信息技术资讯科技(英语:Information Technology,简称IT),是主要用于管理和处理信息所采用的各种技术总称。它主要是应用计算机科学和通信技术来设计、开发、安装和实施信息系统及应用软件。它也常被称为信息和通信技术Information and Communications Technology, ICT)。



在企业,学校和其它组织中,信息技术体系结构是一个为达成战略目标而采用和发展信息技术的综合结构。它包括管理和技术的成分。其管理成分包括使命、 职能与信息需求、系统配置、和信息流程;技术成分包括用于实现管理体系结构的信息技术标准、规则等。由于计算机是信息管理的中心,计算机部门通常被称为 「信息技术部门」。有些公司称这个部门为「信息服务」(IS)或「管理信息服务」(MIS)。另一些企业选择外包信息技术部门,以获得更好的效益。



发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年3月8日 23:35


Some situations (eg BIOS limitations, or this GRUB bug) may require to create a separate /boot partition at the start of the disk, and setup Ubuntu to use it.

Here is how to do it very easily:


Step 1 - Boot on a liveCD or liveUSB

Boot your computer either on:

- a Linux-Secure-Remix liveCD or liveUSB, then choose "Try Ubuntu", then go directly to Step 3 below.

- or a Ubuntu live-CD or live-USB, choose "Try Ubuntu", then go to Step 2 below.

Step 2 - Install Boot-Repair in the live-session

Once in the Ubuntu live session, install Boot-Repair this way:

  • Connect internet
  • Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and type :

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair && sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y boot-repair

Step 3 - Run gParted

Launch gParted from either:

- the Dash (Ubuntu 11.04 and next): click the Ubuntu logo in the top-left corner of the screen, then type gparted and click on the gParted icon that will appear.

- or System->Administration->gParted menu (Ubuntu 10.04)

- or by typing gksudo gparted in a terminal

Step 4 - Create a 1GB partition at the start of the disk

Via gParted:

- Reduce one of the first partitions of the disk in order to create 1GB (=1000MiB) of free space at the start of the disk where Ubuntu is installed. This free space must be located inside the first 100GB of the disk (its end must not be located at more than 100GB from the start of the disk). Important: to resize Windows Vista/7/8 partitions, don't use gParted but Windows tools instead.


- In this free space, create a 1GB partition formatted in EXT4.

- On a paper, note the name of this new 1GB partition. This is generally something like /dev/sdXY (X is a letter, Y is a number).

Step 5 - Run Boot-Repair

Launch Boot-Repair from either:

- the Dash (Ubuntu 11.04 and next): click the Ubuntu logo in the top-left corner of the screen, then type boot and click on the Boot-Repair icon that will appear.

- or System->Administration->Boot-Repair menu (Ubuntu 10.04)

- or by typing boot-repair in a terminal

Step 6 - Choose the right option

In Boot-Repair:

- Click on Advanced Options

- Go to the GRUB location tab

- Tick the "Separate /boot partition: sdXY" option (sdXY must be your 1GB partition)


- Click "Apply"

- Note on a paper the URL (paste.ubuntu.com/XXXXXX/) that will appear.

- Shutdown the computer

- Remove the liveCD and/or liveUSB

- Start the computer. You should now be able to boot into Ubuntu.


- if you need help, please create your new own thread here (don't forget to indicate the URL you noted on your paper at Step6, this will give valuable information to understand your problem)

External Links

- Discussion thread on ubuntuforums for any question/comment about this tutorial. (this is not a thread for support)

- HOW to install Ubuntu on a big disk


发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年3月8日 01:19

You may want to follow this guide to gather essential troubleshooting information about your sound card. This information will be useful in posting a question to launchpad and getting help from volunteers who are monitoring the Launchpad forums:

The various different pages about sound issues each serve a different purpose or different tastes. OpenSource systems are about freedom OF choice so it's good that people are able to choose which pages they use.

The only supported releases of Ubuntu are the ones that are NOT End of Life (EOL) in the following table:


Step 1

Please exercise caution when running these commands! Carefully read and understand what they do. For instance, the  sudo apt-get install  command includes the entire Ubuntu desktop. This will likely create problems for users of the other flavors of Ubuntu -- a Kubuntu user would not want the Unity interface installed. While the outcome of running the suggested command string below may indeed fix certain sound problems, be aware that it is a very blunt approach and could result in unintended consequences.

#1A. If you are using Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin) or later, try this first:

killall pulseaudio; rm -r ~/.config/pulse/* ; rm -r ~/.pulse*

wait ten seconds, then run this:

pulseaudio -k 

#1B. Should the approach above fail to correct the problem (it is only known to work on some variations), you can try this next. If you are using Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin) or later:

killall pulseaudio; rm -r ~/.config/pulse/* ; rm -r ~/.pulse*

wait 10 seconds, then reboot (putting the machine to sleep is not enough -- fully power it off and then back on). Make sure to save your work first.

#1C. If that still did not help, please proceed...

If you are using Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin) or Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (trusty), then execute this command and reboot:

sudo apt-get update;sudo apt-get dist-upgrade; sudo apt-get install pavucontrol linux-sound-base alsa-base alsa-utils lightdm ubuntu-desktop  linux-image-`uname -r` libasound2; sudo apt-get -y --reinstall install linux-sound-base alsa-base alsa-utils lightdm ubuntu-desktop  linux-image-`uname -r` libasound2; killall pulseaudio; rm -r ~/.pulse*; ubuntu-support-status; sudo usermod -aG `cat /etc/group | grep -e '^pulse:' -e '^audio:' -e '^pulse-access:' -e '^pulse-rt:' -e '^video:' | awk -F: '{print $1}' | tr '\n' ',' | sed 's:,$::g'` `whoami`

Concerning Ubuntu releases older than Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise), please read this:


Step 2

In the Ubuntu Terminal console , make sure that unlimited scrolling is enabled:

  • click on Edit > Profiles > "Default" profile > Scrolling. Choose "Unlimited" as scrolling option. Click Close and Close again.

If you are using the Gnome interface, open the Terminal console via "Applications->Accessories->Terminal"

If you are using the Unity interface, the easiest way to open the Terminal is to use the 'search' function on the dash. Or you can click on the 'More Apps' button, click on the 'See more results' by the installed section, and find it in that list of applications. A third way, available after you click on the 'More Apps' button, is to go to the search bar, and see that the far right end of it says 'All Applications'. You then click on that, and you'll see the full list. Then you can go to Accessories > Terminal after that.

So the methods in Unity are:

Press CTRL-ALT-T key combination.

Dash > Search for Terminal

Dash > More Apps > 'See More Results' > Terminal

Dash > More Apps > Accessories > Terminal

Step 3

Reboot your computer. Then run the following 2 diagnostic commands.

Tip: If you have a wheel mouse or 3-button mouse, you do not need to type the commands into the Terminal. Instead, copy the commands from this web page and paste them into the terminal. To do this, move your mouse cursor over the start of the command written on the Web page. Then press the left mouse button and drag the mouse till the end of the command to highlight the whole command; then release the mouse button. Then press the middle mouse button or mouse wheel anywhere inside the Terminal. The command should now be printed in the Terminal without errors. Now press <Enter> to execute the command.

wget -O alsa-info.sh http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-info.sh && chmod +x ./alsa-info.sh && ./alsa-info.sh

Post the full Terminal output after the script has actually run by creating a new question in launchpad then copy&paste the terminal output into your newly created question. Carefully inspect the Terminal output of the ALSA Information script that was generated by the previous diagnostic command

bash alsa-info.sh --stdout

After upgrading ALSA and rebooting the computer make sure that the ALSA library version and utilities version are exactly the same version number.

The Terminal output after running the ALSA information script should contain something like this:

# ALSA Version

# Driver version: 1.0.25 (if you are running Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin))

# Library version: 1.0.25 (if you are running Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin))

# Utilities version: 1.0.25 (if you are running Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin))

If the Library and Utilities version numbers are not equal, this is probably due to one or more of the following issues:

1. One of the ALSA components was not successfully upgraded during step 1 in this procedure

2. ALSA was correctly installed or upgraded, but a wrong / old kernel was booted instead of the most recent kernel version. In that case, boot the newest kernel version (that is available in the standard/default Ubuntu repositories) and then retest sound.

For example: if you installed or upgraded to Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise), make sure the running kernel version is 3.2.0-23-generic or higher. Or else sound output/input will not work!

You can check the currently running kernel version by running this command:

uname -r

If the ALSA driver version number in the Terminal output does NOT contain anything at all, please execute the following commands, then reboot and retest sound output using headphones and speakers:

If you are using GNU/Linux kernel version 3.2, 3.13 or 3.16, please run these 4 commands:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:ubuntu-audio-dev/alsa-daily

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install linux-image-extra-`uname -r`

sudo apt-get install --reinstall linux-image-extra-`uname -r`  

If you are using Ubuntu 12.04 LTS or Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, please also run this extra command:

sudo apt-get install oem-audio-hda-daily-dkms

If you are using Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn), please also run this extra command:

sudo apt-get install  oem-audio-hda-daily-lts-utopic-dkms 

If you are using Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet), please also run this extra command:

sudo apt-get install oem-audio-hda-daily-lts-vivid-dkms 

Then reboot and retest sound output.

Source: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Audio/UpgradingAlsa/DKMS

Step 4

Copy & paste the following diagnostic command into the Linux Terminal, then press <Enter>. The command starts with the command cat and ends with the word sound. (Do not copy & paste this diagnostic command from an email message into the Terminal, as that will only copy part of the command.) When asked for your password, type your normal user password (no stars are given as you type); then press <Enter> again.

Tip: If you have a wheel mouse or 3-button mouse, you do not need to type the commands into the Terminal. Instead, copy the commands from this web page and paste them into the terminal. To do this, move your mouse cursor over the start of the command written on the Web page. Then press the left mouse button and drag the mouse till the end of the command to highlight the whole command; then release the mouse button. Then press the middle mouse button or mouse wheel anywhere inside the Terminal. The command should now be printed in the Terminal without errors. Now press <Enter> to execute the command.

cat /proc/asound/{version,cards,devices,hwdep,pcm,seq/clients}; sudo rm /etc/asound.conf; sudo rm -r ~/.pulse ~/.asound* ;sudo rm ~/.pulse-cookie; sudo apt-get update; sudo apt-get install aptitude; sudo aptitude install paman gnome-alsamixer libasound2-plugins padevchooser libsdl1.2debian-pulseaudio; sudo lshw -short;ls -lart /dev/snd; find /lib/modules/`uname -r` | grep snd ;cat /dev/sndstat; lspci -nn; lsusb; sudo which alsactl; sudo fuser -v /dev/dsp /dev/snd/* ; dpkg -S bin/slmodemd; dmesg | egrep 'EMU|probe|emu|ALSA|alsa|ac97|udi|snd|ound|irmware'; sudo /etc/init.d/sl-modem-daemon status; sudo grep model /etc/modprobe.d/* ; sudo dmidecode|egrep 'anufact|roduct|erial|elease'; lsmod | egrep 'snd|usb|midi|udio'; pacmd list-sinks; aplay -l; sudo alsa force-reload;  ubuntu-support-status ; sudo lshw -C sound


  • Post the full Terminal output into the original question that you previously created at answers.launchpad.net
  • Also mention how you want to generate sound output: analog output via desktop speakers, digital output via an HDMI connection to the TV, via headphones, etc ...

Step 5

Reboot and retest sound using the headphones and the speakers. Do not run a Gnome session in "Gnome Failsafe" mode; speakers are disabled in "Gnome Failsafe" mode.


  • After rebooting, verify that you have posted the full Terminal output from step 3 and step 4 into the original question that you previously created at answers.launchpad.net
  • Also mention how you want to generate sound output: analog output via desktop speakers, digital output via an HDMI connection to the TV, via headphones, etc ...

Step 6

Sometimes the playback device is muted by default. To fix this problem, you need to run

sudo apt-get install pavucontrol

then run the pavucontrol program from a terminal or by pressing Alt-F2 and typing


in the box that appears.

In this application - PulseAudio Volume Control - look through the tabs and see if either the input or output device is muted. You can tell by whether the little mute icon appears depressed or not. You may also need to change the ALSA plug setting from "Built-in Audio Analog Stereo" to an alternative audio device that is listed there. Switch to the "Playback" tab and increase System sounds volume to 100%.

Step 7

Run the following command in a Terminal:


In this application, make sure to set all channels to high volume levels. Make sure the different speakers (especially 'Front', 'Master', and 'PCM") are NOT muted and NOT set to low volume levels in alsamixer. Move with the left and right keys on your keyboard until the "Master" item is highlighted (in red). If the letters "MM" are displayed under the volume bar, press "M" to unmute. Repeat with the "Master Mono", "Headphone", "PCM", "Front", "Surround", "Center" and "LFE" items. Press Esc when finished.

If HDMI output has stopped working, muting and then unmuting the SPDIF output in alsamixer can cause the sound to start working again

If you are not using HDMI at all for sound output or video output, try disabling HDMI in the BIOS. It might solve your analog audio output issue.

On some Toshiba laptop models (T40, T43p, ... R51e ...), the audio is muted, if either Headphone or Line Jack are NOT muted in alsamixer. See also ALSA Wiki FAQ [1]. Also, if Headphone Sense or Line Jack Sense are unmuted, audio is dead (R52, X40). By default the Sense settings are not shown in GNOME. A channel is muted in alsamixer, if there is an "MM" under that specific channel/volume bar.

On some Toshiba laptop models, setting the PCM channel volume higher than 70% in alsamixer, may result in clipping (for example: very "harsh" and distorted sound both on the internal speakers and on headphones plug), regardless of the Master channel.

Problem with audio clipping

HP Laptops in the dv5, dv6, dv7 series and some HP Mini netbook computers have a strange problem in Ubuntu. When you plug in the headphones, you will hear sound via the headphones and speakers at the same time. The following link should provide a workaround for that issue:

Problem with headphones

On the HP Compaq nx8220, you can solve the simultaneous speaker/headphone output issue by enabling the Headphone Jack Sense option in the alsamixer application.

Step 8

Report if you cannot hear sound through the speakers, the headphones or cannot hear sound on both.

Step 9

If you are using a dual boot system (even with Windows and Ubuntu installed on separate partitions), then make sure to set the sound volume in Windows to a high level before booting into Ubuntu. Also make sure to use the special function keys in Windows to make sure the loudspeakers are physically switched ON and working properly in Windows before installing and testing Ubuntu. This step is necessary with certain Toshiba Tecra laptops.

Step 10

Run the command gnome-volume-control and set the Sound Theme to "No sounds". The Sound Theme tool is also accessible via System > Preferences > Sound

Step 11

Try connecting headphones to different audio jacks/ports on the back-panel of the sound-card until you hopefully hear sound. Make sure to test ALL audio jacks/ports at the front AND the back of your PC.

If sound is not working in both Windows and Ubuntu, please check your motherboard's manual to see if any jumpers are badly configured or missing. Some motherboards require you to add or reconfigure the jumpers on the motherboard to allow the rear panel sound connections to work.

If you are using a laptop, it is also possible that the headphone jack is broken. Try poking into the headphone jack with a toothpick to see if it helps getting sound output working via the speakers.

Step 12

If ALSA is still not loading any driver for your soundcard (for example: a Soundblaster Audigy PCI card) after upgrading to the newest version of ALSA, try reseating the PCI audio card into a different PCI slot on your PC's motherboard.

Step 13

Specify the exact model and make of your PC (if possible) in the new thread that you created at Launchpad Answers Forum.

Step 14

If you want to enable S/PDIF audio output, then unmute and increase volume on the S/PDIF and S/PDIF playback channels in the alsamixer application. Use the M key to toggle between muted (MM) and unmuted (00) states.

Alternative way to enable SPDIF output automatically on login (tested on SoundBlaster Audigy): add following lines to /etc/rc.local:

 # Use COAX-digital output
 amixer set 'IEC958 Optical' 100 unmute
 amixer set 'Audigy Analog/Digital Output Jack' on

You can see the name of your card's digital output with:

amixer scontrols

If the optical/coaxial digital output of your motherboard/sound card is not working or stopped working, and you have already enabled and unmuted it in alsamixer, run

sudo iecset audio on

You can also put this command in /etc/rc.local , as it may stop working after a reboot.

Step 15

In the BIOS, reset the BIOS values to default values.

If such an option exists, change the onboard audio setting in the BIOS from "auto" to "enabled".

If such an option exists, make sure BIOS option "Speakers and Headphones" is set to "enabled"

If you happen to have two sound-cards installed in your pc, one integrated into the motherboard - for example: an hda-intel audiochip - and one inserted into a PCI slot, then try removing the PCI audio card, reboot your pc and retest sound using only the motherboard's on-board audio chip.

If you absolutely need to get the PCI audio card working, try disabling the motherboard's on-board audio chip via the BIOS. Then retest sound in Ubuntu.

Save the change in the BIOS and reboot.

If this does not help, please update the BIOS to the newest version and then retest sound output.

Updating the BIOS may help.

Step 16

If the HDMI output of your motherboard/sound card is not working or stopped working, and have already enabled and unmuted it in alsamixer, try the following HDMI troubleshooting procedure:


Query for Playback Devices:

aplay -l
  • *** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices **** card 0: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 0: ALC1200 Analog [ALC1200 Analog]
    • Subdevices: 1/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
    card 0: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 1: ALC1200 Digital [ALC1200 Digital]
    • Subdevices: 1/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0
    card 0: NVidia [HDA NVidia], device 3: NVIDIA HDMI [NVIDIA HDMI]
    • Subdevices: 0/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

Now that we have the info for the HDMI device, try a test, In the example below, 0 is the card number and 3 is the device number.

aplay -D plughw:0,3 /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center.wav

If aplay does not output any errors, but still no sound is heared, "reboot" the receiver, monitor or tv set. Since the HDMI interface executes a handshake on connection, it might have noticed before that there was no audio stream embedded, and disabled audio decoding.

If the test is successful, edit/create /etc/asound.conf to set HDMI as the default audio device, reboot, and audio should now work. (Is there a better way to do this?)

cat /etc/asound.conf
  • pcm.!default {
    • type plug slave.pcm {
      • type hw card 0 device 3

Other Useful Information to Quote

The following configuration line needs to be added to the /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file

options snd-hda-intel model=auto 

Valid model names (that replace model option 'auto') depending on the codec chip, can be found in "HD-Audio ALSA documentation" and HD-Audio-Models ALSA documentation".

!!ONLY test one model option at a time in the /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file!!

First try adding the configuration line

options snd-hda-intel model=auto 

to the /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file. Then reboot and retest audio.

You can find your audio CODEC chip name by running this Terminal command:

cat /proc/asound/car*/co* |  grep Codec

Please try the following command instead, if the previous command does not show the audio CODEC chip name:

cat /proc/asound/car*/co*/* |  head

You can find your audio MIXER name by running this Terminal command:

cd ~; wget -O alsa-info.sh http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-info.sh ; bash alsa-info.sh --stdout |grep "ixer name"

You can find your audio DEVICE name by running this Terminal command:

lspci -nn|egrep 'ultimedia|udio|sound|AC97|ac97|EMU'

Each combination of audio codec, audio mixer and audio device name requires a very specific configuration in the alsa-base.conf file, if the audio chipset does not work out-of-the-box.

To see if there is more than one alsactl executable in your path and to remove the wrong/oldest one, copy&paste the following command into a Terminal and press the <enter> key:

sudo which alsactl

Having more than one alsactl can cause your sound settings to be muted during every boot of the Ubuntu system.

To understand the various hda_intel related errors that might be mentioned at the end of the ALSA Information script output that was uploaded to the Pastebin website, read the following documentation:

HD-Audio ALSA documentation

HD-Audio-Models ALSA documentation

Also compare the PCI subsystem ID (for example: 1028:0510) in the ALSA Terminal output with the SND_PCI_QUIRK values (for example: SND_PCI_QUIRK(0x1028, 0x0510, "Dell Vostro", CXT5066_IDEAPAD ) in the link below, in order to determine the right model option to use (for example: model=ideapad) in the /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file:

PCI quirk values for ALSA

Also search for the VendorID (for example: 0x111d7695) of your sound card's codec by entering - for example - the search term

0x111d7695 site:github.com

in Google to see if the newest Linux kernel supports that specific audio codec.

!!ONLY test one model option at a time in the /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file!!

Debugging utilities for advanced users of Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS (Precise Pangolin) (or newer versions)


External Links for advanced users

You can download and compile the newest alsa-lib, alsa-utils, alsa-tools, alsa-plugins, alsa-python versions (v1.0.27) here using "git clone":

* http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/GIT_Server

Interesting details about the ALSA v1.0.27 components are here:

* http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/Changes_v1.0.26_v1.0.27

Be sure to compile and test the hdajackretask tool, which is part of alsa-tools v1.0.26. Very handy correction tool if ALSA driver v1.0.25 does not correctly assign sound processing tasks to the hda pin nodes for your sound card's audio codec.

For some initial suggestions, also read the following pages

* http://itsfoss.com/fix-sound-ubuntu-1304-quick-tip/

* http://voices.canonical.com/tag/pulseaudio/

* http://www.webupd8.org/2013/03/install-pulseaudio-with-built-in-system.html

* http://voices.canonical.com/david.henningsson/2013/01/18/upcoming-changes-to-the-intel-hda-drivers/

* https://wiki.ubuntu.com/DebuggingSoundProblems

* http://ubuntuguide.org/wiki/Ubuntu:Precise#Sound

* https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Audio

* https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SurroundSound

* https://docs.google.com/document/d/1iTlJ8BfqXUjaHO__TEdlkvuqB1WLOkGaudngc5SFLMI/edit#bookmark=id.2rzn5uz8d2h4

* https://help.ubuntu.com/community/HdaIntelSoundHowto

* http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1455816

* http://wiki.xbmc.org/?title=HOW-TO_set_up_HDMI_audio_on_nVidia_GeForce_G210,_GT220,_or_GT240

* http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Advanced_Linux_Sound_Architecture

* http://drowninginbugs.blogspot.com/2009/10/caveats-for-audio-in-910.html

* http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=789578&highlight=audacity

* http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=205449

* http://www.ubuntugeek.com/sound-solutions-for-ubuntu-904-jaunty-users.html

* https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SoundTroubleshooting

Warning /!\ Check for correct /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf options on the following pages:

* https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sound/alsa/HD-Audio-Models.txt

* http://www.mjmwired.net/kernel/Documentation/sound/alsa/HD-Audio-Models.txt

* https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/tiwai/sound.git/tree/Documentation/sound/alsa/HD-Audio-Models.txt

* https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt

* http://www.mjmwired.net/kernel/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt

* https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/tiwai/sound.git/tree/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt

* https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sound/alsa/

* http://www.mjmwired.net/kernel/Documentation/sound/alsa/

* http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1043568

* http://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/audio_intel_hda


SoundTroubleshootingProcedure (last edited 2016-01-04 14:45:32 by markrijckenberg)

How to make subwoofer work in Ubuntu

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年3月8日 00:56

How to make subwoofer work in Ubuntu

Using the same computer with Windows 8 and Ubuntu I noticed that the sound was worse in Ubuntu and I discovered why soon: subwoofer doesn’t work out of the box!

How to fix it

The fix is quite easy to apply (but it was not easy to find the right one!). First of all edit /etc/pulse/default.pa and add this line at the end:

load-module module-combine channels=6 channel_map=front-left,front-right,rear-left,rear-right,front-center,lfe
load-module module-combine channels=6 channel_map=front-left,front-right,rear-left,rear-right,front-center,lfe

then edit /etc/pulse/daemon.conf, modify the line “enable-lfe-remixing: no” to “enable-lfe-remixing: yes“, then uncomment it (remove the semicolon in front of it). Reboot your PC and enjoy the subwoofer!


Building Blogs of Science

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月10日 14:55

Building Blogs of Science

Open Access publishing shouldn’t be this hard

Posted in Science, Science and Society by kubke on April 5, 2014

We put a man on the moon about half a century ago yet we still haven’t solved the problem of access to the scientific literature.

“moonstruck” CC-BY Adnan Islam on Flickr

I was invited to speak at the New Zealand Association of Scientists meeting this year. The theme was “Science and Society” and I was asked to speak about Open Access from that perspective.

The timing was really good. Lincoln University published their Open Access Policy last year, Waikato University released their Open Access mandate a couple of weeks ago, and the University of Auckland is examining their position around Open Access. New Zealand is catching up.

I opened my talk by referring to the New Zealand Education Act which outlines the role of univeristies:

…a university is characterised by a wide diversity of teaching and research, especially at a higher level, that maintains, advances, disseminates, and assists the application of, knowledge, develops intellectual independence, and promotes community learning
[New Zealand Education Act (1989) Section162.4.b.iii] (emphasis mine)

I argued that those values could be best met by making the research outputs available under Open Access as defined by by the Budapest Open Access Initiative, that is, not limited to “access” but equally importantly, allowing re-use.

After summarising the elements of the Creative Commons licences that can support Open Access publishing, I invited the audience to have an open conversation with their communities of practice to examine what values each place on how to share the results of our work.

My position is that the more broadly we disseminate our findings the more likely we will achieve the goals set out by the NZ Education Act to maintain, advance, assist in the application of knowledge, develop intellectual independence and promote community learning. I am also of the position that this is what should be rewarded in academic circles. I think that. as a community , we should move away from looking for value in the branding of the research article (i.e., where it is published) and focus instead on measuring the actual quality and impact of the research within and outside the academic community.

How do we measure quality and impact?

cc-by aussiegall on Flickr

At times I feel we have we become lazy. We often stick to using impact factor as a proxy for quality instead of interrogating the research outputs to understand their contribution and impact. Impact factor may be an easy metric – but it is not one that measures in any way the quality or impact of an individual article, let alone of the researchers who authored it. It is just an easy way out, a number we can quickly look at so we can tick the right box. As a metric it is easy, quick and objective. As a metric of value of an individual piece of work it is also useless and, because of that, it inevitably lacks fairness in research assessment.

What does this have to do with OA?

By the end of the conference I couldn’t shake the thought that the barriers to Open Access may not be financial and the costs of publication fees may be the least of our problems. (This issue of cost just keeps coming up.) I can’t but wonder if the cost Open Access might just be a red herring that lets us avoid the real (and bigger) issue: quality assessment. Open Access may help our articles have a wider reach but, except for a few titles, Open Access journals are not recognisable brands. If we are forced to stop looking at the “journal brand” we will be forced to assess the individual articles for their intrinsic value and impact. And, although it may lead to better, more valid, assessment, it is also a big and difficult job.

A lot of what was said today at the conference revolved about the value of New Zealand science (and scientists) to society and the importance of science communication. We spoke about the importance of evidence-based policy, the need to be the critic and conscious of society and the challenges of working with the public to build a trust in scientific evidence despite its uncertainties. We expect politicians and society to do the hard job of making decisions based on evidence. I couldn’t help but ask whether we, as a community of scientists, can live up to those standards.

Can we ditch the bad and easy for the good and hard?

We put a man on the moon. Solving the issues around open access and research assessment must certainly be easier to solve. Are we ready to put our money where our mouth is?

The Best Managed WordPress Web Hosting Services for 2016

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月10日 00:54

The Best Managed WordPress Web Hosting Services for 2016

If you like WordPress but you don't want to do the back-end work required, check out managed WordPress hosting. These sites will give your WordPress installation the white-glove treatment.

Many people consider WordPress a simple blogging platform, but the flexible content management system (CMS) has a deep catalog of free and premium themes and plug-ins that make it the backbone supporting millions of websites, including high-profiles ones like CNN, Grantland, and TED. If you've thought about creating a WordPress-powered site for business or personal use, you should consider going the managed WordPress Web hosting route.

Managed WordPress Web Hosting Explained
Managed WordPress hosting uses a platform that's designed specifically for WordPress. In fact, the CMS comes preinstalled—you don't have to download and set up a WordPress installation as you'd do when using a traditional Web hosting environment. Managed WordPress hosting behaves very much like any other self-hosted WordPress installation, giving you the freedom to install nearly any theme or plug-in. That said, some managed WordPress hosts have a short list of restricted plug-ins that may negatively affect your site's performance or duplicate features already built into the managed setup.

Please understand that not every Web host offers managed WordPress hosting—it isn't a ubiquitous feature. For example, Dreamhost boasts managed WordPress hosting, while HostMonster does not.

Managed WordPress hosting prices are all over the map. Entry level plans will cost roughly that of shared Web hosting, but higher-tier plans can scale upward to around $60 per month. The upside? Your WordPress installation should run more smoothly in a managed WordPress environment than in a traditional hosting environment. In addition, going the managed WordPress route may save you money, as you don't need to pay for a system administrator to perform the same job. This is particularly beneficial to small businesses.

Dozens of companies offer managed WordPress hosting, including traditional Web hosts like DreamHost, InMotion, and Media Temple. Other companies, such as Pagely and Pressable, base their entire business models on managing WordPress installations.

Companies that offer managed WordPress Web hosting provide daily website backups, automatic plug-in updates, page caching for faster site load times, malware detection and removal, and—last but not least—WordPress-centric security options. Security is critically important. As one of the world's largest content management systems, Wordpress is a high-profile target.

In short, a managed WordPress installation gives you a few less things to worry about when creating content or reaching out to potential customers.

The Features You Need
Before you sign up for a managed WordPress Web hosting service, you should look for these attractive—and possibly essential—features. Ideally, you'll want to invest in a managed WordPress host that provides unlimited monthly data transfers, email, storage, and 24/7 support. There are quite a few managed WordPress Web hosts that place caps on those features; WP Engine, for example, limits sites to 400,000 visitors and a paltry 30GB of storage. If you expect lots of site growth, you'll want a host that can properly accommodate your website's future expansion.

Additionally, you'll want a service that offers Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) if you plan to sell products. Ever see a green padlock in your browser's address bar while you're on your bank's website? That's the symbol that tells visitors that SSL is in place. It's a symbol of trustworthiness.

An SSL connection encrypts the data that travels between your site and users' Web browsers, thus safeguarding the transmission of purchasing information. All the managed WordPress hosting services in this roundup offer SSL certificates, but the prices vary from company to company. Some companies include a free SSL certificate when you sign up for a hosting plan, while others charge close to $100.

You'll also need to consider how long you'll need managed WordPress Web hosting. If it's a short-term project—say, less than a month or two—you'll typically receive a refund should you cancel your hosting within 60 days. Some companies offer 30-day money-back guarantees, while others offer 90-day money-back guarantees. Once again, it's beneficial to do your homework.

Naturally, your Web hosting needs will differ from the next person's, but keep these features in mind if you want a silky smooth managed WordPress experience.

Uptime Importance
The aforementioned features are valuable to the Web hosting experience, but none matches the importance of site uptime. If your site is down, clients or customers will be unable to find you or access your blog or your products or services.

We've added uptime monitoring to our review process, and the results show that the most Web hosts do an excellent job of keeping sites up and running. Web hosts with uptime issues cannot qualify for inclusion among the best services in the field, no matter how solid their rest of their offering is.

Do You Need Managed WordPress Hosting?
Managed WordPress hosting isn't a one-size-fits-all option. If you're a system administrator, or someone who's familiar with the ins and outs of WordPress, you can manage a WordPress installation yourself. That's important to note, because some of the managed WordPress Web hosts we've reviewed are significantly more expensive than non-managed WordPress Web hosting. It's wise to shop around.

Also, a managed WordPress environment won't allow you to set up a non-WordPress site—that's something else to keep in mind, especially if you have a site in mind that will rely on specific Microsoft frameworks, for example. In such instances, you'll want to go build your site on shared, VPS, or dedicated Web hosting services.

Still, if you'd rather just create posts, pages, and galleries, managed WordPress hosting is an attractive option. We've reviewed many managed WordPress hosting services and included the best of the bunch in this guide. The chart above, which includes traditional Web hosts that offer managed WordPress hosting and dedicated managed WordPress services, gives you a quick overview of the features you can find with each service. If you want a more in-depth look at managed WordPress hosting services, take a look at the blurbs—and links to full reviews—below.

InMotion Web Hosting

$3.49 at InMotion - Wordpress The feature-packed InMotion Hosting offers many free tools for building a website, and it's PCMag's top choice for managed WordPress hosting. Read the full review ››
Dreamhost Web Hosting

$19.95 at DreamHost - Wordpress Dreamhost strikes a near-perfect balance between features and price, but it's for users who are familiar with website administration. If you don't have the tools to build your own site or don't already have one to migrate, Dreamhost might not be for you. Read the full review ››
HostGator Web Hosting

$5.21 at HostGator - Wordpress HostGator makes it easy and affordable to craft attractive, functional websites, but the interface requires more digging than most to find the options you need. Read the full review ››
GoDaddy Web Hosting

$3.99 at GoDaddy - Wordpress GoDaddy is an attractive Web hosting service that has dependable uptime, incredible customer service, email that's integrated into Microsoft products, and a flexible website building tool, but a few caveats prevent it from being the king of the Web hosting hill. Read the full review ››
1&1 Web Hosting

$0.99 at 1&1 - Wordpress 1&1 has affordable hosting that comes with a rich variety of website-creation tools, as well as good support and impressive uptime reliability in our testing. Read the full review ››
Bluehost Web Hosting

$12.49 at BlueHost - Wordpress Bluehost makes it easy to create attractive and functional websites for your business, but the company is overly aggressive, and it lacks stand-out features. Read the full review ››
Media Temple Web Hosting

$20.00 at Media Temple - Wordpress Media Temple lets you easily build Linux-powered websites, but a few missteps keep it from ranking among the elite Web hosts. Read the full review ››
SiteGround Web Hosting

$3.95 at SiteGround - Wordpress With SiteGround, you pay a bit more for a bit less in the way of technical features, but the solid security, customer service, and tutorials make this Web host extremely friendly for small businesses and new webmasters. Read the full review ››
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Jeff Wilson

For the last decade, Jeffrey L. Wilson has penned gadget- and video game-related nerd-copy for a variety of publications including 2D-X, E-Gear, Laptop, LifeStyler, Parenting, PCMag, Sync, Wise Bread, and WWE. He mentors, practices Jeet Kune Do, and speaks at the occasional con. You can also find him online at jeffreylwilson.net. Twitter: @jeffreylwilson More »

Top 18 WordPress Themes for Science Journals and Blogs

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月9日 19:03   [ 更新时间:2016年1月9日 19:06 ]

Top 18 WordPress Themes for Science Journals and Blogs

Home > WordPress Theme Collections > Top 18 WordPress Themes for Science Journals and Blogs

Want to start a new science blog on WordPress? There is a multitude of free and premium WordPress themes to choose from. Free WordPress themes typically offer basic features that are just sufficient to get the blog up and running. If you want more customization and flexibility to tweak the blog to your exact liking, consider a premium theme.

Luckily, most free WordPress themes provide an option to upgrade to a premium (or pro) version with which you can customize the look and feel of your blog to suit your taste.

In this post, I’ll share a collection of top 18 WordPress themes you can use to setup a science blog. For a science blog, the most important aspect is readability. Science readers are more interested in the content rather than visual elements.

So without further ado, let’s get to our collection, in no particular order:

University WordPress theme


University is suitable for anyone looking for WordPress education theme. With it you can set up events, courses or even use it as a LMS. It comes with 7 pre-built layouts to make the setup process for you much easier, choose one to start with and go from there and if that isn’t enough its one click demo import solution will ease thing even more. If you need to create online courses then this theme is what you need because it is compatible with LearnDash plugin which does just that. In case you need to sell products too then

Revolution Slider (value $19) and Visual Composer (value $34) included.

Demo | More Information

Education Center


Education center theme is suitable for colleges, schools as well as any type of training or courses website. The first thing you notice when you open it is its colorful design which will definitely catch visitors eye. It is fully responsive and includes advanced lessons management system. The same as University theme above this theme is also compatible with LearnDash plugin. It features multiple header styles and unlimited color settings so it will be no problem to match your brand. It is really important for a website to open quickly, some research even suggests that 40% of people will leave the website if it takes more than 3 seconds to load. You don’t have to think about that with this theme due to performance tweaks.

Other features include translation ready, 10+ blog styles, ThemeRex framework, one-click demo install and more…

Revolution Slider (value $19), Visual Composer (value $34) and PO Composer (value $16) is bundled.

Demo | More Information

LifeCare – Responsive Medical WordPress Theme



LifeCare is a premium WordPress theme that you can use both as a full website as well as a blog for healthcare or science-related niche. LifeCare features a host of advanced options including custom taxonomies, a time-slot appointment feature, over 600 Google fonts, a short-code generator, and many more. It’s also fully responsive and the makers – Avia Themes – claim that it is SEO optimized for search engines. LifeCare is available on Themeforest.

Demo | More Information

HEAL – Responsive Medical WordPress Theme


HEAL is a WordPress theme created specifically for healthcare websites such as clinics, doctors’ offices, and dentists, among others. However, being a WordPress theme means that it can easily be converted into a full blog or can be used as a website with a blog. Features include 9 custom page templates and 2 custom post types, online appointment forms, more than 30 shortcodes, Google Maps integration, and many more. HEAL is also available on Themeforest marketplace.

Demo | More Information

Medical – Premium WordPress Theme



Medical features a crisp clean layout that’s 100% responsive. It also comes with an intuitive admin dashboard where you can configure advanced theme options including general layout, homepage, the various skin elements, sliders, post format, email setup and medical settings, among others. Medical is a perfect theme for a private doctor’s office.

Demo | More Information

Suits – Free WordPress Theme



Suits is a purely blogging WordPress theme ideal for sharing science and educational content. Offered freely on the WordPress main website, Suits  does not have fancy extras, but its sleek design and classic blog layout make it ideal for blogging. You might need to code custom features or use plugins to achieve specific functionality but all the basic blogging features are there. Best of all it is absolutely free.

Preview | Download

MediCenter – Responsive Medical WordPress Theme


MediCenter is a responsive WordPress theme for health related websites. The theme features a crisp minimalist design with a nice, modern blend of colors that makes it look elegant. The layout is generous with picture space but that doesn’t mean there is no space for text content—the theme comes with six different blog page layouts to choose from.

Other customization features include custom page headers, multiple predefined color schemes, a fully responsive built-in timetable, RTL language support, over 800 fonts to choose from, and more than 200 icons, among other features.

Demo | More Information

T.Joy – Responsive WordPress Theme


Tears of Joy (T.Joy) is a responsive WordPress theme that has a characteristic dark color scheme inspired by space and astronomy (and astrology), according to its authors. Needless to say, T.Joy is perfect for astronomy or space related science blogs and websites. That doesn’t mean, however, that you cannot customize it for any science subject of your liking.

In terms of features, the Redux Theme Options panel is one of the standout customization tools that comes with T.Joy. In addition, the theme comes with plenty of shortcodes for creating any type of content as well as a bunch of other features that are now considered “standard” on modern WordPress themes.

Demo | More Information

Science Lab – Premium WordPress Theme


Science Lab is one of the various science-based WordPress themes that share a name. This particular version is primarily designed for blogs focusing on scientific research and discovery.

The theme’s light and dark blue color scheme give it an unmistakable scientific feel. The major downside is that it has a fixed width and therefore, it is not suited for mobile browsing.

Demo | More Information

BROS – Free & Premium WordPress Theme


BROS is a general-purpose WordPress blog theme offered both in free and premium versions (albeit affordable). While it is not built specifically for science blogs, you can easily convert it into a science journal or blog, thanks to the customizable layout and post formats. It’s simple but attractive layout is perfect for nature blogs but there are no restrictions as to the niche you want to focus on.

With the free version, you will get just enough options to get you started with blogging, but you have to keep sponsored links in the footer, in addition to other usage restrictions. Essentially, it makes more sense to go for the paid version that costs only $29 for the regular license.

Demo | More Information

TechMash – Free & Premium WordPress Theme


TechMash is also offered in free and paid versions and is designed for the popular tech niche. The default layout features the classic right and left sidebar areas with a content slider in the middle to highlight your latest tech posts.

TechMash is fully responsive and comes with a host of customizable theme options. The theme’s custom widgets will allow you to easily link to your social network pages, display adverts, and display content in sidebars. And if you want to sell gadgets on your site, you dont need to install any plugins as the theme is WooCommerce ready out of the box.

Demo | More Information

Bold Launch


Demo | More Information

Sky Lab


Demo | More Information



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Demo | More Information

Big Star


Demo | More Information


As noted earlier, science-based blogs are more focused on content presentation rather than images so in most cases, WordPress themes for science blogs will feature minimalist designs with a lot of content space. That said, there are science themes that offer a balance content and images.

So what theme ideas do you have for your upcoming science blog? Does any of the themes listed here interest you?


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Brenda Barron is a writer from southern California. Her work has appeared on sites like Elegant Themes, WPMU DEV, and VentureBeat. She also blogs at Digital Inkwell about the life of a freelance blogger.

Disclosure: Some of the links included in this post are affiliate links, which means that if you click on the link and purchase the item, we may receive an affiliate commission. All opinions on this page are our own and we don't receive payments for positive reviews.

How to choose WordPress hosting in 2015

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月9日 01:31

APRIL 5, 2015   /   WORDPRESS

How to choose WordPress hosting in 2015


Is web hosting still a good business?

The other day I read an article about the end of the web hosting industry. As you might imagine, I disagree with all of it. But I’m not writing this post to debate it because a friend summarized my response in a brilliant tweet.

See, the reality is that many technical people – software developers, engineers and more – have found hosting to be pretty easy. So they write articles like this.

But they spend their time working with each other. If they spent more hours with folks like my parents, or neighbors, they might change their perspective.

The world still needs great options for hosting. But more importantly, they need help to know how to choose WordPress hosting from all the available options that are out there.

Where do you get advice on picking the right host?

Another post I read the other day was really great about how certain hosting recommendations were crap. 

At the core of the issue are pages like this one – where there are recommended hosting options but it’s very unclear how those companies got on that page.

When you read something like this on that page, it makes you wonder.

We’ve dealt with more hosts than you can imagine; in our opinion, the hosts below represent some of the best and brightest of the hosting world.

First, why would the WordPress Foundation have spent tons of time with tons of hosts? And in what capacity? I’m not sure.

And to be clear, that site (WordPress.org) is run by the WordPress Foundation. Not Automattic (which may have much more experience with hosts).

ReviewSignal suggests that they likely got on the page by buying their spot.

I don’t think it’s that easy – because a) The Foundation hasn’t earned or recorded as much money as I think those spots are worth, and b) my understanding is that the head of the Foundation – Matt Mullenweg – makes the decision on his own.

But that doesn’t answer the question of how those hosts do actually show up on that list. I know I was once told that Matt doesn’t put new companies on the list because he wants to make sure that any name on that page can handle the traffic they will most assuredly get.

But beyond that, the process is opaque.

So maybe that isn’t the best page to use to get advice on picking a WordPress hosting company for your site.

Choosing a WordPress Host

I’ll be honest, when I read that WordPress.org page on hosting, I cringe a bit. Mostly because I don’t think those providers are the best ones out there.

But best is a function of need. So creating a short list seems virtually impossible when two different people will arrive at the page with two very different needs.

Five Recommendations For Five Kinds of Folks

So here are five kinds of people and my recommendations for them.

Are you price-driven but also want support? – In the last two yearsGoDaddy has really been turning things around and the number of people they have in support, at a call center, waiting to answer your questions directly is impressive. If you want to spend just a couple dollars a month, and yet you also want a direct phone number you can call to get help – then you need to talk to GoDaddy.

Do you want developer features inexpensively? – A couple of years ago only WP Engine was making advanced features available to their customers. Today,SiteGround offers all these features – from staging sites to Git integration toSSL support – at a really inexpensive rate. If that’s you, head over to SiteGround right away.

Do you need a non-technical solution?  The number of WordPress hosts keep growing yearly but few of them pursue the “easy to use” solution as strongly as Flywheel has. Their interface, their approach to billing clients, and more – all are designed for people who can configure a WordPress site, but aren’t developers. If that’s you, you likely need Flywheel.

Are you a developer that wants all the bells and whistles? – A year agoPagely moved all their hosting infrastructure to Amazon. When they did that they also made a lot of that infrastructure available to their customers – from high availability clusters, to HHVM, to real-time malware monitoring, to automated backups. If you care about high tech and scalability, you want to talk to Pagely.

So far, you’ve seen four options. The reality is that most people that fall into one of these camps don’t fall into another. They’re either driven by a high need for support, a high need for savings, a high need for scale, or a high need for ease.

But what if you’re not in the extreme? What if you’re a business that may end up with more than one site, but needs a bit of everything? You need scale, you need support, you need ease, and you don’t want to spend a fortune.Then you want WP Engine.

Here’s the way I break it down.

Choose WordPress Hosting


While Chris has a day job managing software engineers, he's best known for relentlessly writing blog posts(regardless of who reads them) andtirelessly telling stories (regardless of who hears them).

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The Best WordPress Shared Hosting Providers in the World [By the Numbers + INFOGRAPHIC]

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月9日 00:26

The Best WordPress Shared Hosting Providers in the World [By the Numbers + INFOGRAPHIC]

Performance of the Best WordPress Hosting Companies Compared

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月9日 00:01

WP Site Care / Blog / Web Hosting / Performance of the Best WordPress Hosting Companies Compared

Performance of the Best WordPress Hosting Companies Compared

Written by RYAN SULLIVANUpdated on August 27, 2015344 Comments

When it comes to choosing the best WordPress Hosting, I’m bound and determined to find out which company is providing the most value. There are three major components that make up a great host in my opinion, and those are 1) Performance, 2) Knowledge, Speed, and Reliability of Support, and 3) Pricing and the overall product offering.

For this initial run, I compared several shared WordPress hosting companies. I plan to continue to add to this list and update it in 2014 as well so that people have a goto resource for choosing the best WordPress hosting company. Here are the hosts I’ve tested in no particular order:

BluehostBluehostStandard Shared$4.95
Inmotion HostingInmotion HostingPower Plan$4.89
A2 Hosting LogoA2 HostingPremier$3.99
Media TempleMediaTempleGrid Server$20.00
DreamhostDreamhostStandard Shared$8.95
Arvixe HostingArvixe HostingPersonal Class$4.00

Today I want to take a look at how many of the top WordPress hosting companies measure up from purely a performance standpoint.

Now I’ll be the first to admit that having the fastest servers doesn’t make a host the best WordPress hosting company, but it certainly doesn’t hurt. If you’re looking for the best WordPress host for your website, the data here’s a great place to start your research.

The Performance Testing Experiment

Testing speed and performance of servers in remote locations introduces some fun and interesting challenges. When I first set out to run these tests, I thought I’d run benchmarks for an hour or two and then be done and would be totally ready to crown the fastest performing WordPress host.

That wasn’t the case at all.

Eliminating as many variables as possible from the test ended up being a lot more work than I anticipated, but the end result is some seriously concrete data.

To run the tests I used a load testing service called Load Impact. Load Impact fires up an Amazon server that you choose, and begins to send traffic to the site, increasing slowly over a certain amount of time.

For this particular test I sent 50 users to a testing site, increasing from one user to 50 concurrent users, over the span of 10 minutes. 50 concurrent users is a nice baseline test for a shared host. Once you hit that benchmark on a fairly consistent basis, it’s probably time to start exploring VPS and Managed WordPress hosting options. Traffic increases steadily throughout the timeframe until 50 users are visiting the site all at the same time.

Here are some of the precautions I took to keep the tests as fair as possible, even though each of these sites are spread out all over the United States:

  • Each WordPress site is an identical install of WordPress 3.6 with the TwentyThirteen theme installed and a number of posts and pages (same number of posts and pages on every site). For example, here’s the site I used to test Dreamhost:  http://dh.wpsc.me. All other testing sites were exact clones of that site.
  • I used the same domain name for every testing site with a different subdomain. I didn’t want the chance of any latency showing up in results because each testing site had a separate domain with a potentially separate registrar.
  • For all hosting accounts located on servers on the West Coast, I used a testing server located in Ashburn, VA. And for all hosting accounts living on servers on the East Coast, I used a testing server located in Portland, Oregon.
  • I did everything possible to make the physical distance traveled the same across all tests.
  • All caching and plugins were disabled on each site
  • Each test was run 5 times with the best result of each posted here.

Overall I ended up with a really nice set of data that gives some very good insight into which hosts make performance a priority, and which hosts have some work to do.

So Which Is the Best WordPress Hosting Company?

Without further ado, here’s what I found from each host. The green line represents the increase in traffic, and the blue line represents the response time of the site as traffic increases.


SiteGround was one of our top performers, and is especially impressive considering the $3.95 price point for their StartUp hosting tier. It does have a limitation of one website at that price point, but considering the average response time was ~700ms all the way to 50 concurrent users with no real hiccups, SiteGround offers a great value.

Testing Server Location: Dallas, TX
SiteGround Server Location: Chicago, IL
Max Response Time: 1.79 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 669.9 milliseconds

SiteGround Hosting Performance Score

Click here to see the full report from Load Impact


Bluehost’s performance was lackluster. As traffic increased so did response time, almost following the same steep climb. Even at lower user counts the response time jumped around quite a bit, ranging anywhere from 1 to 3.5 seconds with only 10 active users. As Bluehost approached the 20 user mark load times skyrocketed to over 10 seconds. They did come back down, but performance was still highly inconsistent with huge variances from one second to the next.

Testing Server Location: Ashburn, VA
Bluehost Server Location: Provo, UT
Max Response Time: 10.64 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 915.53 milliseconds

Bluehost Hosting Performance Score

Click here to see the full Bluehost report from Load Impact


Eleven2 is likely the smallest hosting company that we tested on this list, although I don’t have the date to confirm that. That said, performance-wise they do pretty well as a shared hosting provider. With site load times of just under a second throughout the entire test, Eleven2 isn’t a leader, but they’re definitely no slouch. The $8 per month price is only available when you pre-pay for a year.

Testing Server Location: Dallas, TX
SiteGround Server Location: Wichita, KS
Max Response Time: 2.01 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 898.61 milliseconds

Eleven2 Hosting Performance Report

Click here to see the full report from Load Impact


As noted above, because of a DNS propagation issue we actually made a mistake with one of our tests so we ran Site5 through the gamut again, and again they did very well. While their minimum response time was higher than initially reported, their max response time was lower than we initially reported. Throughout the majority of the ten minute load testing, Site5’s server response time stayed steady at 750ms to 1 second with only a handful of deviations.

Testing Server Location: Portland, OR
Site5 Server Location: Atlanta, GA
Max Response Time: 1.95 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 704.41 milliseconds

Site5 Hosting Performance Score

Click here to see the full Site5 report from Load Impact (Updated)

Inmotion Hosting

Inmotion Hosting’s scores really took me by surprise. With one of the fastest minimum response times, and by far the fastest max response time, InMotion stayed right around 600ms for the entire test, which is really impressive. The graph looks to have more hills and valleys than most, but that’s because it stayed so close to the median response time for the entire test. The variance from highest response time to lowest response time is roughly 388ms, which is the best in the group.

Testing Server Location: Portland, OR
InMotion Hosting Server Location: Washington DC
Max Response Time: 836.78ms
Minimum Response Time: 478.42ms

Inmotion Hosting Performance Chart

Click here to see the full Inmotion Hosting report from Load Impact


MediaTemple Grid Server is a bit pricier at $20 per month than the other hosts featured in this post, but technically it’s still considered a shared host which is why we included it. While not boasting the fastest load times, aside from a strange hiccup at the very beginning of the test, MediaTemple was rock solid all the way to scale. Variances were 2-300 milliseconds but load times generally stayed at almost exactly 1 second, regardless of the number of users.

Testing Server Location: Ashburn, VA
Media Temple Server Location: Los Angeles, CA
Max Response Time: 4.54 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 934.07 milliseconds

MediaTemple Hosting Performance Score

Click here to see the full MediaTemple report from Load Impact 

A2 Hosting

A2 Hosting makes some pretty bold claims on their website, claiming 300% faster load times with WordPress. So do the results match the claim? A2 did pretty well overall, but definitely not 300% faster than the competition. Many of the hosts listed here which don’t even make claims to be WordPress hosts performed better. Their minimum load time of 455ms is definitely impressive, and it was only slightly higher than that when the test ended. Overall they had a strong showing.

Testing Server Location: Ashburn, VA
A2 Server Location: Ann Arbor, MI
Max Response Time: 1.12 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 455.17ms

A2 Hosting Performance Chart

Click here to see the full A2 Hosting report from Load Impact


HostGator’s server performance looked a lot like a pattern you’d see from a healthy EKG, until it completely flatlined. The only problem is that for web performance, we don’t want to see a line with a a lot of ups and downs, flat lines are great unless they fall off the grid completely a la GoDaddy. While HostGator returned the fastest response time of any host, it’s a little misleading because the server had essentially quit at that point and then stopped responding completely. Basically it was one last hurrah before it called it a day.

*I was happy to see that my HostGator account was housed outside of the Provo, UT datacenter where Bluehost resides so we could get a more true host to host comparison.

Testing Server Location: Portland, OR
HostGator Server Location: Charlotte, NC
Max Response Time: 10.16 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 258.07 milliseconds

HostGator Performance Score

Click here to see the full HostGator report from Load Impact


Arvixe has been in the hosting business for quite a while servicing other open source communities like Joomla and Drupal, and have just started shifting their efforts to the WordPress space in the last year or so. Their results here are respectable. They aren’t blow your mind fast, but they do seem solid all the way up to the 50 concurrent user mark. They had one small spike, but it recovered very quickly and the server finished the test in heroic fashion.

Testing Server Location: Palo Alto, CA
Arvixe Server Location: Santa Rosa, CA
Max Response Time 2.93 seconds
Minimum Response Time 1.06 seconds


Click here to see the full Arvixe report from Load Impact


While at a first Glance Dreamhost’s results may seem inconsistent, you’ll notice that there are more bumps in the road because the extremes are much more controlled. So variances in a handful of milliseconds show up as jumps in the graph. Overall Dreamhost was solid from beginning to end. It didn’t report the lowest lows, but it also kept things in check as traffic increased, without having massive jumps in response times. Dreamhost had a strong showing.

Testing Server Location: Ashburn, VA
Dreamhost Server Location: Los Angeles, CA
Max Response Time: 3.74 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 621.87 milliseconds


Click here to see the full Dreamhost report from Load Impact

GreenGeeks Hosting

GreenGeeks didn’t do badly at all in the performance testing. After a big initial spike in response time, the server settled down and returned the sub one second response times that we like to see. There was a bit more variance throughout the test than we normally like to see, but nothing that would indicate any type of major issue. For the most part things were pretty solid.

Testing Sever Location: Chicago, IL
Green Geeks Server Location: Dallas, TX
Max Response Time: 4.7 seconds
Minimum Response Time: 571.33 ms

Green Geeks Hosting Web

Click here to see the full Green Geeks report from Load Impact


GoDaddy surprised me in more ways than one. GoDaddy started at a blazing 483 ms response time, but once traffic hit 25 users, it essentially fell off the face of the earth. The report lists times of above 4 minutes, and that may be true, but it almost looks like the server became completely unresponsive or started rejecting connections. The load test reported a number of failed attempts to connect to the server. While GoDaddy shined at lower traffic levels, it fell apart completely as traffic passed the 25 user mark.

Godaddy reached out and ask that I clarify the results of their test. This is what they had to say:”We use a software security layer called Sentinel. Because of it’s conservative settings, the software detected the load test as a DoS attack since all the LoadImpact traffic was coming from one IP, and banned it for 5 minutes.”I believe they have thresholds set at a painfully low level if they consider 25 users a DDOS attack. That means one small business sharing an article internally could take down a site.

Testing Server Location: Ashburn, VA
GoDaddy Server Location: Phoenix, AZ
Max Response Time: 4.1 minutes
Minimum Response Time: 483.08 milliseconds

GoDaddy Hosting Performance Score

Click here to see the full GoDaddy report from Load Impact

So which shared WordPress hosting company performed the fastest?

Based strictly on the performance data from each webhost, there were three hosts that really stood out in the group. Each of the following hosts had an average page load time of below one second throughout the entire course of the test, all the way to 50 concurrent users. Stay tuned for the next update in early 2014 where we re-evaluate all of these options.

I’d love to hear your thoughts on any of the data you see here. Anything that stands out to you? Anything that surprised you?

Let’s talk it out :)

Disclaimer: All hosting accounts are owned and paid for by us.

Web Hosting

Self Hosted WordPress.org vs. Free WordPress.com

发布者:Xiaoxia Ge,发布时间:2016年1月8日 23:44

Self Hosted WordPress.org vs. Free WordPress.com [Infograph]

Last updated on July 11th, 2014 by Editorial Staff
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Self Hosted WordPress.org vs. Free WordPress.com [Infograph]

When starting out as a beginner, this question comes in everyone’s mind. Which one is better? Is it better to pick the Self Hosted WordPress.org, or is it better to go with Free WordPress.com? In this article, we provide you with an infographic that compares WordPress.com vs WordPress.org side by side with list of pros and cons. We also tell you in the end which one is our pick. Click on the image to see the full version of the Infographic.

Note: We have updated this infographic because there was a huge debate about the comparison. The goal of this infographic is to compare Self Hosted WordPress.org vs. FREE WordPress.com*. We were called out by many folks saying, WordPress.com offers CSS upgrades etc. etc. But apparently, we were not clear enough in the title when we said we were comparing to only FREE WordPress.com. This new infographic indicates with a * all the upgrades that are possible. Another reason for the update was that the numbers used in the infographic were outdated.

Self Hosted WordPress.org vs Free WordPress.com

Convinced that you should use WordPress.org now? Want to switch away from WordPress.com? Here is a tutorial on how to properly move your blog from WordPress.com to WordPress.org

If you don’t want to read the infographic, then here it is in the text:

WordPress.org Benefits

  • It’s free and super easy to use.
  • You own your data. You are in full control. Your site will NOT be turned off because someone decides that it is against their terms of service (as long as you are not doing something illegal). You are in control.
  • You can upload and use plugins.
  • You can upload custom themes. Modify theme files (not just styles) if needed.
  • You can make money from it by using your own ads, and doing things your way.
  • Custom Analytics and Tracking

WordPress.org Cons

  • Like any other website, you need a good web hosting. This bits cost you money somewhere from around $3 – $7 per month (as your site grows, your hosting costs will too). But then you would be making enough money to cover the costs :)
  • You are responsible for updates. WordPress upgrades require 1 click (Not too hard eh).
  • You are responsible for backups, but thankfully tons of amazing plugins are out there like BackupBuddy.
  • You are responsible to prevent SPAM, but if you enable Akismet (which comes built-in with WordPress.org), then you won’t have to worry about it.

WordPress.com Benefits

  • It’s free for upto 3GB of space. After that you will have to pay for space ($19.95 per year for 5GB) or ($289.97 per year for 100GB).
  • They make regular backups of your site.

WordPress.com Cons

  • They place ads on all free websites. Did you really think it was free without a catch? If you don’t want your users to see ads, then you can pay them $29.97 per year to keep your site ad-free.
  • You are NOT allowed to sell ads on your site unless you receive 25,000 pageviews per month. In which case, you have to apply to try their feature called Ad control. The approval process doesn’t cost you any money, but you have to split your revenues 50/50 with them *Ouch*
  • You cannot use plugins. Yup WordPress is well known for it’s flexibility due to the plugins. WordPress.com does not allow you to use plugins! If you want to use plugins, then you have to move to their VIP program which starts at $3750 per month. No joke.
  • You cannot use custom themes. Yup, you have to be stuck with their choice of themes which is being used on hundreds of millions of sites. They do offer a “design upgrade” which should really be called CSS upgrade for $30 per year. Meaning, you can change the color of your site. But if you want to add something really custom, you cannot.
  • You are restricted to their analytics. You cannot use custom analytics software because you cannot add custom codes.
  • They can delete your site at anytime if they think it violates their Terms of Service.
  • They will change your theme without your permission if the founder doesn’t like the theme developer (yup it happened).
  • Even if you pay for their upgrades, you still have to tell others that your site is powered on WordPress.com

Which one is for you?

If you are a personal blogger who do not care about making money from their sites, then go with WordPress.com. If you are a blogger trying to make blogging into a career, then you want to use self hosted WordPress.org. Often people will say, self-hosted WordPress will cost you money. For a small enough site, it is actually cheaper.

Let’s say you use WordPress.com, buy their custom domain ($17 per year), pay for ad-free option ($29.97 per year), and get custom design upgrade ($30 per year). That total is $76.97, and you are still not in full control.

For WordPress.org, you can use Bluehost (officially recommended by WordPress) which costs $3.95 per month so $47.4 per year, and it includes a free domain name. If you go with other web hosting companies, then you will pay a similar price, but you won’t get a domain. However, you can get a domain name for $10 from Godaddy or NameCheap. Your total would come to $57.4 per year. You will have full control over everything.

Is one easier to use than the other? Nope. The interface of both are very similar. We have free WordPress video tutorials that will guide you through the whole dashboard.

We always recommend everyone to use WordPress.org, so you are in full control of your site. The final choice is always yours :)

P.S. Here is a tutorial on how to properly move your blog from WordPress.com to WordPress.org

We hoped you like the infograph. If you liked it, make sure you share it on Twitter, Facebook, or any other site that you like (ofcourse with a credits link back to WPBeginner – preferably this article).

Also don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube Channel for tons of free WordPress video tutorials.

About the Editorial Staff

Editorial Staff at WPBeginner is a team of WordPress experts led by Syed Balkhi. Page maintained by Syed Balkhi.

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