, Gouin S, Bailey B, Patel H. Comparison of triage assessments among pediatric registered nurses and pediatric emergency physicians. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Dec;9(12):1397-401.
CONCLUSIONS: The level of agreement and accuracy of triage assignment was only moderate for both RNs and PEPs. Triage, a crucial step in emergency care, requires improved measurement.

Donna Ojanen Thomas. Special Considerations for Pediatric Triage in the Emergency Department. Nursing Clinics of North America, Volume 37, Issue 1, March 2002, Pages 145-159

Crellin DJ, Johnston L. Who is responsible for pediatric triage decisions in Australian emergency departments: a description of the educational and experiential preparation of general and pediatric emergency nurses. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2002 Oct;18(5):382-8.
CONCLUSIONS: Educationalists and managers must make a commitment to pediatric triage preparation for nurses in EDs providing pediatric services. In particular, emphasis must be placed on providing pediatric continuing education for nurses practicing in mixed population EDs. However, it is also essential that the impact of education and experience on patient outcomes be investigated before an attempt is made to influence the preparation of nurses for triage.

Thomas DO. Special considerations for pediatric triage in the emergency department. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;37(1):145-59, viii.
Conclusion: Practice and ongoing education concerning pediatric triage should allow emergency department nurses to develop a sixth sense in recognizing and treating children and to become confident in triage decisions.

Cathy Almond. Issues in paediatric triage. Australian Emergency Nursing Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2000, Pages 12-14

Pediatric Triage Guidelines . AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 97(3):16P, March 1997.

Rennert WP, Hayes WS, Hauser GJ, Tohme WG, Reese DJ. The role of telemedicine in triage decisions for pediatric emergency patients. Va Med Q. 1996 Summer;123(3):171-2.

Cain P, Waldrop RD, Jones J. Improved pediatric patient flow in a general emergency department by altering triage criteria. Acad Emerg Med. 1996 Jan;3(1):65-71.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant improvement in pediatric patient flow occurred after posting age-specific abnormal signs and symptoms as well as elevating triage acuity for specific historical clues.

PHILLIPS, SUSAN; ROND, PHILIP C. III; KELLY, SUSAN M.; SWARTZ, P DAVID. The need for pediatric-specific triage criteria: Results from the Florida Trauma Triage Study . Pediatric Emergency Care. 12(6):394-399, December 1996.

Ropp L, Blouin R, Dulberg C, Li M. Radiograph ordering: agreement between the triage nurse and the physician in a pediatric emergency department. J Emerg Med. 1990 Nov-Dec;8(6):697-700.
Conclusion: The results showed excellent agreement for extremity radiographs and poor agreement for nonextremity radiographs.

JUBELIRER, ROBERT A.; AGARWAL, NIKHILESHWER N.; BEYER, FREDERICK C.; FERRARO, PATRICK J.; JACOBELLI, MICHAEL C.; PFEIFER, WILLIAM F.; SHAH, MUBARIK A.; WELCH, GARY W. Pediatric Trauma Triage: Review of 1,307 Cases. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 30(12):1544-1547, December 1990.

Beach L. Pediatric emergency services triage. J Emerg Nurs. 1981 Mar-Apr;7(2):50-5.

Linda Ornelas Wilson, Frank P. Wilson Jr, Luis Canales. Algorithm-directed triage in a pediatric acute care facility: A retrospective study. Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 10, Issue 8, August 1981, Pages 427-431