Glossary

August Snow
Corn Liquor:  The whiskey is typically run off to high proof and cut to not less than 40 percent alcohol by volume. It does not have to be aged; but if so, it is aged in new uncharred oak barrels or in barrels previously used for aging Bourbon. Aging usually is brief, six months or less, during which time the whiskey picks up color and flavor from the barrel while its harshness is reduced.  Corn whiskey is also frequently called "Corn liquor" or "Corn Squeezin’s".  (wikipedia)
 
 
Raw Apple Brandy:  a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. Some brandies are aged in wooden casks, while some are simply coloured with caramel colouring to imitate the effect of such aging (and some brandies are produced using a combination of both aging and colouring).Brandy is also produced from fermented fruits other than grapes, but these products are typically named eaux-de-vie. In some countries, fruit flavouring or some other flavouring may be added to a spirit that is called "brandy".
 

"Forsaking all others”:
 
A line from the traditional wedding vows referring to the commitment to living solely for your spouse.
 
 
Victorian oak furniture:
  
 

Victorian Oak Chairs

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Victorian Oak Hall Bench
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                                                           


Morris Chair:
is an early type of reclining chair. The                     design was adapted by William Morris's firm, Morris & Company from a prototype owned by Ephraim Colman in rural Sussex, England. It was first marketed around 1866.The design features a seat with a reclining back and moderately high armrests, which give the chair an old-style appearance. The characteristic feature of a Morris chair is a hinged back, set between two un-upholstered arms, with the reclining angle adjusted through a row of pegs, holes or notches in each arm. The original Morris chair had dark stained woodwork, turned spindles and heavily decorated upholstery, in typical Victorian style.

 

 




Pig Iron:
  crude iron that is the direct product of the blast furnace and is refined to produce steel, wrought iron, or ingot iron 
 
 
 
Captain Cook:  Captain James Cook, (7 November 1728 – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer who ultimately rose to the rank of captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. However, his role in opening areas of the Pacific to colonization and its subsequent effects on indigenous peoples have been the subject of both political and scholarly debate. 
 
 
 
Souse:  slang term for a drunk.
 
 

Skinflint:
  A miser, cheapskate, snipe-snout, penny pincher, piker, scrooge, skinflint or tightwad is a person who is reluctant to spend money, sometimes to the point of forgoing even basic comforts and some necessities. Old people were commonly portrayed as being miserly but this stereotype is less common since support programs such as Social Security have resulted in less poverty in old age.
 
 
 
English Saddle:  are used for English riding throughout the world, not just in England or English-speaking countries. They are the saddles used in all of the Olympic equestrian disciplines. The term English saddle encompasses several different styles of saddle, including those used for eventing, show jumping and hunt seat, dressage, saddle seat, horse racing and polo.

To the casual observer, the major distinguishing feature of an English saddle is its flatter appearance, the

lack of a horn, and the self-padding design of the panels: a pair of pads attached to the underside of the seat and filled with wool, foam, or air. However, the length and angle of the flaps, the depth of the seat and height of the cantle all play a role in the use for which a particular saddle is intended.

Although to the untrained eye all saddles of a similar design look alike, the "tree" that underlies the saddle is usually one of the defining features of saddle quality. Traditionally, the tree of an English saddle is built of laminated layers of high quality wood reinforced with spring steel along its length, with a riveted gullet plate. These trees are semi-adjustable and are considered "spring trees." They have some give, but a minimum amount of flexibility.

 
 

Pyramids at Giza:
 
The Great Pyramid of Giza (called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. 
 
 
 
Sphinx:  a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head or a cat head.  The sphinx, in Greek tradition, has the haunches of a lion, the wings of a great bird, and the face of a woman.
The name 'sphinx' which means 'strangler' was first given by the Greeks to a fabulous creature which had the head of a woman and the body of a lion and the wings of a bird.  She is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer her riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster. Unlike the Greek sphinx which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent in contrast to the malevolent Greek version and was thought of as a guardian often flanking the entrances to temples.

In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. Later, the sphinx image, something very similar to the original Ancient Egyptian concept, was exported into many other cultures, albeit often interpreted quite differently due to translations of descriptions of the originals and the evolution of the concept in relation to other cultural traditions.

Generally the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. The oldest known sphinx was found near Gobekli Tepe at another site, Nevali Çori, or possibly 120 miles to the east at Kortik Tepe, Turkey and was dated to 9,500 BC.

  

Louis Pasteur:
  (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch. Pasteur also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals. His body lies beneath the Institute Pasteur in Paris in a spectacular vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.
 
 
 
Armenian Genocide:  also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime — was the systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I. It was implemented through wholesale massacres and deportations, with the deportations consisting of forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees. The total number of resulting Armenian deaths is generally held to have been between 1 million and 1.5 million. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks, and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.  It is widely acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, as scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out to eliminate the Armenians, and it is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. The word genocide was coined in order to describe these events. The starting date of the genocide is conventionally held to be April 24, 1915, the day when Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople. Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, depriving them of food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres were indiscriminate of age or gender, with rape and other sexual abuse commonplace. The majority of Armenian diaspora communities were founded as a result of the Armenian genocide. The Republic of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, denies the word genocide is an accurate description of the events. In recent years, it has faced repeated calls to accept the events as genocide. To date, twenty countries have officially recognized the events of the period as genocide, and most genocide scholars and historians accept this view.
 
 
Bedstead: A bed frame or bedstead is the part of a bed used to position a mattress or foundation set off the floor. Bed frames are typically made of wood or metal. A bed frame is made up of head, foot, and side rails. Most double (full) sized beds, along with all queen and king size beds require some type of center support rail, typically also with extra feet extending down to the floor.
 
 
 
Windy NC: A small town in Wilkes County NC.
 

Chicken Dumplings:
from COOKS.COM

Chicken Preparation:

1 4 lb. broiler or roasting chicken
2 quarts water or chicken broth
1 teaspoon bouillon powder
2 tablespoons fresh parsley
1 onion, whole
1 bay leaf (optional)
2-3 cloves garlic, crushed
pinch of black pepper
1/2 lb. baby carrots
1 or 2 tablespoons butter
2-3 stalks celery, whole, plus leaves

Wash chicken, inside and out. Place in a large enough pot to cover with about 2 quarts of water or chicken broth and bouillon powder (a bouillon cube or soup base may be substituted. Add celery, a bay leaf (optional), parsley, pepper, onion and garlic. Bring the pot to a boil and then reduce heat immediately to low; simmer for 60-90 minutes until chicken is very tender.

Remove chicken from the broth and set on a dish to cool. Add the baby carrots to the broth and cook carrots on medium until tender (about 15-20 minutes). Remove carrots using a slotted spoon and set aside. Continue to simmer the broth over low heat while preparing the dumplings.When chicken becomes cool enough to handle, cut into bite size pieces, removing bones and skin. Set de-boned chicken aside.

Dumplings:

2 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/3 teaspoon baking soda
1 1/2 teaspoons sugar
2 tablespoons cold butter
1 cup buttermilk

In a medium bowl, combine flour, salt, baking powder and baking soda, mixing well. Cut in shortening using a pastry blender or a large fork (pastry makers mix in the shortening using their hands - if you want to try, dip your hands in ice cold water for a minute, then dry your hands first; it's important not to melt the butter!)

Cook’s Note: Butter is the shortening used in this recipe. Add cold buttermilk, a few spoons at a time, mixing the dough from the outside in with fork until a soft dough forms (do not overmix - about 2 minutes total). You may need to add a small amount of buttermilk or flour to adjust the consistency of the dough due to flour storage conditions or humidity in the environment. Add liquid if the dough is very dry and crumbly after it has been mixed; add flour if the dough is very sticky. Roll dough out on a work surface which has been lightly sprinkled with with flour to prevent sticking. Roll dough out thinly, about 1/8" thick, then slice into strips, each about 2 inches in length. Gently drop the dumplings into the simmering chicken broth. Stir them gently to prevent sticking. Add chicken, pepper and butter and simmer for another 10 minutes or so before serving. Serve with the carrots on the side and sprinkle the chicken and dumplings with a bit of chopped parsley, if desired.

Variations: Add 1/4 teaspoon each of rubbed sage and/or onion powder to chicken broth for added flavor. Sometimes we serve this with sliced mushrooms, too. Simply add them to the broth during the last 10 minutes.
 
Richmond VA: is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Greater Richmond area. 
 
Dray Horse:  A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK) or dray horse (from the Old English dragan meaning to draw or haul; compare Dutch dragen meaning to carry), less often called a work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred for hard, heavy tasks such as ploughing and farm labour. There are a number of different breeds, with varying characteristics but all share common traits of strength, patience, and a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers. Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, show, logging, recreation, and other uses. They are also commonly used for crossbreeding, especially to light riding breeds such as the Thoroughbred for the purpose of creating sport horses. While most draft horses are used for driving, they can be ridden and some of the lighter draft breeds are capable performers under saddle.
 
Nags Head NC:
 
is a town in Dare County, North Carolina.  It is located on the Atlantic Coast.
 
Charleston SC:  is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded.  The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location (Oyster Point) from a location on the west bank of the Ashley River (Albemarle Point) in 1680. It adopted its present name in 1783.
 
 
Trousseau:  the personal possessions of a bride usually including clothes, accessories, and household linens and wares
 
 
Foxhound:  A foxhound is a type of large hunting hound. Foxhounds hunt in packs and,
like all scent hounds, have a strong sense of smell. They are used in hunts for foxes, hence the name. When out hunting they are followed usually on horseback and will travel several miles to catch their target. These dogs have strong natural instincts to hunt and are energetic and active. The foxhound is also the state dog in Virginia. It is sometimes used to guard sheep or houses, but its main use is for hunting.

 

 

 

 


Model A Car:  The Ford Model A of 1927–1931 (also colloquially called the A-Model Ford or the A, and A-bone among rodders and customizers) was the second huge success for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not sold until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years. This new Model A (a previous model had used the name in 1903–1904) was designated as a 1927 model and was available in four standard colors, but not black.

 
Social Circle GA:  a city in Walton County, extending into Newton County, in the U.S. state of Georgia, approximately 45 miles east of Atlanta, and approximately four miles due north of access from Interstate 20. The origin of the city's name is unknown, but may be in relation to the city being half-way between Atlanta and Athens, at the junction of two major Indian roads. 
 
 
Spanish Flu:  The 1918 flu pandemic (the "Spanish flu") was an influenza pandemic, and the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the second was the 2009 flu pandemic, an outbreak of swine flu). It was an unusually severe and deadly pandemic that spread across the world. Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the geographic origin. Most victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks, which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or weakened patients. The flu pandemic was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s.
 
 
Seven Years’ War:  The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. In the historiography of some countries, the war is alternatively named after combats in the respective theaters: the French and Indian War (North America, 1754–63), Pomeranian War (Sweden and Prussia, 1757–62), Third Carnatic War (Indian subcontinent, 1757–63), and Third Silesian War (Prussia and Austria, 1756–63).

 

Sandbar:  A shoal, sandbar (or just bar in context), sandbank or gravelbar is a somewhat linear landform within or extending into a body of water, typically composed of sand, silt or small pebbles. A spit or sandspit is a type of shoal. Shoals are characteristically long and narrow (linear) and develop where a stream or ocean current promotes deposition of granular material, resulting in localized shallowing (shoaling) of the water. Shoals can appear in the sea, in a lake, or in a river. Alternatively a bar may separate a lake from the sea, as in the case of an ayre. They are typically composed of sand, although could be of any granular matter that the moving water has access to and is capable of shifting around (for example, soil, silt, gravel, cobble, shingle, or even boulders). The grain size of the material comprising a bar is related to the size of the waves or the strength of the currents moving the material, but the availability of material to be worked by waves and currents is also important.The term bar can apply to landform features spanning a considerable range in size, from a length of a few metres in a small stream to marine depositions stretching for hundreds of kilometres along a coastline, often called barrier islands.In a nautical sense, a bar is a shoal, similar to a reef: a shallow formation of (usually) sand that is a navigation or grounding hazard, with a depth of water of six fathoms or less. It therefore applies to a silt accumulation that shallows the entrance to the course of a river or creek.

 
 
Asheville NC:  a city in and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. It is the largest city in Western North Carolina, and the 11th largest city in North Carolina. 
 
 
Woodrow Wilson:  Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt and Republican candidate William Howard Taft, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms. Historian John Cooper argues that in his first term, Wilson successfully pushed a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, and remained unmatched up until the New Deal.  This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. He also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads.  Wilson, after first sidestepping the issue, became a major advocate for the women's suffrage. Narrowly re-elected in 1916, he had full control of American entry into World War I, and his second term centered on World War I and the subsequent peace treaty negotiations in Paris. He based his re-election campaign around the slogan, "He kept us out of war", but U.S. neutrality was challenged in early 1917 when the German government began unrestricted submarine warfare despite repeated strong warnings, and tried to enlist Mexico as an ally. In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war itself primarily in the hands of the Army. On the home front in 1917, he began the United States' first draft since the American Civil War, raised billions of dollars in war funding through Liberty Bonds, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union cooperation, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements. During his term in office, Wilson gave a well-known Flag Day speech that fueled the wave of anti-German sentiment sweeping the country in 1917-18. In the late stages of the war, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice. In 1918, he issued his Fourteen Points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible conflict. In 1919, he went to Paris to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires. In 1919, during the bitter fight with Henry Cabot Lodge and the Republican-controlled Senate over the U.S. joining the League of Nations, Wilson collapsed with a debilitating stroke. An intellectual—the only president with a PhD—he bitterly fought other intellectuals such as Roosevelt and Lodge. A Presbyterian of deep religious faith, Wilson appealed to a gospel of service and infused a profound sense of moralism into his idealistic internationalism, now referred to as "Wilsonian". Wilsonianism calls for the United States to enter the world arena to fight for democracy, and has been a contentious position in American foreign policy.  For his peace-making efforts, particularly his advocacy of the League of Nations, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize.
 
Chattanooga TN:  fourth-largest city in the US state of Tennessee (after Memphis, Nashville and Knoxville).  It is the seat of Hamilton County. Located in southeastern Tennessee on Chickamauga Lake and Nickajack Lake, which are both part of the Tennessee River, Chattanooga lies approximately 120 miles (190 km) to the northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 120 miles (190 km) to the southwest of Knoxville, about 135 miles (217 km) to the southeast of Nashville, and about 148 miles (238 km) to the northeast of Birmingham, Alabama. Chattanooga abuts the Georgia border. 
 
Salt Lake City UT: the capital and the most poplous city of the U.S. state of Utah.  The name of the city is often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC.  Salt Lake City is situated in a large urban area known as the Wasatch Front.  It is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin (the other being Reno Nevada), and the largest in the Intermountain West.
 
 
James Madison: was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and at first an opponent of, and then a key author of the United States Bill of Rights.
 

Morphine:  is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered to be the prototypical opioid. It was first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Sertürner, first distributed by same in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic needle in 1857. It took its name from the Greek god of dreams Morpheus. 

 
 
 

Night Dance

Victorian Oak furniture: (see August Snow)
 
1930’s Grand Rapids Modern furniture: Perhaps the most famous American deco designer was Donald Deskey (1894–1989). He designed New York apartments for Adam Gimbel, the Patterson family and apartments for three Rockefellers. His most famous commission was the palace of American art deco: Radio City Music Hall. Deskey’s commissions were executed by the "Company of Mastercraftsmen" and "Schmieg & Kotzian". He also designed furniture for his own companies, "Deskey-Volmer" and "Amodec". Some of his best designs were for the "Widdicomb Furniture Company" of Grand Rapids, Michigan in the 1930’s. (Picture of a 1932 Donald Deskey chest of drawers).  (http://aarf.com/artdeccosf06.htm)
 
 


Oak Door:  

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

Spankings in public schools:
Corporal punishment in US schools is almost invariably applied with a wooden paddle to the student's clothed posterior. A typical punishment nowadays consists of two or three strokes, typically referred to as "swats" or "licks" or occasionally "pops". In American English the procedure is often described as "spanking", even though an implement is used.  As of 2002 0.4% of NC public school students were paddled.  (http://www.corpun.com/counuss.htm)
 

Telegram/Wire:  A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code (or a printing telegraph operator using plain text) was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable, often shortened to a cable or a wire. Later, a Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.  (wikipedia)

 

Tommy Dorsey’s “Boogie Woogie”:  Tommy Dorsey was an American jazz trombonist, trumpeter, composer, and bandleader of the Big Band era. He was known as "The Sentimental Gentleman of Swing", due to his smooth-toned trombone playing.  He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey.  After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid-1930s, he led an extremely popular and highly successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s. He remains a famous big bandleader of the swing era into the twenty first century. (wikipedia)

Video of Tommy Dorsey’s “Boogie Woogie”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4lHAvegoK8
 
 
Frédéric Chopin:  a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano". Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, a village in the Duchy of Warsaw. His mother was Polish and his father was a French immigrant to Poland. A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, he grew up in Warsaw and completed his musical education there. Following the Russian suppression of the Polish November 1830 Uprising, he settled in Paris as part of the Great Emigration, and never returned to his homeland. During the remaining 19 years of his life, he gave only about 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon; he supported himself financially by sales of his compositions and as a piano teacher. From 1837 to 1847 he carried on a relationship with the French writer Amantine Dupin, Baroness Dudevant, who wrote under the male pseudonym George Sand. For most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor health; he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39. The vast majority of Chopin's works are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces and some songs to Polish texts. His piano writing is often technically demanding, with an emphasis on nuance and expressive depth. Chopin invented the instrumental ballade and made major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, polonaise, étude, impromptu, scherzo and prélude.
 
 
Victrola:  In September 1906, Johnson and his engineers designed a new line of phonographs with the turntable and amplifying horn tucked away inside a wooden cabinet. This was not done for reasons of audio fidelity, but for visual aesthetics. The intention was to produce a phonograph that looked less like a piece of machinery and more like a piece of furniture. These internal horn machines, trademarked with the name Victrola, were first marketed to the public in August of that year and were an immediate hit. Soon an extensive line of Victrolas was marketed, ranging from small tabletop models selling for $15, through many sizes and designs of cabinets intended to go with the decor of middle-class homes in the $100 to $250 range, up to $600 Chippendale and Queen Anne-style cabinets of fine wood with gold trim designed to look at home in elegant mansions. Victrolas became by far the most popular brand of home phonograph, and sold in great numbers until the end of the 1920s. RCA Victor continued to market phonographs with the "Victrola" name until the early 1970s.
 
 
 
 
Chow-Mein: is a Chinese term for a dish of stir-fried noodles, of which there are many varieties. 
 
 
 
Elks Lodge:  The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE; also often known as the Elks Lodge or simply The Elks) is an American fraternal order and social club founded in 1868. It is one of the leading fraternal orders in the U.S., claiming nearly one million members.
 
 
Okinawa: The island of Okinawa was the site of most of the ground warfare in the Battle of Okinawa during World War II, when American Army and Marine Corps troops fought a long and bloody battle to capture Okinawa, so it could next be used as the major air force and troop base for the planned invasion of Japan. During this 82-day-long battle, about 100,000 Imperial Japanese Army troops and 12,510 Americans were killed, and in addition to these deaths, somewhere between 42,000 and 150,000 Okinawan civilians - approximately one quarter of the civilian population - were also killed. 
 
 
Red Cross’ role during WW2:  http://www.redcross.org/museum/history/ww2a.asp  this website is a detailed look at the Red Cross contributions during the war. 
 
Ensign:
a commissioned officer in the navy or coast guard ranking above a chief warrant officer and below a lieutenant junior graduate.
 
Admiral:
 
The highest rank an officer in the U.S. Navy may achieve.
 

Cheese Straws: from COOKS.COM

1/2 lb. grated cheese (fine), soft
1/2 lb. butter, soft
2 c. plain flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. red pepper
2 c. Rice Krispies, extra

Mix all ingredients together with hands. Make into straws or roll into balls, press with a fork to make a cheese wafer. Bake 10-20 minutes at 350 degrees. Do not brown. If making into straws cut while warm.
 

 

The Women’s Army Corps (WACs): General Douglas MacArthur called the WACs "my best soldiers", adding that they worked harder, complained less, and were better disciplined than men.  Many generals wanted more of them and proposed to draft women but it was realized that this "would provoke considerable public outcry and Congressional opposition" and the War Department declined to take such a drastic step. Those 150,000 women that did serve released the equivalent of 7 divisions of men for combat. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower said that "their contributions in efficiency, skill, spirit, and determination are immeasurable". 
 
Liverpool:  a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. As of 2001 Liverpool had a population of 435,500, and lies at the centre of the wider Liverpool Urban Area, which had a population of 816,216.Historically a part of Lancashire, the urbanisation and expansion of Liverpool were both largely brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and mainland Europe coupled with close links with the Atlantic Slave Trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city.
 
“God said ‘Light!’”: Reference to Genesis 1:1-5.

1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. (King James Version 2003)
 
 
Baby Boom:  The term "baby boom" most often refers to the dramatic post–World War II baby boom (1946–1964). There are an estimated 78.3 million Americans who were born during this demographic boom in births.  The term is a general demographic one and is also applicable to other similar population expansions.
 
 
Saturday Evening Post:  a bimonthly American magazine. It was published weekly under this title from 1897 until 1969, and quarterly and then bimonthly from 1971. 
 

 

Bolivia: a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west.Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire – the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called Upper Peru and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Bolivia has struggled through periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic woes.Bolivia is a democratic republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a Medium Human Development Index score, and a poverty level of 53%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin. The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common and all three, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


Thomas Wolfe “Look Homeward Angel”:  (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was a major American novelist of the early 20th century. Thomas Wolfe wrote four lengthy novels, plus many short stories, dramatic works and novellas. He is known for mixing highly original, poetic, rhapsodic, and impressionistic prose with autobiographical writing. His books, written and published from the 1920s to the 1940s, reflect vividly on American culture and mores of the period, albeit filtered through Wolfe's sensitive, sophisticated and hyper-analytical perspective. He became very famous during his own lifetime. After Wolfe's death, his chief contemporary William Faulkner said that Wolfe may have had the best talent of their generation.  Wolfe's influence extends to the writings of famous Beat writer Jack Kerouac, authors Ray Bradbury and Philip Roth, among others. He remains one of the most important writers in modern American literature, as he was one of the first masters of autobiographical fiction. He is considered North Carolina's most famous writer.  “Look Homeward Angel” was his first book written in 1929. 


Weaverville NC: A town just outside of Asheville.

 
Views of Suicide in the bible:  According to the theology of the Roman Catholic Church, death by suicide is considered a grave or serious sin. The chief Roman Catholic Christian argument is that one's life is the property of God and a gift to the world, and to destroy that life is to wrongly assert dominion over what is God's and is a tragic loss of hope. However, in the Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church, Number 2283 states, "We should not despair of the eternal salvation of persons who have taken their own lives. By ways known to him alone, God can provide the opportunity for salutary repentance. The Church prays for persons who have taken their own lives. Conservative Protestants (Evangelicals, Charismatics, Pentecostals, and other denominations) have often argued that because suicide involves self-murder, then anyone who commits it is sinning and is the same as if the person murdered another human being. An additional view concerns the act of asking for salvation and accepting Jesus Christ as personal savior, which must be done prior to death. This is an important aspect of many Protestant denominations, and the problem with suicide is that once dead the individual is unable to accept salvation. The unpardonable sin then becomes not the suicide itself, but rather the refusal of the gift of salvation. Most Fundamental Christians (traditional Baptists) view suicide as any other sin. John Piper speaking at a funeral at Bethel Baptist Church in 1981 said, "No single sin, not even suicide, evicts a person from heaven into hell. One thing does: continual rejection of God's Spirit. Our friend, we believe, gave up that resistance and accepted the forgiveness of Christ. What sort of momentary weakness, what brief cloud of hopelessness caused her to take her life remains a mystery. The view of scripture on the topic is such that, once a person comes to faith in Jesus Christ, every sin they will ever commit is paid for (1 John 1:7), and "there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus" (Romans 8:1). These Christians believe suicide to be a sin, but do not believe it is impossible to find salvation. (Romans 4:8). However, Judas, who committed suicide in despair, is generally believed to have been damned, for his suicide and/or for his actions which caused the death of another. However, it should be noted that Jesus Himself said that Judas was never truly repentant in life before suicide (John 6:70-71, 13:10-11, 17:12), and that marked his eternity, not the suicide itself.
 
 
.22 Rifle:
 
The term “.22” refers to the caliber of bullet the rifle will fire. 

 

 

 
 
Spaniard:  Term for a person of Spanish decent.
 
White Lightning (moonshine):  an illegally produced distilled beverage. White Lightning is a slang term for moonshine.  The word moonshine is believed to derive from early English smugglers and illegal Appalachian distillers who clandestinely (i.e., by the light of the moon) produced and distributed whiskey.
 
Stone Mountain GA:  The town is named for nearby Stone Mountain. The mountain has contributed to the city's economy both through its continuing status as a tourist attraction and its former use as a granite quarry. It is also the site of a famous giant carving commemorating the military leaders of the Confederacy as well as a state park and museum, including a tourist railroad. 
 

Well Oiled Rod:
 
Reference to an engine part.  If a rod dries out it can crack, or crack the engine block.  Well oiled rods are part of a well kept car engine. 
 
 
 
Romulus and Remus:  are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder. Their maternal grandfather was Numitor, rightful king of Alba Longa, a descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas, and father to Rhea Silvia (also known as Ilia.) Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius deposed his brother, killed his sons and forced Rhea to become a Vestal Virgin, intending to deprive Numitor of lawful heirs and thus secure his own position; but Rhea conceived Romulus and Remus by either the god Mars or the demi-god Hercules. When the twins were born, Amulius left them to die but they were saved by a series of miraculous interventions. A she-wolf found them and suckled them. A shepherd and his wife then fostered them and raised them to manhood as shepherds. The twins proved to be natural leaders and acquired many followers. When told their true identities, they killed Amulius, restored Numitor to the throne of Alba Longa and decided to found a new city for themselves.  
 
 
 
Iceland:  a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi).  The capital and the largest city is Reykjavík, with the surrounding areas in the southwestern region of the country being home to two-thirds of the country's population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterized by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle.  
 
 
 

Gabriel:  According to Christianity, Gabriel is among the highest of God’s angels.  He appears in the book of Daniel to interpret Daniel’s visions for him.  He is also the angel that revealed to Mary and Joseph that they were going to be the parents of the Christ child and instruct them to name him Jesus. 


 

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