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International Journal of Biochemistry

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The control ofrodents in agriculture, forestry, stores, animal husbandry, poultry and inhuman hygiene are of great challenge. Widespread use of chemical rodenticidesrepresents a potential risk to human and environment. Therefore, the search foralternative strategies; namely natural agents, for rodents control is timely toovercome this problem. This study presents Alocasia macrorrhiza and Calotropisprocera plants extracts as a potential substitute to the chemicalrodentticides. Therefore, the toxic effects of the crude ethanolic extracts of theirleaves on liver, kidney and testis of male Albino mice were investigated usingdifferent biochemical and histopathological examinations. The results indicatedthat both leaf extracts, administered in a high dose (1/5 of the LD50) and for aprolonged time (at least for 20 days), have hepato-renal and testicular-toxiceffects. In addition, these leaf extracts were found to contain toxic compoundsincluding alkaloids, glycosides, anthraqunions, flavonides, tanines, organicacids and toxic minerals which either inhibit or arrest the spermatogenesisprocess leading to mice infertility.

(Citation: Thattil A.M., Shivashankara A.R., Reddy R., 2014. Correlationof spot urine protein creatinine ratio with twenty four urine protein and serumlipid profile in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients. International Journal ofBiochemistry. Photon 195, 339-343)


The present studyaimed to analyze the association between proteinuria as measured by 24 urine proteinand urine protein creatinine ratio, and lipid variables in diabetic patientswith or without nephropathy. The study subjects were sixty four diabeticpatients with nephropathy and fourty seven diabetic patients withoutcomplications. Levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, andHDL cholesterol were estimated in serum samples. In 24 hour urine samples,total protein was estimated, and in spot urine samples, levels of creatinineand protein were estimated. Diabetic nephropathic patients showed significantlyhigher serum levels of triglycerides and significantly lower serum level of HDLcholesterol, in comparison to diabetic patients without complications. Thetotal cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels did not differ between the twogroups. Urinay protein excretion (24 hours) and urine protein creatinine ratiowere significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy than thediabetic without complications. Urinary protein: creatinine ratio showedsignificant positive correlation with 24 hr urine protein and serumtriglycerides, and negative correlation with serum HDL cholesterol, in diabeticnephropathic patients. Urine protein creatinine ratio had sensitivity of 100%,specificity of 90.90%, and positive prediction rate of 91.67% to diagnose diabeticnephropathy. Future studies with larger sample size correlating urine protein:creatinine ratio with clinical staging of nephropathy, and analyzing its valuein prognosis and follow up of treatment, are required.


Presence andlocalization of neurotransmitters catecholamines and histamine within singleplant cells served as model systems have been studied by fluorescence microscopyand its modification as microspectrofluorimetry using special molecular probes- glyoxylic acid (reagent on catecholamines) and o-phthalic aldehyde(reagent on histamine) earlier used mainly in experiments for animal cells andtissues. Pollen from 25 species as well as leaf and stem stinging hairs of Urticadioica and vegetative microspores of horsetail Equisetum arvense wereanalyzed. The cells and their excretions being excited by UV-light mayfluoresce in blue-green after staining with glyoxylic acid or in blue/blue-greenor yellow after the treatment with ophthalmic aldehyde. The reagentspenetrated into the cells and stained DNA containing organelles such as nucleiand chloroplasts. The attempt to estimate the occurrence and content ofcatecholamines and histamine by the fluorescent method in individual plantcells may be useful for express-diagnostics of these biogenic amines asbiologically active compounds in ecosystems and drugs in medicinal plants.

Citation: Munilakshmi U.,Shashidhar K.N., Harish R., Reddy M., Lakshmaiah V., 2014. Evaluation of HbA1c, Fasting insulin andLipid profile in the assessment of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 diabetesMellitus in Males: A rural Hospital Study. International Journal ofBiochemistry. Photon 195, 352-360


Worldwide diabeticnephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease, prompting forincreased renal replacement therapy in these patients. Most studies conductedtill now in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are in urban population. There’sscarcity of the data regarding occurrence of diabetic complications in a ruralsetting and increasing trend of non-communicable diseases. Present studyfocuses on anthropometric and glycemic variability in males in a rural tertiarysetting. All the anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed bystandard methods. The analysis showed forty five subjects were found to besuffering from DN. Screening of T2DM and monitoring for incipient DN wouldbenefit the rural population who are in their “golden years of life” and contributetowards the country’s economy in a major in an agrarian nation like India. Thisdictates the comprehensive evaluation of anthropometric and biochemicalevaluation of males aged 55 years and above in conjunction with clinicalassessment for improving the renal outcome of patients with diabetes mellitus.In this study only rural setting was considered where people’s occupation isagriculture and depends on monsoon rains, effect on the seasonal variation onthe availability of food and its effect on nutrition should be kept in mind.

Determination of the proximate composition, vitamins,minerals and  anti-nutrient contents ofGuava (Psidium guajava) seed

Fowomola M.A.*, AdesinaS.R., Adebayo F.O. 

Citation: Fowomola M.A., Adesina S.R., AdebayoF.O., 2014. Determination of the proximate composition, vitamins,minerals andanti-nutrient contents of Guava (Psidium  guajava) seed.InternationalJournal of Biochemistry.  Photon 195, 361-367.


The Proximate composition, vitamins, minerals and  anti-nutrient contents of Guavaseed were  investigated. Theresults of proximate analysis  showthat guava seed contains. Protein (15.67±  0.96 g /100 g dry weight), Hexaneextant (5.72 ±  0.42 g/ 100gdry wt), Crude fibre (6.96 ± 0.67 g /  100g dry wt), Ash (3.41 ± 0.42 g/100 g dry wt) and  Carbohydrate (68.24 ± 2.21 g/100g wt. The results  ofvitamin content of guava seed also depicts  vitaminA (12.74 U.I), Vitamin B1 (6.90 mg/100 g  dry wt.), vitamin B2 (3.10 mg/100 gdry wt.), vitamin  B6 (0.74mg /100 g dry wt.), vitamin B12 (0.24  mg/100g dry wt.) vitamin C (11.64 mg/100 g dry  wt.) vitamin E (7.14mg/100g dry wt.).The results of  mineralcontent show that guava seed contain Na  (15.40mg /100 g dry wt.), K (67.26 mg /100 g dry  wt.), Mg (10.56 mg/100 g dry wt.). Mn(0.50 mg /100  g dry wt), Ca(159.67 mg /100 g dry wt), Fe (0.28  mg/100gdry wt.) Cu (0.39 mg/100g dry wt), Zn  (0.39mg /100 g dry wt), Se (0.04 mg/100 g dry wt)  .The results of Anti nutrient contentshow that guava  seedcontain, tannin (0.26 mg/100 g dry wt),  Saponin(6.96 mg/100 g dry wt), oxalate (0.12  mg/100g dry wt), cyanoglycoside (0.02 mg/100 g  dry wt). Therefore the present studyhas shown that  guava seedis a nutritional promising seed.

(Citation: InyangI.R., Ogamba E.N., Inerepamo O., 2014. Effect of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyaceticacid on some selected haematologicaland biochemical parameters in Clarias gariepinus. International Journalof Biochemistry. Photon 195,368-373)


The aim ofthis study was to unveil the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)on some selected haematological and biochemical Parameters on adults of clariasgaripinus. Thirty-five adults clarias gariepinus (mean length,33.12±1.52 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory condition for 10 days and thenexposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4–D (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06ppm) in semistatic bioassays for 21 days. Haemoglobin (Hb), pack cell volume(PCV), Red blood cell (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), Platelets (PT) and Lymphocyte(LT) were determined in the plasma, while enzymes; Asparate amino transferase(AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) weredetermined in the liver and muscle. Hb, PCV, LT values were not significant, albeitthe mean values differ a bit from the control. WBC and PT values weresignificant mostly at 0.02 and 0.04ppm. AST and ALT in the muscle and liver weresignificant while ALP in the muscle values were not significant. Liver ALPvalues were significant, especially at 0.06 (the highest concentration). 2,4-Dcould be toxic at high concentration. Therefore further studies are required toevaluate the potential environmental risk of 2,4-D.

Citation: Fathilah A.R., Nurul Salwa A.R., Sheril N.A.R., Sharifah Norul Akmar S.Z., 2014. Erosive effect of sports drinks on tooth enamel.International Journal of Biochemistry. Photon 195, 374-380


SD was introduced for sports performance and endurance. SDs is made fizzy and marketedin various choices for consumers. Strong association between acidic fizzy drinks with erosion of mineralised tissue such as the enamel surface has been reported. Comparative to soft drinks, the erosive effect of SD on tooth enamelwas reported of less significant. The study aimed to evaluate the erosiveactivity of five SDs on tooth enamel. Data on the pH, titratable acidity, and demineralization rate and weight loss were determined. These, together with data on their calcium content were used to evaluate the erosive potential of the SDs. Although found to be acidic at pH 3.0 to 3.5, all SDs exhibited low erosive activity.This may have been due to the presence of calcium ions in the drinks. Addition of such ions into SD supersaturates the drinks with respect to tooth minerals, thus reducing their erosive effect and enamel loss following periodic exposureto the SDs. An acidic drink may not be erosive if its content of neutralisable acid or TA is low. It is also concluded that SD modified with added ions suchas calcium tend to exhibit reduced erosive effect on tooth enamel.


The impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on postmenopausal osteoporosis is still incompletely understood. Considerable debate exists as to whether postmenopausal diabetic women have reducedbone marrow density or elevated bone mass. The objective of this research wasto study and compare various bone related biochemical markers in normalpostmenopausal women and type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with the effectof severity of diabetes on bone turnover. Calcium, phosphorus, alkalinephosphatase, 24 hour urinary hydroxyproline, random blood sugar (RBS) andglycated hemoglobin were estimated and compare between 30 postmenopausal diabetic women and 30 postmenopausal non diabetic women and correlated withglycated hemoglobin. The postmenopausal diabetic women had significantlyelevated RBS and glycated hemoglobin. No significant difference was observed in24 hour urinary hydroxyproline levels between the two study groups. Calcium,Phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase didn’t show significant difference. However, calcium was on the lower side of reference range in both groups.Urinary hydroxyproline, a bone resorption marker was higher in the diabetic postmenopausal women but in reference range. Its value correlated positivelywith serum calcium levels. Hence, urinary hydroxyproline can be used as aninexpensive boneturnover marker in rural setting.

Photon Journal

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