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Development & Human Rights

DEVELOPMENT, HUMAN RIGHTS,  AND TRANSNATIONAL INJUSTICES

or, THEORIES OF PEACE AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP

Theories of obstacles to peace and justice, and what to do about them. Colonialism’s legacies, indigenous injustice, global racial order, plight of post-colonial state, & whether the world economic order harms the poor. To what extent can human rights and economic and social development surmount these obstacles? (To view Autumn 2016 midterm evaluations of this course, please click here.) 


Obstacles, and Resistance to Them
 
Colonialism Resisted: Native Americans Attack a Settler Wagon Train

(University of North Colorado and Colorado Historical Society; fair use)


Indigenous Resistance to Oppression?

(multinationales.org; fair use)

 


A Global Racial Order Resisted?
(Wikimedia Commons)

Resistance to Poverty and to an Earlier World Economic Order?

 (David Alfaro Siqueiros, The Revolution

Floppyboot blog; fair use)

 

 
Will These Clear the Obstacles?

The Millennium Development Goals, as influenced by Development as Freedom

(Wikimedia Commons) 




The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Held by Eleanor Roosevelt, Chair of the 1946-48 Drafting Committee
(Wikimedia Commons)

DEVELOPMENT, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND TRANSNATIONAL INJUSTICES

ICPRH 301 / POLSH 301

Haverford College, Fall 2017
M 1:30-4:00
Classroom: Gest 103
Mailbox:  Faculty Mailroom in Hall Building
Office Hours: W, 2-4pm, The Coop; or by apptmt
E-mail: tjdonahueAThaverford.edu

SYLLABUS 

What are the worldwide obstacles to peace and justice? How can we surmount them? This course examines theories of some of the leading obstacles to peace and justice worldwide, and of what global citizens can do about them. The three problems we will consider are colonialism and its legacies, whether we live in a global racial order, and whether the global economic order harms the poor and does them a kind of violence. The two solutions we will consider are the project of economic and social development and the practice of human rights. The course has three main goals. First, to give students some of the knowledge they will need to address these problems and be effective global citizens. Second, to understand some of the major forces that shape the present world order. Third, to hone the skills in analysis, theory-building, and arguing that are highly valued in legal and political advocacy, in public life and the professions, and in graduate school.

All students are welcome. Special consideration will be given to returning interns of the Center for Peace and Global Citizenship at Haverford.

 

The course begins by examining the history of economic and social development since World War II, seen as a project for creating world order. We then turn to the nature and main features of colonialism. We examine the history of colonialism, how it went hand in hand with the spread of capitalism, whether there still exists an economic neo-colonialism founded on unequal exchange between poor and rich countries, what were the main justifications offered for colonialism, and whether the injustice of much colonialism means that contemporary states created by colonialism—including the United States, Canada, and Australia—are illegitimate. Next, we turn to whether Europeans and their descendants have created a global racial order, in which whites reign supreme. We examine the various ways in which the European colonial project may have been founded on racial domination, how there might have been a sort of contract or agreement to dominate the “inferior” races, and whether global racial domination is still a fact in our time. We then turn to asking whether the current global economic order systematically harms the poor. We examine arguments for “Yes” and “No,” and then consider whether unjust poverty amounts to a kind of violence done by institutions to the poor. Next, we turn to examining whether economic and social development can be reconfigured to solve these problems. We look at conflicting theories of the ends and the means of development--is it a strong and rich state? An end to widespread poverty? Or providing everyone with the capabilities for flourishing? We consider current skepticism about the development project, according to which it is either a First-world patriarchal imposition, or a neo-colonial project controlled by the rich countries. We end by examining whether human rights can solve these problems. We consider the nature of human rights and what they do, objections that they promote a false universalism that supports Western hegemony, and Confucian, West African, and Islamic perspectives on human rights. 

 

A Note to Returning CPGC Interns: One goal of this course is specifically aimed at you: to help you get a better intellectual grasp on the experiences you had during your internship. The course will begin by asking you to reflect on some of the problems that arose for you during your internship, and especially puzzled you. The course will conclude by asking you to reflect on whether and how the theories and problems treated in this course have affected the way you now think about the problems that struck you during your internship.  

 

Course Requirements. To earn full credit, you must:

(1) Participate in class discussion. I know many people find this daunting. Nevertheless, try. One main aim of the course is to help you improve in argument.

(2) Submit 4 response papers. Each session, you may submit a paper, of not more than 350 words, that examines some thesis that that week’s reading has argued. The paper should state a definite thesis found in that week's reading, and then make your own argument for or against that thesis. For full credit, you must submit 4 such papers. You must submit at least two of the papers by class-time in Session 5, and four by Session 9.

(3) For non-interns. Submit two more response papers, for a course total of six. 

(4) For returning CPGC interns.  CPGC Internship Poster Fair, October 27, 12 - 2 

Develop, arrange printing, and bring your poster to the CPGC poster fair on Friday, October 27. The fair takes place from 12 - 2. You should bring your poster for set-up between 11:15 and 11:45. The purpose of your poster is to represent how your summer experience relates to the concepts, problems, and theories you are learning in this course, either by confirming them or challenging them. You should represent this relation in a manner that invites poster session attendees into conversation with you. The College has developed poster guidelines that are available here https://www.haverford.edu/writing-center/speaking-resources. Please consult this resource throughout your poster development. Magill Library offers poster printing services. To benefit from this service, you must submit your poster to Magill by October 20th at 5pm, following the instructions and formatting guidelines available at the "poster printing" link here: https://www.haverford.edu/library/services/print-scan-copy.  

Your poster should simultaneously help younger students understand why they might engage a similar internship in the future, and demonstrate how the experience has translated into a significant intellectual inquiry through your course and ongoing study. Because the poster fair will involve several courses across campus, we will need to coordinate carefully with campus libraries to ensure they have the capacity to print all of the posters in the time available, hence the October 20 deadline. The poster project counts as two response papers for grading purposes. 

(5) Submit a paper proposal. You are required to submit, at the beginning of class in Session 7, a proposal for your final paper. The proposal should have a title, state a question concerning one of the topics covered in the course, say why the question is important, state your answer to the question (i.e., your thesis), give the key reasons by which you will defend the thesis, state two serious objections to your thesis, and state how you will respond to the objections. The proposal should be not more than 800 words long. (For tips on how to say why the question is important--i.e., to show that there's a more general question we can't fully answer until we've answered yours, check out Chapter 4 of Wayne Booth et al, The Craft of Research (Chicago, 2008, available online through Tri-Co libraries), especially sections 4.1 and 4.2.)
 

(6) Submit a final paper. You are required to submit, on the last day of exams, a final paper. The paper should state a question concerning one of the topics covered in the course, say why the question is important, state your answer to the question (i.e., your thesis), defend the thesis with argument, state two serious objections to your thesis, and respond to the objections. The paper should be not more than 4,000 words long.

Course Assessment. Course marks will be computed on the following distribution: Class Participation: 20%; 6 Response Papers: 36% (6 % each); Paper Proposal: 15%; Argumentative Paper: 29%

Course Objectives. By the end of the course, students should

(1)   Have become familiar with the key concepts of the theories and arguments about development, colonial injustice, global gender injustice, global racial injustice, global poverty, and human rights covered in the course;

(2)   Have strengthened their skills in applying these concepts to current debate about these institutions and norms;

(3)   Have honed their ability to specify how and why specific values clash when considering what attitude to take toward these injustices and proposals to remedy them;

(4)   Have improved at specifying the structure of any theory presented to them--being able to specify its key concepts, its main claims, and the basic model it articulates;
(5)   Have sharpened their skills in specifying the structures of arguments, breaking them into premises-axioms, middle premises-lemmas, and conclusions-theorems;

(6)   Have improved their ability in distinguishing between similar concepts denoted by the same word and spotting equivocations;

(7)   Have honed their skills in evaluating and challenging the premises of an argument with rational and well-ordered arguments of their own;

(8)   Have improved their ability to evaluate the deductive validity or inductive strength of an argument’s progress from premises to conclusions;

(9)   Have worked out for themselves a detailed and developed argument arguing a thesis about one of the questions covered in the course.   

E-mail policy. You are welcome to e-mail me with questions about the course. I try to answer e-mails within 48 hours of receipt. Don’t expect an answer before then. Fast usually means shoddy.

Academic Dishonesty: Don’t do it! Here is Haverford College's official language on the subject:

"A Note from Your Professor on Academic Integrity at Haverford:

"In a community that thrives on relationships between students and faculty that are based on trust and respect, it is crucial that students understand a professor’s expectations and what it means to do academic work with integrity. Plagiarism and cheating, even if unintentional, undermine the values of the Honor Code and the ability of all students to benefit from the academic freedom and relationships of trust the Code facilitates. Plagiarism is using someone else's work or ideas and presenting them as your own without attribution. Plagiarism can also occur in more subtle forms, such as inadequate paraphrasing, failure to cite another person’s idea even if not directly quoted, failure to attribute the synthesis of various sources in a review article to that author, or accidental incorporation of another’s words into your own paper as a result of careless note-taking. Cheating is another form of academic dishonesty, and it includes not only copying, but also inappropriate collaboration, exceeding the time allowed, and discussion of the form, content, or degree of difficulty of an exam. Please be conscientious about your work, and check with me if anything is unclear."

I may, at any time, use tools like turnitin.com to detect plagiarism.

Students with Disabilities, Special Needs, or Having Difficulties: Here is the Haverford Office of Access and Disability Services' Statement, which I affirm:

"Haverford College is committed to supporting the learning process for all students. Please contact me as soon as possible if you are having difficulties in the course. There are also many resources on campus available to you as a student, including the Office of Academic Resources (https://www.haverford.edu/oar/) and the Office of Access and Disability Services (https://www.haverford.edu/access-and-disability-services/). If you think you may need accommodations because of a disability, you should contact Access and Disability Services at hc-ads@haverford.edu.  If you have already been approved to receive academic accommodations and would like to request accommodations in this course because of a disability, please meet with me privately at the beginning of the semester (ideally within the first two weeks) with your verification letter."

Writing response papers: Here are guidelines on what I’m looking for, and what I’m not looking for, but other teachers might be: https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/writing-response-papers

How to understand and use theories: Puzzled? You're not alone! Even the professionals find this difficult. Click here for some tips on how to do it: https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/using-theories 

How to do political philosophy: The approach used in this course is political philosophy. For some tips on how to do it, click here:

https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/political-philosophy-why-and-how

REQUIRED TEXTS (will also be on HC Library Reserve)

[2] Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (Cornell UP, 1997; available online through Tri-Co Libraries)


RECOMMENDED TEXTS (All books will be on HC Library Reserve or online through Tri-Co Libraries)
[1] James Nickel, Making Sense of Human Rights, 2nd ed (Blackwell, 2007)








[9] Wayne Booth et al, The Craft of Research, 3rd ed. (University of Chicago Press, 2008). Available online through all of the Tri-College Libraries.

 


GUIDES TO WRITING GOOD PAPERS: THE PROSE, THE PROBLEM, AND THE ARGUMENT

 

[1] Richard Lanham's Paramedic Method.

It transforms slow-starting sentences with obscure subjects into sentences with clear actors and actions.

 

[2] The Bennett rules for writing decent prose in theoretical papers

Jonathan Bennett says: Prefer verbs to nouns. Prefer adverbs to adjectives. Avoid intensifiers ( like "very" or "extremely"). Use sparingly the abstract nouns--big words from Latin and Greek ending with "--ation," "--ity," "-ism," "-ology," "-nomy," etc.--; don't cram a sentence full of them. 

 

[3] Joseph M. Williams and Gregory G. Colomb, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace (Longman, 2010).

      Explains why and when to use Lanham's Method and Strunk and White's rules; and when to break them. Explains how to organize information in a sentence: put the familiar at the front, and the new at the end. Also explains how to make paragraphs coherent: each paragraph should have a point sentence articulating its main point, and this should come either at the end of the paragraph's introductory sentence, or at the paragraph's end.

 

[4] "From Questions to Problems," Section 4.2 of Wayne Booth et al., The Craft of Research.

Crucial for writing research papers. You need more than a topic. You need more than a research question. You need more than a thesis. You need a research problem, which tells a definite audience what is the bigger question they can't fully answer until they've followed your answering of your research question.

 

[5] Anthony Weston, A Rulebook for Arguments (Hackett, 2008).

 

 

RECOMMENDED REFERENCES AND BACKGROUND READING ON OUR PROBLEMS

 

[1] The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta [plato.stanford.edu]

A free resource which is probably the most comprehensive encyclopedia of philosophy ever compiled. Authoritative articles by scholars.

 

[2] The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette (Wiley, 2013) 

 

[3] The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, ed. David Miller (Blackwell, 1987)

 

[4] The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 1st edn (1987); 2nd edn (2008) [dictionaryofeconomics.com]

One of the most comprehensive dictionaries of economics ever. Authoritative articles by scholars.

[5] Fifty Key Thinkers on Development, ed. David Simon (Routledge, 2006)



SCHEDULE

PART I. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE. THREE GLOBAL OBSTACLES TO PEACE AND JUSTICE. HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEVELOPMENT AS FREEDOM AS SOLUTIONS. COLONIALI INJUSTICE.
Session 1. (Week 1; Special Labor Day Make-up Session). Informational Meeting and Introduction to the Problems Addressed by the Course. (1) Introduction to the Course. (a) The Obstacles: Colonial Injustice and Its Legacies, Global Racial Domination and Its Legacies, Global Poverty Produced by Unjust World Economic Institutions. (b) Solutions? Human Rights and Development as Freedom. (2) Colonial Injustice: Types of Colonies, Types of Colonial Empires, Periods of Colonialism, History of Conquest and Resistance.
No required readings. In this session, we begin by discussing the goals of the course and the main themes and problems the course will treat. We'll then hold a brief discussion of the history of the development project from 1949 onwards, and of the human rights project from the beginning of the 20th century. We'll conclude with a part-lecture part-discussion on the theory and history of European colonialism presented in Jurgen Osterhammel's Colonialism. We'll need this in order to make sense of the legacies of colonial injustice, which will be the theme of the next two weeks. You do NOT need to read any of this ahead of time. 
Discussion of the themes in: Jurgen Osterhammel, "Colonies: A Classification," “ 'Colonialism' and 'Colonial Empires',” "Epochs of Colonialism," "Conquest and Resistance," "The Colonial State," "Colonial Economic Forms," "Colonial Societies," "Colonialism and Indigenous Culture," "Decolonization," Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview (Markus Wiener, 1997), pp. 10-12, 15-22, 25-38, 41-47, 51-68, 71-79, 83-91, 95-104, 115-119
So you'd like to know more…Click here for further readings


NO CLASS ON LABOR DAY. REGISTRAR'S MAKE-UP SESSION ON WEDS. SEPT. 6.


Part II. COLONIAL INJUSTICE, WHETHER IT MEANS THAT CURRENT COLONIALLY-DESCENDED STATES ARE ILLEGITIMATE, AND HOW COLONIALISM HAS AFFECTED THE CURRENT WORLD ORDER.


Session 2. (Week 2. September 11). (1) Justifications of Settler Colonialism, and their Implications for Today. The right-of-conquest justification, the agreements- between-indigenous-and-colonialists justification, and the terra nullius (the land was empty) justification. How Anglophone colonizers opted for the terra nullius justification, and used it to justify creating new states. Does the land's not being empty mean that the USA, Canada, and Australia are all illegitimate states?  (2) Did European Colonialism Set Up a Cultural Imperialism By which European-descent Cultural Products are Still Regarded as the Desirable Norm? (3) Harms of Colonialism to the Colonized: Exploitative Rule and Humiliating Affirmations of Inferiority.

Read first: Carole Pateman, "The Settler Contract," in Carole Pateman and Charles W. Mills, Contract & Domination (Polity, 2007): READ ONLY pp. 35-61, 73-78      [Available on Moodle.]   
Then read: Iris Marion Young, "Cultural Imperialism," Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton UP, 1990): 58-61.     [Available on Moodle.]

John Plamenatz, "The Arguments Against Continued European Rule Over Subject Peoples," On Alien Rule and Self-Government (Longman, 1960): 112-114, 127-131, 146-157.     [Moodle for pp. 112-131]    [Moodle for pp. 146-57]



Session 3. (Week 3. September 18). Unjust Legacies of Colonialism. (1) The Prebisch-Singer Thesis Introduced: Do the Gains from Trade between Rich Countries and Poor Former Colonies Increasingly Worsen for the Poor Former Colonies? The Distinction between Core and Peripheral Economies. (2) The Prebisch-Singer Thesis Continued: Are the Gains from Trade between Rich Countries and Poor Former Colonies Distributed Unjustly? 


Then read: Paul Bairoch, "A Long-term Deterioration in the Terms of Trade?" Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes (UChicago Press, 1993): 111-118.    [Available on Moodle.]

So you'd like to know more…Click here for further readings



Session 4. (Week 4. September 25). (1) Do the Metropolitan Areas in the Developed Capitalist Core Unjustly Exploit the Satellite Countries in the Underdeveloped Poor Periphery,  and thus "Underdevelop" Them? The Analogy with Marx's Theory of How Capitalists Exploit Laborers. (2) Did European Colonialism and Capitalism Create a Single Unified World Order, which Exploits and Underdevelops the Periphery? The Idea of the Modern World-System.
Presents two general assumptions: that the metropoles tend to develop and the satellites to underdevelop, and
that the metropoles suck capital out of the satellites for their own enrichment, thus underdeveloping the
satellites. From this, it generates five hypotheses which it recommends for testing, including the celebrated and reviled hypotheses that (1) satellites experience their greatest development when their ties to the metropole are weakest, and (2) the satellites which are the least developed today are the ones with the closest ties to metropoles in the past.

Then: Immanuel Wallerstein, "The Modern World-System as a Capitalist World-Economy: Production, Surplus-Value, and Polarization," "The Rise of the States-System: Sovereign Nation-State, Colonies, and the Interstate System," World-Systems Analysis, pp. 23-59.     [Available on Moodle.]
So you'd like to know more about theories of why the West is rich and "the rest" are poor...

The End of Poverty?, directed by Philippe Diaz (2008)

Guns, Germs & Steel with Jared Diamond, directed by Tim Lambert and Cassian Harrison (2005)

James Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (2013 lecture)



Session 5. (Week 5. October 2). (1) Anti-Colonial Nationalism as a Defensive Reaction against Colonialism and Its Harms. (2) The Post-colonial State, Introduced. (3) Post-colonial states: the Principle of Colonial Self-Determination, and Two Dimensions of Sovereignty.
Read first: John Plamenatz, "Two Types of Nationalism," in Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, ed. Eugene Kamenka (ANU Press, 1973): 23-36.     [Available on Moodle.] 
Then: Kwame Anthony Appiah, "Altered States," In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, pp. 158-172.     [Available on Moodle.]
Finally: Robert H. Jackson, "States and Quasi-states," "A New Sovereignty Regime?" Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World, pp. 13-49.     [Available on Moodle.]
So you'd like to know more…
Richard Sandbrook et al, "Burdens of History," Social Democracy in the Global Periphery: Origins, Challenges, Prospects (Cambridge UP, 2007): 35-62.     [Available on Moodle.]

Crawford Young, The Post-colonial State in Africa: Fifty Years of Independence, 1960-2010 (UWisconsin Press, 2012)

So you'd like to know more…Click here for images and readings

Frantz Fanon, "Mutual Foundations for National Culture and Freedom Struggles," The Wretched of the Earth, pp. 170-181

DEADLINE TO SUBMIT TWO RESPONSE PAPERS.



Part III. DID EUROPEAN COLONIZATION CREATE A WORLD ORDER THAT OPPRESSES INDIGENOUS PEOPLES? DID IT CREATE A WORLD ORDER TO WHICH RACIAL DOMINATION WAS CENTRAL? WHAT ARE THAT ORDER'S CURRENT LEGACIES?

Session 6. (Week 6. October 9)  (1) What Rights Do Indigenous Peoples Have against the State? (2)The Plight of Indigenous Peoples--The Fourth World--and their relations with the State. (3) Did Europeans Create a Global Racial Order of White Supremacy?

Read first: Rodolfo Stavenhagen, "Indigenous Peoples," Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 3 (Oxford UP, 2009): 17-26.     [Available on Moodle.]

Then: Garth Nettheim, " 'Peoples' and 'Populations'--Indigenous Peoples and the Rights of Peoples," in The Rights of Peoples, ed. James Crawford, pp. 113-125 ONLY    [Available on Moodle.]

Finally: Charles W. Mills, "The Racial Contract (Cornell University Press, 1998), pp. 1-7, 19-40

So you'd like to know more about indigenous peoples...
Richard Falk, "The Rights of Peoples (In Particular Indigenous Peoples)," in The Rights of Peoples, ed. James Crawford (Oxford UP, 1988), pp. 17-20 ONLY.     [Available on Moodle.]

So you’d like to know more about the question of a global racial order…Click here for further readings


FALL BREAK. (Week 7)


PART IV.  IS THE WORLD ECONOMIC ORDER UNJUSTLY HARMING THE POOR? DO THEY HAVE A SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT TO RESIST SUCH HARM?

Session 7. (Week 8, October 23). (I) Is there a Global Sociopolitical System of White Supremacy? Concluded. (II) Does the Global Economic Order Harm the Poor? (1) The Global Economic Order as a Massive Violator of the Human Rights of the Poor. (2) Is Unjust Poverty a Form of Violence Done by Institutions?

Read first: Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (Cornell UP, 1997), pp. 41-90

Then read: Thomas Pogge, Politics as Usual: What Lies behind the Pro-Poor Rhetoric (Polity, 2010), Sections 1.1-2.5, pp. 10-52.     [Available on Moodle.]

So you'd like to know more about recent findings of racial inequality in the U. S....
Listen to "Researchers Find Racial Wage Gap Has Grown," NPR News (8 October 2016) 
So you'd like to see an argument that the global economic order is a flawed but improvable provider of growth and escape from poverty...
So you'd like to know more about whether the global economic order harms the poor...Click here for further readings



Session 8. (Week 9, October 30) (1) What Is Poverty? Is it Relative, or Absolute? (2) Do the Unjustly Impoverished and Oppressed Have a Self-Defense Right to Resist Political-Economic Orders that Oppress Them? (3) Do the Harms Done by Colonial and Post-colonial Injustice Give the Formerly Colonized a Right to Receive Development Aid?
Read first: Amartya Sen, "Poverty as Capability Deprivation," Development as Freedom, pp. 87-111

Then: Roberto Gargarella, "The Right of Resistance in Situations of Severe Deprivation," in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right, ed. Thomas Pogge (Oxford UP 2007): 359-374.     [Available on Moodle.]

Then: Frantz Fanon, "On Violence in the International Context," The Wretched of the Earth, pp. 52-62.     [Available on Moodle.]

Fanon here articulates one of the major justifications for the development project and foreign aid to post-colonies.
PAPER PROPOSAL DUE IN CLASS!


Presents the conception of poverty as capability deprivation as capable of saving our intuitions that there is an absolute aspect to poverty and a relative aspect


PART V. CAN DEVELOPMENT SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS? WHAT SHOULD BE THE GOAL OF DEVELOPMENT?
Session 9 (Week 10, November 6). What Should Be the Goal of Development? Three Approaches: (1) The Statist Approach: Promote National Wealth and Power through Growth in GDP per capita. (2) The Poverty Approach: Reduce Absolute and Relative Poverty and Unemployment. (3) The Basic Needs Approach: Meet Everyone's Basic Needs.

Then: W. Arthur Lewis, "Appendix: Is Economic Growth Desirable?" The Theory of Economic Growth (1955)

Then: Dudley Seers, "The Meaning of Development," (1969), READ PP. 1-9 ONLY

Finally: Paul Streeten and Shahid Javed Burki, "Basic Needs: Some Issues," World Development 6 (1978): 411-421.

DEADLINE TO SUBMIT FOUR RESPONSE PAPERS.


So you'd like to know more about the concept of development...

So you'd like to know more about development economics and its schools...



Session 10 (Week 11, November 13). (1) What Should Be the Goal of Development? The Basic Needs Approach: Meet Everyone's Basic Needs (2) The Neo-liberal Approach: Create A Society in which All Have the Opportunity to Get Rich by Participating in Free and Efficient Markets under a Liberal Regime. (3) A Skeptical Challenge to the Development Project:  Is The Current Development Project a Form of Neo-Colonialism? 

Read first: Paul Streeten and Shahid Javed Burki, "Basic Needs: Some Issues," World Development 6 (1978): 411-421.

Then read: John Williamson, "The Washington Consensus as Policy Prescription for Development," (2004)

Finally: Edward Goldsmith, "Development as Colonialism," The Case against the Global Economy, and For a Turn Towards Localization, ed. Edward Goldsmith and Jerry Mander (Earthscan, 2001), pp. 19-34.     [Available on Moodle.]


So you'd like to see a critique of the neo-liberals' arguments for the free-market approach...
John Toye, Dilemmas of Development: Reflections on the Counter-Revolution in Development Theory and Policy (Blackwell, 1987) 



Session 11 (Week 12, November 20). (1) Another Skeptical Challenge: Is the Development Project a Tool of Western Patriarchy? What Should Be the Goal of Development? The Capabilities Approach. (2) The Idea of Development as Freedom. A Response to the Skeptical Challenges? An Improvement on the Poverty and Basic Needs Theories? A Third Way Between Statist and Neo-Liberal Approaches? (3) Should Enhancing Freedom Be the Main Object and the Means of Development? (4) What Role Should Markets and the State Play in Promoting a Freedom-as-Means-and-End Approach to Development?


Read first: Vandana Shiva, "Development As a New Project of Western Patriarchy," in Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism, ed. Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein (Sierra Club Books, 1990): 189-200.    [At bottom of this page.]

Amartya Sen, "Introduction," "The Perspective of Freedom," Development as Freedom (Anchor Books, 1999), 3-34

Then read: Sen, "The Ends and the Means of Development," Development as Freedom, pp. 35-53
Finally: Sen, "Markets, State, and Social Opportunity," Development as Freedom, pp. 111-145



Part VI. CAN HUMAN RIGHTS SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS?

Session 12. (Week 13, November 27). (1) What Role Can Enhancing Women's Rights Play in Development? (2) Islamic and Asian Perspectives on Human Rights. (3) The Contemporary Idea of Human Rights from a Western Perspective.

Read first: Sen, "Women’s Agency and Social Change," Development as Freedom, pp. 189-203 

Then: ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (2013)

Finally: James Nickel, "The Contemporary Idea of Human Rights," Making Sense of Human Rights, 7-22 

So you'd like to know more about the problems of women in the poor countries...
Famously argues that at ordinary sex ratios, we should have expected in 1989 that there were 100 million more women than were actually living. So 100 million women can be said to be missing. Attributes this to the oppression of women.
 
So you'd like to see a New York Times popularization of Sen's theory of how liberating women will unleash development as freedom...
Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide (Knopf, 2009)
So you'd like to see a development of the capability approach...
Martha Nussbaum, Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach (Harvard UP, 2011)


Session 13 (Week 14, December 4). (1) What Are Human Rights as They Are Conceived Today? (2) What Are the Families of Human Rights? (3)  Are the Universal Human Rights Endorsed by Westerners Valid for Asian Cultures?
Read first: Nickel, "A Framework for Justifying Specific Rights," Making Sense, 70-91
Then: Nickel, "The List Question," Making Sense of Human Rights, 92-106

Finally: Joseph Chan, "The Asian Challenge to Universal Human Rights: A Philosophical Appraisal," in James T.H. Tang ed., Human Rights and International Relations in the Asia-Pacific Region (London: Pinter, 1994):  25-38.     [Available on Moodle.] 

CPGC Interns' Second Reflection Paper Due at Beginning of Class.

So you'd like to know more...
Session 14 (Week 15, December 11). (1) Human Rights Seen from within a West African Perspective. (2) Human Rights Seen from an Islamic Perspective. (3) A Neither East-Nor-West Response to Challenges to Human Rights.
Finally: Amartya Sen, "Culture and Human Rights," Development as Freedom, pp. 227-248
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Martha Nussbaum, "In Defense of Universal Values," Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach (Cambridge UP, 1999): 34-111
DEADLINE TO SUBMIT ALL SIX SHORT PAPERS

FINAL PAPER DUE LAST DAY OF EXAMS AT NOON VIA E-MAIL.