Evolution of Management
From the eighteenth century, the rise of the industry revolution, has been evolving to a variety of contemporary management theory, including the classical theory, behavioral, quantitative and other theories and new theory, all-inclusive view of each of the times to meet the specific phenomenon and needs for today as the former of different theories are complementary, without exception, it becomes today's managers resources.
Classical Theory (1): Scientific Management
Ideas of early management was developed by the impact of natural methodology and stress rational thinking. The scientific management theory was based on the scientific work to improve individual staff's capacity, the representatives of this theory are Taylor, Jill Perth couple and Gantt.
Classical Theory (2): Administrative View
Unlike scientific management emphatically individual staff productivity, administration is stressed the operational efficiency of the whole organization, to develop a general theory to explain the good management of the elements required why have laid the infrastructure for today's organization theory to charge for the representatives of Henri Fayol and MaxWeber.
Behavioral (1): Hawthorne Experiment
Classical Theory is mainly focused on the organization and staff with mechanical perspective, such theory behavior is concentrated on the point of view of human nature, importance of individual attitudes and behaviors, methods for managers to motivate employees for improving productivity. The most well-known study is the "Hawthorne Experiments."
Behavioral (2): Interpersonal Perspective
Hawthorne experimental results that the productivity of employees affected by the interaction and the caring of management to staff which can provide staff satisfaction, leading to better performance. This is the basic foundation for the behavioral view of human relations, with Maslow and McGregor, for the representatives in interpersonal perspective.
Quantitative Theory: Management Science and Operations Management perspective view
Quantitative Theory originated in World War II, the spirit of scientific management commitment, the use of quantitative measurement and computer modeling theory such as analysis of complex business problems, gradually become a branch of the management science and operations management perspective.
New Theory (1): Systems Perspective
Recalling the classical theory and the ideas of behavioral and quantitative theory, you can find many theories points of view are not mutually inconsistent. However, with a different background and practical needs on each amendment, it emphasized that the gradual integration of the new theory formed to the system point of view represented and the contingency perspective.
New Theory (2): Contingency perspective
With the same theory system, academic industry focuses on how to adapt the environmental change that developed for "contingency perspective". Moreover, there is no "universal solution" for the management to solve such conditions which depends on the circumstances. It would be a timely situation for mangement to handle the differences of individuals and the environment.