Political Divisions

States, Cantons, and Poleis:
 
In any Threefold Country, we recommend that first-level political divisions be called "states", that the second-level political divisions be called "cantons", and that the third-level political divisions be called "poleis" — the ancient Greek word for "city-states."
 
Rights States:
 
Nearly* all first-level divisions in humanity's world would become constituent "states", regardless of whether they are presently called "provinces", "autonomous regions", "capital districts", and so forth.
 
This includes what are presently called:
  • States (US, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, Malaysia, Germany, Austria)
  • Commonwealths (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky in the US)
  • Provinces (Canada, Iraq, Afghanistan, Argentina, China, South Africa)
  • Regions (Italy, France, Chile; and the former Government Regions of the UK; if the Govt. Regions aren't used, then the entirety of England would become a single "Logrian Parliamentary State")
  • Departments (Bolivia)
  • Governorates (Egypt)
  • Autonomous Regions (China, Italy)
  • Centrally-Administered Municipalities (China)
  • Federal Districts or Capital Districts (District of Columbia, US; and the Federal/Capital Districts of Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela)
  • Autonomous Communities (Spain)
  • Federal Subjects (Russia; including its "Regions", "Territories", "Republics", "Autonomous Region", "Autonomous Districts", and "Federal Cities")
These would all become "human rights States", purified of all economic and cultural-educational powers. In a few countries which only have small first-level divisions, there would be no "states", only cantons or poleis.
 
 
Everyone in humanity's world would be able to answer the common American question: "what state do you live in?". For example, please see our map of a future European political organism.
 
*The only two exceptions would be:
1) those first-level divisions which are sparsely populated or unpopulated. These would become State-level Collectivities and State-level Territories, respectively. Please see below.
2) Those countries which are small enough that they only have cantons and poleis. 
 
Rights Cantons:
 
In a Threefold Country, the second-level political divisions would be called a "canton".
 
This includes what are presently called:
  • Cantons (Switzerland)
  • Counties (US, Ireland, China)
  • Parishes (Louisiana)
  • Boroughs (Alaska, and the five Boroughs/Counties of New York City)
  • Independent Cities (Baltimore, MD; Carson City, NV; St. Louis, MO; and 39 Independent Cities in Virginia)
  • Municipios (Puerto Rico)
  • Departments (France)
  • Local Government Areas (UK: Districts of Northern Ireland, Council Areas of Scotland, Non-Metropolitan Counties and Metropolitan Counties of England)
  • Provinces (Spain and Italy)
  • Districts (Russian raiony)
  • Shires (Australia)
For example, the County of Columbia, New York where Threefold Now is situated, would become the political "Canton of Columbia".
 
Not every country has a second-level political division. For example, the Netherlands has only Provinces (which would become "States") and Municipalities. In this case, each State is considered to be a nominal, coterminous Canton as well.
 
Rights Poleis:
 
The third-level political divisions would be called a "polis" (plural "poleis"). The equivalent in various languages:
  • Muncipality in the English-speaking countries (US, UK, Canada, Australia, etc)
  • Spanish municipio (in most Spanish-speaking countries), muncipalidad (in Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Paraguay, and Peru), or comuna (in Chile). In some Spanish-speaking countries, the existing municipios would become círculos, and the lower-level divisions, such as barrios or "auxiliary presidencies" would become municipalities. Or in some countries there might be no second-level divisions, but only estados and municipios.
  • French commune
  • Dutch gemeente
  • German Gemeinde
  • Italian comune 
All Civil Townships in the United States (also known as "Towns" in New England and New York), and all incorporated Cities and Villages would become Poleis for political-rights purposes. They would not overlap with each other; the incorporated Cities and Villages would be formally severed from the Townships. Urban municipalities would not be distinguished from rural municipalities (i.e. townships); all would become Poleis. For example, please see our map of Municipalities in a future Columbia County political organism.
 
Unlike France, where every place is located in some Muncipality (commune) or another, there are some places in the world which don't have third-level political divisions, such as the Unorganized Boroughs of Alaska, and those US states which don't have organized Townships; for example West Virginia's counties which, except for incorporated Cities, are divided into unorganized Districts. In these cases, those unorganized areas would be considered to be a nominal, unorganized Poleis coterminous with the Canton. The other option is to make the Districts into Muncipalities. Though Municipalities will have different political powers in different parts of the world, every human being will be a Citizen of a Rights Poleis.
 
Ethnicity and ruralness/urbanity, are not part of the sphere of Equality:
 
The aim is to equalize humanity's political organism, removing differences—even terminological differences—between rural and urban, and between ethnic autonomies (such as Indian reservations) and "non-ethnic" administrative areas. The Political Sector is not the place for economic-, landscape-, and culture-based distinctions. It's about individual human citizens as equals.
 
However, even in the case of fused ethno-political units (such as Indian Reservations and Ethnic Autonomous Regions) their purely political powers, boundaries, and identity will be retained. While the cultural powers of those entities will be divested to culturally independent "national identity organizations", their political powers will remain with coterminous, non-ethnic political divisions. 
 
The only kind of distinction that is appropriate in the Equity Sector is population. It is fitting that all individual citizens' votes are weighed equally.
 
Political Collectivities:
 
The word "Collectivities" would be used for those political divisions which are at the level of the State or Canton, but which don't have enough population to justify the same representation in legislative bodies. The "cut off" number to be a "state" will differ from country to country. The minimum population for statehood in the US is 60,000. In Britain and Europe perhaps 100,000. In India and China, perhaps 1,000,000.
 
The name "Collectivity" means that these political divisions collectively share a single representative in the House of States or House of Cantons—the "upper house" of the Rights Assembly.
 
In the U.S., the Indian Reservations which have a population less than 60,000 but more than 0, would become State-level Collectivities. (The Navajo Reservation has more than 60,000 residents, and so would become a Constitutional State.)
 
Political Territories:
 
The name "territory", as a political division, has been used differently by the US, Russia, and other countries. For the Threefold Idea, we recommend that "territory" be employed only for those land areas which have no human inhabitants, or whose only population are military personnel, caretakers, or scientists.
  • State-level Territories:
    • The US Indian Reservations with no residents (some of the tiny Indian Rancherias in California have no residents)
    • The uninhabited US Insular Areas, which might be group into a single "Outlying Islands Constitutional Territory":
      • Palmyra Atoll
      • Baker Island
      • Howland Island
      • Jarvis Island
      • Johnston Atoll
      • Kingman Reef
      • Midway Atoll
      • Wake Island (A Symbolic Political Condominium with Marshall Islands)
      • Navassa Island (A Symbolic Political Condominium with Haiti)
      • Baja Nuevo Bank (A Symbolic Political Condominium with Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua)
      • Serranilla Bank (A Symbolic Political Condominium with Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua)
  • Canton-level Territories: Hypothetically, this would be an uninhabited area of a State which is not part of any Canton.
  • Polis-level Territories: This is an uninhabited area that is part of Canton, but not part of any populated Polis; for example, the two uninhabited "gores" in Vermont and 6 unihabited gores in Maine.
             
            The end of Colonies, Indian Reservations, and Ethnic Autonomies:
             
            Regardless of where a human being is born or lives, they don't have a right to choose to not exercise political responsibility and full political participation. Why is a human being that is born in the District of Columbia banned from having a voice in the legislative branch of the political organism? Why can Puerto Rican humanity be persuaded for economic reasons to vote against having an actual voice in the political organism which rules them? (Disregarding the "play representatives" who can sit in Congress but can't actually vote.) Why cannot a single individual born in Puerto Rico, choose—as an individual—to vote in the actual political organism, regardless of what the other individuals who reside in that area do? Why is he or she clumped into a mass of humanity which live in a particular area of the earth, and which due to massive economic and political/legal hurdles, are banned as individuals from full participation in the political/legal organism they find themselves in?  
             
            In a Threefold Society, all Dependencies, Ethnic Autonomies, Devolved Governments, Indian Reservations, and Colonies are brought to an end. They are offered only two choices:
             
            A) Either full economic, political, and cultural independence as a Threefold Republic, OR
            B) Full economic and political convergence, plus full cultural independence.
             
            In choice "B", their political powers are transferred to a coterminous non-ethnic political division. The individual human beings become Citizens of a non-ethnic, egalitarian political organism.

            The either case, the local nationality or ethnic group will achieve Cultural Independence as an internationally-recognized non-governmental Cultural Organization. 
             
            Merging Political Organisms:
             
            When two political organisms (countries) converge, their political divisions are regularized. For example, their "cut off" points for being a Collectivity or a State are adjusted—probably to the lower number.
             
            The size of different countries' States, Cantons, and Poleis is going to vary greatly. The priority is getting all the 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-level political powers transferred smoothly into purified Rights bodies. However, if two or more Political Organisms choose to merge (such as the European countries), and the size and population of their political divisions differ widely, it will eventually become clearer as to what the most humane and responsive size is. Changing political administrative boundaries will not be such an excruciating task once those boundaries are no longer fused with ethno-national significance. In the further future, the State, Canton, and Polis boundaries can change, becoming more or less granular, in response to the living needs of the human Rights Organism.
             
            The Essential Adjective of each Political Organism:
             
            By studying each country's constitution and political symbols, we at Threefold Now have perceived an essential adjective (or adjectival phrase) which distills the political system of each country. For example "constitutional" for the US, "parliamentary" for the UK, "equality/equity/egalitarian" for France, and so forth. We suggest that the formal name of their purified political divisions be prefaced by the essential adjective.
            • US: Constitutional States, Constitutional Cantons, and Constitutional Poleis
            • France: Equity-States (états l'égalités), Equity Cantons (cantons d'égalité), and Equity Poleis (poleis d'égalité)
            • Ireland, Portugal, and South Africa: Justice-States, Justice Cantons, and Justice Poleis
            • India: Sovereign Social Secular Democratic States (SSSD States), SSSD Cantons, SSSD Poleis. (Or the keyword could be simply "Democratic.")
            • UK: Parliamentary States, Parliamentary Cantons, and Parliamentary Poleis
            • Canada: Strong and Free States, Strong and Free Cantons, Strong and Free Poleis
            • Mexico: Uniting States, Uniting Cantons, Uniting Poleis
            • China: People's States, People's Cantons, People's Poleis
            • Japan: Peace States, Peace Cantons, Peace Poleis
            • Germany: Rights States (Rechtsstaaten), Rights Cantons (Rechte Kantone), and Rights Poleis (Rechte Poleis)
            • Russia: Hope States, Hope Cantons, and Hope Poleis
            However, in countries where local administrative divisions have a tradition of relative independence, some states, cantons, and poleis might choose to use another "essential political adjective". This is symbolic, and is nothing to fight about.
             
            Nicknames for Political States:
             
            As part of the Separation of Nationhood and Statehood, we suggest that all State-level political divisions adopt a nickname as its official name, to distinguish it from the national culture from which it sprang.
             
            For example, as a purified human rights-state, the State of New York would become the Excelsior Constitutional State. However, the cultural assets (such as the NY state schools, universities, and park system) would be transferred to a non-profit/non-governmental Cultural Organization called "The People of New York" (aka the cultural "State of New York"), which would be a local branch of "The American People" (The USA national-cultural organization).
             
            The same "nickname" method is applied in all of Threefold Now's political maps. For a few countries, such as Russia, we used the name of the capital cities to name the states, as a stand-in for a distinct nickname.
             
            What does this mean for the US?:
             
            The political (non-economic, non-cultural/educational) powers of the 50 states will be transferred to 50 coterminous Constitutional States. In the Political Organism of a Threefold America, the District of Columbia would become the 51st Constitutional State.
             
            The five inhabited US dependencies (colonies by another name) would be offered only two choices, either:
             
            A) full economic, political, and cultural independence, or
            B) full political and economic convergence, with cultural independence.
             
            Either way, those peoples will achieve internationally-recognized Cultural Independence (Olympic teams, membership in UNESCO, etc.).
             
            Those dependencies each have more than 60,000 population, and so would become the 52nd to 56th Constitutional States. This stage is depicted on our political map of a purified Constitutional Governance of America.
             
            The political powers of the Navajo Reservation would be transferred to a new non-ethnic political division called the Fourth World Constitutional State—the 57th star on the flag.
             
            The other Federal Indian Reservations which have residents would become Constitutional Collectivities. They would collectively share a single representative in the political Congress. This would be the 58th star.
             
            The U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, being uninhabited, would become Constitutional Territories, perhaps merged into a single Territory.
             
            Also the uninhabited Indian Reservations, such as certain Indian Rancherias in California, would become Constitutional Territories.
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