system-c

The System I: a guide to her stories ( 8 1/2 x 11, 33pp.)
Compile and type by Tom "David" Brown
03/21/2014
03/26/2014
03/27/2014
03/30/2014
03/31/2014
04/03/2014
04/04/2014
04/06/2014
04/10/2014
05/04/2014
05/13/2014
07/14/2014
07/31/2014

(all attribute-able text are copyright © by the original authors of the work.) 

“System is more than just a concept. It is an intellectual way of life, a worldview, a concept of the nature of reality and how to investigate it--a weltanschauung [view of the world].”
           --Russell L. Ackoff, Ackoff's best, p.1 (un- numbered).

How Thinking in Systems can Change the World: Allison Bond at TEDxLangara


Contents

 1. Modeling                     [ ]
 2. Mapping                      [ ]
 3. Fixed                        [ ]
 4. People                       [ ]
 5. Words                        [ ]
 6. Problems and pain            [ ]
 7. Art of war                   [ ]
 8. Numbers                      [ ] 
 9. Citations & References       [ ]
10. Names Index                  [ ]


ONCE upon a time, there is a story.  The story is about a system.  This system was given a name.  Her name is 'c'.  This is not her real name.  No one knows her real name.  No one was supposed to know her real name.  Her real name is a secret, a very important and special secret.   
     Like all other stories, this story has a beginning, a middle, and the end.  However, there is a problem.  The problem is no one is sure or very sure.  No one knows.  There is another problem.  Even though part of her story is public knowledge, the problem is the people that know can not say.  Some things and some ones are preventing the others from revealing the rest of the story.  Some might say this is a good thing and not a problem at all, because they beLIEve there is no reason for the public to know any more.  There is a third problem.  The problem is Life is a series of problems and difficulties and ONCE you truly see this, it is possible to transcend it. 
     Because I do not know and the ones that know can not say, I shall talk about the system in term of structure and content, or content and structure.  The real beginning, the real middle and the real ending of this story are also a secret.  And because I do not have the need-to-know and I have not been read into the program, I do not know.  Therefore the gentle readers will have to settle with a meta-story, with a meta-beginning, a meta-middle, and a meta-ending.  This can be very confusing.  Talking about things that I do not know and can not say.  Writing about things that I do know and therefore  unable to say.
     This is all a great mystery.  The following story is a guide to the real unfinished story that you shall write about your self and for your self.  Have courage and heart.  I hope your story is a happy and a joyful one.  



 1. Modeling                     [ ]

What get us into trouble
is not what we don't know

It's what we know for sure
that just ain't so.

                ―― Mark Twain  *13
                  (Mark Twain is the penn name for Samuel Clemens)
                   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Twain

“It is difficult to get a man to understand
 something when his salary depends upon
 his not understanding it.”

                ――Upton Sinclair  *13


*13  from the film, “An Inconvenient Truth”, featuring former Vice President Al Gore, Democratic Presidential Candidate

pen name(penn name)--an author's pseudonym; a nom de plume.

[p.80]
 I have recorded those events in the hope that the readers of this history may profit from them, for there are two ways by which all men may reform themselves, either by learning from their own errors or from those of others, the former makes a more striking demonstration, the latter a less painful one.  For this reason we should never, if we can avoid it, choose the first, since it involves great dangers as well as great pain, but always the seconds, since it reveals the best course without causing us harm.  From this I conclude that the best education for the situation of actual life consists of the experience we acquire from the study of serious history ([a.k.a. case studies]).  For it is history alone which without causing us harm enables us to judge what is best course in any situation or circumstance.
(Polybius, 1979, p.80)

"By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest."

               [     ] system
                ==============
                      ||
     ||=================================||
     ||                                 ||
 structure  <======================>  content
     ||                                 ||

In general, a system is made-up of the structure and the content--the nature of the structure of the system, and content that exist within and without the structure of that system; the failure to recognized, to identify, to acknowledge the presence of the structure and the content does not mean that they are not there.  We know structure exist in nature and we know structure exist in human organization and we know some form of structure exist in human society.  
     “... the purpose of a system is what it does (POSIWID). This is a basic dictum. It stands for bald fact, which makes a better starting point in seeking understanding than the familiar attributions of good intention, prejudices about expectations, moral judgment or sheer ignorance of circumstances.  POSIWID (the purpose of a system is what it does), to refer to the commonly observed phenomenon that the de facto purpose of a system is often at odds with its official purpose.” (en.wikipedia.org, Anthony Stafford Beer)
     That which is not the structure is the content; that which is not the content is the structure.  Some times what you thought to be the structure is the content; some times what you thought to be the content is the structure.  


To study a subject best, understand it thoroughly before you start.
                                     --Cookies 1

Before stepping into 'The System', we will take a short side-road, stepping  back to take a brief look at 'STATE OF THE SYSTEM'.
[pp.305-306]
The derivation of the structure/behavior insight is thus a combination of simulation experiments, model analysis, and thought about the real system.
   Meadows (1982, pp. 104-105) applied this generic insight to inflation, air quality standards, and trash on city streets.  She argued that in each case there are natural human tendencies to set standards based upon past performance, with the result that “performance is very likely to drift downhill.”  Personally, I find the insight persuasive and have applied it with students to the interesting question of the source and dynamics of a student's goals in a course--and of the teacher's goals for the student.  Presumably these applications, and the original insight relating feedback structure and dynamic behavior in the formal market growth model, would have to be judged like all insights, on the extent to which they open lines of thinking for people.  Insights do require leaps.  Formal validation of a quantitative model would probably not add much to a skeptic's belief in the “sliding goals” principle.  
   Meadows, Donella H. (1982).  Whole Earth Models and Systems.  Coevolution Quarterly (Summer 1982): 98-108.  

//
//              **************
//            + * STATE OF   *
//        **===>* THE SYSTEM *======**
//        ||    **************      || 
//        ||                        \/ +
//        ||     -            PERCEIVED
//    +  ACTION  <========= STATE OF THE
//      /\                    SYSTEM ||
//      ||                           ||        
//      ||                           ||
//      ||                           ||
//      **== DESIRED STATE <=========**
//           OF THE SYSTEM +
//

Figure 5.8: Generic feedback structure underlying a drift to low performance caused by sliding goals.  Source: Meadows (1982, p. 105).
   Meadows, Donella H. (1982).  Whole Earth Models and Systems.  Coevolution Quarterly (Summer 1982): 98-108.  
     [p.322]
A difference between the actual "state" of such a system and a desired "state" ([and a perceived state of the system ]) shows up as a mismatch ... .
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., pp.305-306, p.322)
     This figure or model can assist as a skeleton to the thinking toolkit and should not be used as a flesh-out body to 'complex system' or complex social system.

     Some people will assert that to view a system from the optic of structure and content perspective is constraining and not holistic; I would agree that there is truth in that assertion; however I have found the point of view and framework of using structure and content to classify and catagorize the different pieces and parts of the system to be helpful and useful; it is as good and better, I think, point of departure to start from, when I am beginning from an open structure(aka 'the blank slate', Steven Pinker(2002)); in this case, the truthfulness of a statement does not cancel-out the benefit of being helpful and useful.  
     A system is made-up of parts; parts are make-up of pieces.  The different parts of the system can be catagorized and classified as either structure or-and content.  An enduring, persistent and fixed content would no longer be perceived as  content and can be view as structure.  Calling the parts either content or structure does not make it so.  It is important to look at the properties, charateristics, differences, uniqueness of what would make some parts content and other parts structure.  Another view is that a system is made-up of sub-systems, and the sub-systems are made-up of sub-sub-systems (2sub-systems), on and on.  Structure and content are ways to look at the individual parts and as temporary labels to assist in decision-making.  

[p.97]

                    kinship system
                    ==============
                          ||
     ||========================================||
     ||                                        ||
 structure                                   content
     ||                                        ||

("Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", Francis L. K. Hsu (1975), Schenkman Publishing Company, Cambridge, Mass., [HQ682.H85])
(Hsu, Francis L K (1975); "Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", [HQ682.H85], p.97)


p.204, p.134(detecting the presence of structure), pp. 157-158, pp.159-162, the structure regulation law(p.206)

   the PROGRAM is the structure of the system;
   the structure of the system is the fixed part.
   structure is the parts that remain relatively stable and fixed
   if the part is NOT fixed, then that part is called the behavior
     The behavior is NOT a structure; the behavior is NOT fixed; 
     the behavior usually changes with input, feedback from the environment.
   the structure -- that which stands

('General Principles of Systems Design', Gerald M. Weinberg and Daniela Weinberg, formerly titled 'On the Design of Stable Systems', May 1979, p.204, p.134(detecting the presence of structure), pp. 157-158, pp.159-162, the structure regulation law(p.206).)

     To say the same thing in another(different) way, all systems have two basic characteristics or properties--(1) structure and (2) content.  An example of a family system would be a mother, a father, a daughter, a son, a maternal-grandmother, a maternal-grandfather, a fraternal-grandmother, and frateral-grandfather.  The structure would be how each member(sub-system) of that family(system) relates with themselves and to each others.  The family system would be the WHOLE of everything.

Example #2
     An  example of a physical structure is a diamond and a lump of coal; both the diamond and the lump of coal is made-up of mainly carbon atoms and other impurities--no differences in content(carbon and impurities); however the key difference between the two objects, in term of the crystal-matrix-structure or molecular-matrix-structure, are like night and day; the highly-align, orderly, compressed, cubic-like matrix of one carbon object result in a diamond and the lack there of afore(before) mentioned properties result in a lump of coal. 

Example #3
     Okay, here is an everyday example of structure and content; water(H2O--two hydrogen and one oxygen--the water molecule)--the stuff of life.  In this case, water is the content(H2O).  Solid(ice), liquid(water), gas(moisture) are the three types of structure, also known as 'state'. 

                   water
                   (H2O)
                    ||
     ||============================||
     ||                            ||
 structure   <===============>   content
  [state]
  [solid](ice)                water molecule
  [liquid](water)               "      "
  [gas](moisture)             water molecule
 
     If you freeze water, you get ice cube, still water(content).  By freezing or lowering the temperature below the freezing point, the liquid water changes its state and become a solid block of ice.  At the opposite end, you can get water vapor by way of boiling the water using heat or using a  humidifier(spinner), still water(content). 
     By add heat, raising the temperature above the boiling point, or spinning the content very fast, the liquid water changes its state and become water vapor.  So by adding heat(boiling) to or removing heat(freezing) from water(liquid), we can change the state or the structure of water(liquid).  

[a diagram of the same content with a different FORM(structure)]

        water
        (H20)
(2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen)
 /\                ||
 ||state[structure]||
 ||  solid(ice)    ||
 ||  liquid(water) ||
 ||  gas(moisture) ||
 || ______________ ||  
 ||   [content]    ||
 || water molecule ||
 ||                \/

     There is an argument to be made that the liquid water in your glass and the water vapor or moisture in the air(atmosphere), they are both liquid; the difference being that the liquid water in the glass is together and the so-called water vapor or moisture in the air is very many tiny liquid droplets that is diffused(spread out in all direction) and is part of the atmosphere everywhere; that line of thought experiment is beyond the scope of our current discussion.  In chemistry, there is a WHOLE relationship between heat and pressure and volume and flow(cloud, spin, vibrate)  that we will not go into.

Example #4
     The following are two diagrams, Diagram_SX(Bert) and Diagram_SY(Ernie).  The elements(content) in the two diagrams are the same.  However, as it can be clearly seen below, the structure--the format, the form of the presentation, the expression of the same elements--is NOT the same.  The structure is different.  

Diagram_SX(Bert)
                The system
               (sub-system)
                    ||
     ||============================||
     ||                            ||
 structure   <===============>   content
(form-fixed) 


Diagram_SY(Ernie)

     The system
    (sub-system)
/\                ||
||   structure    ||
||  (form-fixed)  ||
|| ______________ ||  
||    content     ||
||                \/

     The relationship between the structure and content is represented in the two arrows.  The horizontal line marking the two elements of the system is the 'thought boundary', which can be interpreted as division, limitation, contraint, condition and category.  In some cases, this boundary is an illusion--completely man-made, a construct of the mind, by the mind, and for the mind.
     The above diagram and TEXT is a copied of Ferdinand de Saussure's 'dyadic' or two-part model of the SIGN shown below. 

dyad(dyas(Greek)--the number 2)--two units treated as one; a couple; a pair.

        SIGN
/\                  ||
||    signified     ||
||  (CONCEPT-idea)  ||
||    (content)     ||
|| _______________  ||  
||    signifier     ||
||   (the FORM)     ||
||  (name-label)    ||
|| (pointer-symbol) \/

Ferdinand de Saussure
     Saussure offered a 'dyadic' or two-part model of the sign. He defined a sign as being composed of:
         --a 'signifier' (signifiant) - the FORM which the sign takes; and
         --the 'signified' (signifié) - the CONCEPT it represents.
  (source: from Daniel Chandler, 'Semiotics for Beginners', online version, google or bing for the link) 

In the following quote, Noam Chomsky is talking about another kind of system.
     Noam Chomsky: “If you want to understand the way a system works, you look at its institutional structure. How it is organized, how it is controlled, how it is funded.”
     
The following is two more ways to think about system.  One is Stafford Beer's classification of systems.  The other is Kenneth Boulding's hierarchy of systems.

     Stafford Beer's classification of systems
[p.171]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
SYSTEMS             Simple          Complex         Exceedingly 
                                                      complex
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Deterministic   Window catch     Electronic digital   EMPTY
                                    computer
              --------------------------------------
                Billiards        Planetary system
              --------------------------------------        
                Machine-shop     Automation
                   lay-out
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Probabilistic   Penny tossing    Stockholding         The economy
              ---------------------------------------------------------        
                Jellyfish        Conditioned          The brain  
                   movement         reflexed
              ---------------------------------------------------------        
                Statistical      Industrial           THE COMPANY
                quality control     profitability

FIGURE 4.1: Stafford Beer's classification of systems based on degrees of complexity and uncertainty.  Source: Beer (1959, p. 18).
     Beer, Stafford (1959/1967).  Cybernetics and Management (London: English Universities Press).
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., p.171 )

     Kenneth Boulding's hierarchy of systems
[p.126]
TABLE 3.1  Kenneth Boulding's hierarchy of systems (abstracted from Boulding 1956, pp. 89-94)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Level  Characteristic unit    Summary description
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
(1)    framework              static systems
(2)    clockwork              simple dynamic systems
(3)    thermostat             control mechanisms and cybernetic systems
(4)    cell                   open systems, or self-maintaining structures
(5)    plant                  genetic/societal systems
(6)    animal                 mobile, teleological systems with self-awareness
(7)    human individual       animal systems with self-consciousness
(8)    human society          social systems with self-consciousness
(9)    transcendental idea    ultimate, absolutes, and inescapeable knowledges
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., p.126 )

     “The medium of language comes to acquire the illusion of 'transparency': this feature of the medium tends to blind its users to the part [language or medium of language] plays in constructing their experiential worlds”--Daniel Chandler, 'Semiotics for Beginners'.

Alfred Korzybski's work maintained that human beings are limited in what they know by 
     (1) the structure of their nervous systems, and 
     (2) the structure of their languages. 

What is real?
    “... much of our knowledge of the world is indirect; we experience many things primarily (or even solely) as they are represented to us within our media and communication technologies”--Daniel Chandler, 'Semiotics for Beginners', available online by way of the Internet and the World Wide Web.  ([ to include the very TEXT that you are experiencing NOW ])

     As you know before the discovery of the Internet and latter the World Wide Web, we had the television, and before that we had radio, and before that we had printed communication medium like the newspapers, pamphlets, newsletter  and books.  
     The radio is a technological marvel design to pick-up A.M. and F.M. signal transmitted over the air and space; the radio receiver decodes that signal and reproduce the sound of human voice and musics send from the radio transmitter at the source station or the relay station.  In general a radio can not and does not transmit(send) signal by its very definition and design, (53-to-170 x10kHz Amplitude Modulation (A.M.); 88-to-108 MHz Frequency Modulation (F.M.)).  However, this does not mean a radio can not be turned into a transmitter, thus becoming a transceiver(transmitter-receiver).  Like the radio, the television is also a receiver, a decoder, does not transmit and is an end-user device.  However the signal the television received by way of antenna(air and space), cable(wire), satellite(sky--outer space), or others, once the signal is decoded, the television can  replay or reproduce matching moving pictures and sounds. 
     The presence of television in a culture and society that has not been exposed to and has not experience television programming before can be entertaining and distracting, disruptive and captivating, and even educational and developmental.  The television, in its most harmful and helpful use, is a mass brain conditioning  and brain programming machine(TIC-TOC), watching moving pictures and sound will re-wire your brain.  Never-the-less, the television is a relatively simple tool and how a tool is used, is inter-dependent on the humans and the organization that implement it within the community and society.  Just as you are, what you eat; you can be come and invariably be influenced by what you watch, listen to and READ.  Thus an old saying goes: see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil (monkey see, monkey do).  Modeling.


 2. Mapping                      [ ]

     Some people might not think so, however, ink  pen  paper are technology; they are mobile and they will continue to work without electrical power. 
     And back in the days before electronics mail(e-mail, email), we write messages to each other on paper or on bamboo stick or on animal skin or on clay tablet.  We write letters with messages for ourselves and to family, relatives and friends.  And before all this, we were living in caves and telling each other stories around the camp fire, which beside keeping us warm and keeping away the predators, is also used for cooking and other things.  All these communication methods are still with us today.  They did not go away and suddenly disappeared.  
     The information(messages) we  communicate and transfer to and between ourselves and each other are loosely called the content--events of the day, stories, parables, myth, so on and so forth.  Russell L. Ackoff would call this transfer of information, TRANSMISSION OF SYMBOLS, or COMMUNICATION.
     If the stories, parables, myth and others are the content, then what are the structure?  As an exercise on thought experiment, you are to figure out the structure.  No one will be grading you on this.  There is not really a right or wrong answer.  However, you will have to determine and find out, within the communication system, which parts are the content and then which parts are the structure.  I dare say, I hope, you will find the whole process instructive and possibly self-revealing.
     Class room instruction and discussion is story telling.
     Saying that all the parts that is not the content is the structure, although correct, is not enough of the WHOLE answer.  You must be able to understand, to recognize, to identify, and to document each part of the structure of the communication system.  To know what you are experiencing, you must be able to understand it, and then to recognize it, and then to identify it, and then as part of the identification process you shall give it a temporary unique name.  For simple objects and concepts, sometime we are able to understand, recognize and identify in one lump.  For example, a chair, a table, a spoon, a fork, a chopsticks, a toothbrush, a tooth stick (toothpick).  For example of simple concepts(ideas), a circle, a square, a block, a ball, a rope, a triangle, a string, a sun shade, flow, empty space, cover.  For example of human emotions, happiness, joy, sadness, anger, rage, upset, sorrow, loneliness, disgust, fear, peace(stillness), pain (pain as  physical and emotional sensation).  For example of things in nature, trees, rocks, hills, mountains, clouds, streams, lakes, valleys, rivers, holes, wind, rain, flood.  
     For example of the information economy, from Publishers Weekly review (Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc.) of the book 'The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires' by Tim Wu, "[Tim Wu] advocates not a regulatory approach but rather a constitutional approach(Separations Principle) that would enforce distance between the major functions in the information economy--those who develop information, those who own the network infrastructure on which it travels, and those who control the venues of access--and keep corporate and governmental power in check.  By fighting vertical integration, a Separations Principle would remove the temptations and vulnerabilities to which such entities are prone."  Using the first statement as our source, the sub-system of the information economy consist of three primary parts--"those who develop information [the structure that develop the content], those who own the network infrastructure on which it travels [structure], and those who control the venues of access [gatekeeper]". (Amazon.com review section of the book, 'The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires' by Tim Wu)  Gatekeeper would be classified as part of the structure.
     For system, specially a complex, complicated and big system, we work on understanding, recognition and identification piece by piece liken to solving a jigsaw puzzle map and walking through a garden maze(labyrinth--a confusing and baffling network) where you will encounter many dead ends from following false paths (red herring).  Keep courage and heart.  Two of the most important things you will need in a  maze is to have an accurate map and to know where you are.  Where am I?  You are here.  Tagging, creating the legend, and mapping method will become invaluable in this process.  The map will be the document that we will refer to and update, again and again, as we try to understand the system. 

     Red herring: The writer introduces an irrelevant point to divert the readers' attention from the main issue.  
     This term originates from the old tactic, used by prisoners, of dragging a smoked herring, a strong-smelling fish, across their trail to confuse tracking dogs by making them follow the wrong scent.  For example, roommate A might be criticizing roommate B for his repeated failure to do the dishes when it was his turn.  To escape facing the charges, roommate B brings up times in the past when the other roommate failed to repay some money he borrowed.  While roommate A may indeed have a problem with remembering his debt, that discussion isn't relevant to the original argument about sharing the responsibility for the dishes.

('Step to writing well' -3rd ed., Jean Wyrick, 1. English language--rhetoric, © 1987, © 1979, [PE1408.W93 1987], 808'.042, p.214)

The following is three examples of different maps of the media communication system.

http://prdomination.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/global-concentration_the-media-ownership-chart2.jpg
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/hoffm794/medialit/media_concentration.png
http://gaia.adage.com/images/random/mediafamilytree07.pdf


About Mapping, Charts and Topology

Although the subject to follow is about software construction, I believe the idea should apply equally to system construction in general where the application is appropriate.

topology--topographical study, topography--mapping or charting of the physical features or surfaces of any place or region in minute detail. 


[pp.216-217]

Invisibility.   Harel argues strongly that much of the conceptual construct of software is inherently topological in nature and these relationships have natural counter-parts in spatial/graphical representations:

     "Using appropriate visual formalisms can have a spectacular effect on engineers and programmers.  Moreover, this effect is not limited to mere accidental issues; the quality and expedition of their very thinking was found to be improved.  Successful system development in the future will revolve around visual representations.  We will first conceptualize, using the "proper" entities and relationships, and then formulate and reformulate our conceptions as a series of increasingly more comprehensive models represented in an appropriate combination of visual languages.  A combination it must be, since system models have several facets, each of which conjures up different kinds of mental images."
     ". . . . Some aspects of the modeling process have not been as forthcoming as others in lending themselves to good visualization.  Algorithmic operations on variables and data structures, for example, will probably remain textual."

Harel and I are quite close.  What I argued is that software structure is not embedded in three-space, so there is no natural single mapping from a conceptual design to a diagram, whether in two dimensions or more.  He concedes, and I agree, that one needs multiple diagrams, each covering some distinct aspect, and that some aspects don't diagram well at all.
     I completely share his enthusiasm for using diagrams as thought and design aid.  I have long enjoyed asking candidate programmers, "Where is next November?"  If the question is too cryptic, then, "Tell me about your mental model of the calendar."  The really good programmers have strong spatial senses; they usually have geometric models of time; and they quite often understand the first question without elaboration.  They have highly individualistic models.

(The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. -- Anniversary ed., © 1985, Software engineering,  chapter 17, pp.216-217)

     9.  D. Harel, "Biting the silver bullet," Computer (Jan., 1992), pp.8-20.


     The problems(MESSES) we are dealing with, recognized or not, identify or not, acknowledge to or not, exist within, are a part of and very possible IS 'The SYSTEM' and sub-systems.  Russell L. Ackoff wrote, “problems are abstractions” and “Problems are abstracted from experience ... .” What does that mean?  It means human beings re-imagine and re-present their experience, for examples using 'words and names' (vocal language and script writing), dance and body movement (sign language), drawings pictures figures art paintings infographs, music melody sound symphony harmony, sculptures buildings things objects, clothings, foods, songs, so on and so forth; it means we create symbols, definitions and meanings for the symbols and multiple systems of symbols to represent our experience; ... ;we further encode these symbols by assignment and association of meanings to a set of sound that is called the spoken language; all human experiences is a form of abstraction; all experiences is a form of symbolic system, a form of representation (representative system, Yes, like representative Government; we can not be there in-person so we have a representative.).    

Another take on structure and content of the system
 
        Frederick P. Brooks Jr. wrote in the software engineering book, "The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering" -- Anniversary edition, on page 255, "Human history is a drama in which the stories stay the same, the scripts of those stories change slowly with evolving cultures and the stage setting change all the time. So it is that we see our 20th century selves mirrored in Shakespeare, Homer, and the Bible. So to the extent 'The [mythical man-month]' is about people and teams, obsolescence should be slow." (F. P. Brooks, Jr., 1995, Addison-Wesley) 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_P._Brooks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mythical_man-month

     If you will recall, from 'General Principles of Systems Design' by Gerald M. Weinberg and Daniela Weinberg, "the structure of the system is the fixed part" or using more words, the "structure is the parts that remain relatively stable and fixed." 
     Now let us go back and look at Fred Brooks text, again, about how the human "... history is a drama in which the stories stay the same, the scripts of those stories change slowly with evolving cultures and the stage setting change all the time. ... ."  
     In term of history or herstory, the story stay pretty much the same (structure); the people and teams change slowly (possible structure); the scripts of the stories change slowly with evolving cultures (possible structure); and the stage setting (geography, scenery and weather) changes all the time (content).  

topography--mapping or charting of the physical features or surfaces of any place or region in minute detail.
     ([ Important Note: in geopolitical strategy, geography is key; take out a map, look to its neighbors; the histories or herstories that the people in the culture tell themselves and others matter; and how the stories are told is just as important, pay close attention ... ; sometime who is telling the stories or talking is more important than the stories itself; most of Earth surface(topography) is covered in water and underwater; the landmass above sea-level is a minority portion of the visible surface area; with the current warming trend expect sea-level to rise, and the covering of city with none-water permeable surface expect more flooding, and mudslides; all city managers, mayors, state officials and the military command should plan accordingly. ])
     ([ 
       In the BBC 'How the Earth changed History' (2-disc DVD video) presented by Professor Iain Stewart, the structure is clearly Earth(mother nature), her water(fresh water, rivers, streams, underground water), her geology, her wind(atmosphere: jet stream, prevailing wind, trade wind), her fire and her human animals. 
        ])

     What does this tell us?  The human stories about people and teams and evolving cultures repeat itself over and over, again; the messes or the problems come down to people, their stories, the teams, and the script of the stories; it can be argued then that the  structure is human stories--the stories human tell themselves and to each other.  Everything else is the content(knowledge base).  
     Wait a second; this is directly opposite of what I wrote earlier that the stories are the content.  At this point, you might be asking, how can stories be content there and now the stories are the structure, here?  The structure and the content of the system are inter-dependent on the narrative, the viewpoint(point of view), the definition and the meaning of the language in use.  
     Robin Dunbar, a British anthropologist, proposed that human  evolutionary development of language as a "cheap" means of social grooming, while reducing the need for physical and social intimacy (R. Dunbar (1998); Grooming, Gossip, and Evolution (1998); en.wikipedia.org, Dunbar Number).  
     The structure and content duality can be view as the two-side to a sheet of paper.  A sheet of paper has two-sided structure.  When was the last time someone show you a sheet of paper that has only one side?  Never, a one-sided sheet of paper can not and does not exist.  By its very natural structure, a sheet of paper has two sides.  The same thing can be argued about the structure and content of a system.
     Simply put; human nature is the sub-structure or super-structure of the human stories.  This could be one explaination as to why Shakespeare, Homer, and the Bible continue to speak to us and are still with us in the Western World.
([
     Having read all that, some of you might be saying to you self, I have no idea what I just read, I did not understand a bit of it.  
    ])


 3. Fixed                        [ ]

To recap, human nature, human stories, the people and teams, the scripts of the stories, all that appears to be the fixed part, the structure. 

     On page 136 to page 138, Francis L. K. Hsu (1975) wrote about how our emotions and feelings have stayed the same from generation to generation.  As a reminder, "stayed the same" is the clue(sign) of something being a structure.

[pp.136-138]
 Role and Affect(feelings)

The main ingredient of role is usefulness.  "What can I do for you?"  "He can't help me."  "Will you hire me?"  "In this fight God is on our side."  The amount of alimony should support her "in the style to which she is accustomed."  Such comments as these and thousands of other sentiments familiar to us express the nature of roles.
     In every society human beings are more or less formally known according to the roles they perform: skilled and unskilled labour, white collar and blue collar workers, dentists and diamond cutters, janitors and politicians, warriors and witch doctors, mothers' helpers and merchants, and many others.
     The main ingredient of affect is feeling.  "Do you love him?"  "There is nothing I wouldn't do for that woman."  "He is a loyal friend."  "He inspires confidence in his followers, who are devoted to him."  These and thousands of other statements express the nature of affect.  Love, hate, rage, despair, endurance, sympathy, hope, alienation, anxiety, forbearance, loyalty, betrayal--these are kinds of affect variously known to all mankind.
     <skip the entire paragraph up to the last sentence>  However, a mother who loves her baby but is totally ignorant of child care is not competent mother, just as a street car conductor who has no pride in his work will not do it well or stay in the job long.
     [...]
     On the other hand, while our roles have evolved in number and proficiency with the complexity of society, our affect has not.  We still entertain the same kinds of feelings as our ancestors who lived two or three thousand years ago, namely, love, hate, rage, despair, endurance, hope, anxiety, forbearance, sympathy, loyalty, betrayal, and so forth.  The list was short before and it is not much longer today.  Like the ancients we still cannot reduce affective interactions into calculable quantities not regulate them with some form of exchange.  In fact, we consistently brand any intrusion of the role-based mediums of exchange into the affective sphere as prostitution or as bribery, and describe its futility by saying "you can't buy friendship or love."  That is why great literature (fiction, poetry) and great art (painting, sculpture) and even great philosophy and ethics survive the ages, for we moderns feel the same agony and joy and the same loyalty and duplicity as the ancients.  We can relive their lives through what they have written and if they, were alive today, they would be able to discuss with us our problems with our children, parents, friends, enemies, sweethearts and spouses.  But old books of science and technology are useless except as curiosities or as material for histories of science and technology.  Not only the ancients, but our fathers and even our older brothers would find catching up with our present generation's achievements in science and technology impossible or at least extremely arduous.

(The Japanese usually write the term 'iemoto' with two Chinese  characters: 'chia' (meaning household or family in both languages) and 'yuan' (meaning origin or root).  The combined effect of "family root" is indicative of the nature of this important and unique secondary grouping.)
("Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", Francis L. K. Hsu (1975), Schenkman Publishing Company, Cambridge, Mass., [HQ682.H85])
(Hsu, Francis L K (1975); "Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", [HQ682.H85], pp.136-138)


If we are to view the Francis L. K. Hsu's text from the point of view and framework of the system as structure(fixed part, stay the same, stable) and content, then it is the 'human emotion and feelings'(affect) that is the structure; and the science and the technology are the content.  To paraphrase a passage from a song, "It's still the same old story, a fight for love and glory, a case of do or die.  ...  The world will always remember lovers, as time goes by."


To the list of parts that can be considered as structure, human nature, human stories, the people and teams, the scripts of the stories, we can now add 'human emotion and feelings'(affect).

([  total cultural context

    1. the creative individual, like others, is the product of a particular cultural context.
    2. even if a practitioner of any one of the arts produces something totally foreign to this cultural context, such a creation has little chance of general acceptance.
    3. Anthropologist have found, through their study of many diverse societies, that among any given people both the form([structure like]) and the content of their art and literature show a high degree of consistency both historically and with reference to the total cultural context.
    4. There has been no exception, so far.

 [p.15]
     [...]
     There is a popular misconception that creative efforts of the individual may transcend time and place.  (This concept, incidentally, is typically Western in its individual-centered origin.)  No anthropologist will agree with this.  In the first place, the creative individual, like others, is the product of a particular cultural context.  In the second place, even if a practitioner of any one of the arts produces something totally foreign to this cultural context, such a creation has little chance of general acceptance.  Anthropologist have found, through their study of many diverse societies, that among any given people both the form and the content of their art and literature show a high degree of consistency both historically and with reference to the total cultural context.  Chinese and Americans ([and others]) are no exception.
     Seen in this light, art and literature ([ and science ]) ([ and technology ]) are much more than the cerebral-emotional products of creative individuals.  They are fundamentally what may be described as mirrors--or as the psycho-analyst says, projective screens--of the society ([ and the different parts of society ]) to which the creative individual belongs.  We shall look first at art and literature, for these mirrors register not only the surface concerns of the people in question, but also their deeper yearnings which often are not consciously recognized.
     [...]
(Hsu, "Americans & Chinese," [DS 721.H685 1970], p.15)
("Americans and Chinese," Francis L. K. Hsu, 1970, The Natural History Press, p.15)

    ])


 4. People                       [ ]

To further support my point about people, not to say that tools, technology, organization and management does not matter, I cite Frederick P. Brooks citing Barry Boehm "of some 63 software projects, mostly aerospace, with about 25 at TRW." (Brooks(1984), p.273) from 'Software Engineering Economics'.

[p.276]
 People Are Everything (Well, Almost Everything)

Some readers have found it curious that The MM-M devotes most of the essays to the managerial aspects of software engineering, rather than the many technical issues.  This bias was due in part to the nature of my role on the IBM Operating System/360 (now MVS/370).  More fundamentally, it sprang from a conviction that the quality of the people on a project, and their organization and management, are much more important factors in success than are the tools they use or the technical approaches they take.
     Subsequent researches have supported that conviction.  Boehm's COCOMO model finds that the quality of the team is by far the largest factor in its success, indeed four(4) times more potent than the next largest factor.  Most academic research on software engineering has concentrated on tools.  I admire and covet sharp tools.  Nevertheless, it is encouraging to see ongoing research efforts on the care, growing, and feeding of people, and on the dynamics of software management.

(The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. -- Anniversary ed., © 1985, Software engineering, p.276)

     15.  Boehm, B. W.., Software Engineering Economics, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981, pp. 83-84; 470-472.

     People viewpoint is highly inter-dependent on the 'nature of their role' on the team and in the organization.

     The  
       (1) human nature,
       (2) human stories,
       (3) the people and teams,
       (4) the scripts of the stories, and
       (5) 'human emotion and feelings'(affect) 
       seem to be the structure that keep on showing up, again and again, with all other content changing as human evolve and develope in 'standard of living' and 'quality of life'.

([
   It should be noted that I have not say or listed, 
      (1) what are human nature?
      (2) what are the human stories?
      (3) who are the people and who are the member of the teams?
      (4) what are the scripts of the stories that seems to consistently show up, again and again?
      (5) what are the 'human emotion and feelings'(affect)?
   None of those questions will be the focus of our current discussion.  If the dear gentle readers are interested, then it is left as an exercise, thought experiment and research study.    
   en.wikipedia.org is a nice starting point.
    ])

     In 'TRANSFORMING THE SYSTEMS MOVEMENT', Russell L. Ackoff wrote an insightful comparison, contrasting 'standard of living' and 'quality of life':

     DEVELOPMENT     VERSUS         GROWTH
[ “quality of life”  versus “standard of living”]

Rubbish heaps grow but do not develop.  
Some nations grow larger without developing and others develop without growing.

   (1.)       Growth is an increase in size or number. 
         Development is an increase in competence, 
         the ability to satisfy ones needs   and 
                                     desires and 
                                     those of others. 

   (2.)  Growth is a matter of  EARNing; 
    development is a matter of LEARNing. 

   (3.)  Standard of living is an index of national growth; 
         “quality of life”  is an index of its development. 

   (4.)  Development is not a matter of how much one has 
                        but 
                                        how much one can do 
                        with whatever one has. 

         4a.  “ Amartya Sen, the 1998 Nobel laureate in Economics, proved this using the example of India.  He was able to demonstrate that social disparities and badly functioning public institution and infrastructure in this country are primarily responsible for destitution and underdevelopment.  In this sense, governance problems and a lack of political will have to be held accountable for turning population growth into a real development problem. ”*1

              4a1. India hasn't invaded another country in the last 10,000 years of history. *7

   (5.)  This is why Robinson Crusoe is a better model of development than J. Pierpont Morgan.

*1   famine, nutrition, water, sanitation (OW)
 [pp.258-259]

A series of scientific studies have shown that population growth is not generally the cause of poverty and underdevelopment.  But rapid population growth exacerbates the search for solutions, and overtaxes existing infrastructure capacities and the ability of the labour markets to absorb a growing workforce.  As a result, an increasing number of people in rapidly growing societies have no possibility of attending school or accessing medical care in the event of an illness or during pregnancy.

There may well be some sort of a demographic poverty trap in the least developed ([and over developed parts of]) countries.

(Overcrowded World, Wie schnell wächst die Zahl der Menschen?Weltbevölkerung and weltweite Migration, Overcrowded World?, Global Population and International Migration, By Rainer Münz and Albert F. Reiterer, © 2007, English translation copyright © Julia Schweizer 2009, pp.258-259).

*7   (1001 unbelievable facts, author : Helen Otway, editors : Fiona Tullock and Kate Overy, © 2008)


 5. Words                        [ ]

"Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind."
             --Rudyard Kipling

      " ... the word is not the thing ... ";--Daniel Chandler, 'Semiotics for Beginners', available online by way of the Internet and the World Wide Web.


[pp.165-166]
 ... People love stories, and they react to them frequently.
     The need for a narrative or metaphorical connection is as old as the human race itself.  The Neolithic cave paintings found across Western Europe are one of the earliest examples of the storytelling tradition and its intertwined relationship with survival itself.  The paintings tell of how the clan is fed and nourished on the animals it hunts; this is an instruction manual in story form using the very earliest written language--pictures.
     To a large extent, the human mind is hardwired for story; it is the primary way in which we understand the world and pass on what we've learned to future generations.  And not any story will resonate; there are very specific story structures that effect us all in a primal way.  It is no coincidence that in every part of the world, there is some significant and revered version of one of the following seven story arcs or plots:
   1. overcoming the monster
   2. rags to riches
   3. the quest
   4. voyage and return
   5. comedy
   6. tragedy
   7. rebirth or transformation
[p.166]
     Examples of each of these seven arcs had been independently developed by ancient cultures with absolutely no contact with one another whatsoever.  This doesn't happen by accident.
     Christopher Booker spent 30 years researching his seminal 2005 book on the subject, 'The Seven Basic Plots'.  The psycho-analyst Carl Jung took a shot at this idea, calling these archetypal stories the "the development and integration of the mature self."  Joseph Campbell has also written hero myth types ultimately on the subject, his dissection of the classic hero myth types ultimately inspiring George Lucas to combine them all into the story for the Star War movies.
     [...]
('Backstage wall street : an insider's guide to knowing who to trust, who to run from, and how to maximize your investments', Joshua M. Brown (2012), copyright © 2012, [332.6097 Brown], )
(Brown, Joshua M.; 'Backstage wall street', copyright © 2012, publisher McGraw-Hill Companies, [332.6097 Brown], pp.165-166)

The following is three examples of a narrative structure we see in stories.

On stories

[p. 20]
   the building blocks of all compelling stories are
        challenge
          struggle and
            resolution
(Tell to win, p.20, Peter Guber, 2011)


[p.33]
The classic model of a story builds emotional impact in five stages around the story's core message:

* typically, a story starts out with a character having his or her world thrown out of balance.

* then there's a series of progressive complications as she struggles to get her life back into balance.

* next she's confronted with a crisis--a choice she must make that will forever change her world.

* this is followed by the climax of the story--making the choice and experiencing the result--and this is where both the moral/message of the story as well as its maximum emotional impact are coded.

* then the story resolves, with loose ends being tied up and everybody living "happily ever after."

('Cracking the Code', Thom Hartmann, Chapter 2--cracking the story code--page 33.)

[p.36]
 dysfunctional stories persist -- like Ciderella

If you want people to understand your point, and to remember it for a long time, embed the information in a story.

( Cracking the Code: How to win hearts, change minds, and restore America's original vision, by Thom Hartmann, © 2007, 2008; )

On scripts and screen writing structure
     http://www.algeri-wong.com/yishan/

Narrative that engage the audience
i) "As you know, we have arrangement A of nature B." 
 ii) "Recently, we've found that event E has occurred and disrupted nature B." 
 iii) "Further, this means that arrangement A is now wholly untenable." 
 iv) "At first, we assumed it would be a simple matter of using Easy Fix F to restore arrangement A." 
 v) "Unfortunately, we failed to anticipate complication C, which prevented us from doing so and made the problem worse." 
 vi) "Therefore, we have decided to resort to More Difficult Fix M in the hopes of improving the situation." 
 vii) "Having prepared More Difficult Fix M for execution, we have found that it is indeed working and arrangement A+ has been achieved, which is for now an adequate state." 
 viii) "Additionally, we have found A+ to possess additional nature N+, which we did not anticipate and has yielded Bonus Consequence Q."

http://www.algeri-wong.com/yishan/things-i-learned-from-my-wifes-screenwriting-education-part-ii.html

Do all stories follow these three examples of structure?  No.  

"There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you."
                                          --Maya Angelou 

For example, the following is two stories taken from Robert Dilts article about  the fundamental 'light' and healing capacity of NLP.
  http://www.nlpu.com/Articles/article2.htm

     ..., consider just how easy it is to create conflict and violence by taking on the following beliefs: "There is only one true map of the world. They (the chosen enemy) have the wrong map of the world - I/we have the correct map of the world. They are negatively intended - they want to hurt us. They are incapable of changing - I/we have tried everything I/we could. They are not part of our system - they are fundamentally different from us."
     These beliefs, taken together, have no doubt been at the heart of every atrocity that has been committed in human history. 
     This first belief system we shall called it, X worldview--worldview X-ray  or image X-ray(iX).
     In comparison, I shall contrast the people with worlview X-ray(iX) to a  group of people who are committed to promote a different set of pre-suppositions:
     "We are a system that is part of much larger system. This system is fundamentally geared toward health and adaptation. Therefore, we are all ultimately motivated by positive intentions. Our maps of the world, however, are limited and don't always provide us with all the possible choices. We are, none-the-less, capable of changing, and once we are able to perceive a truly viable option, we will automatically take it. The issue is to be able to widen one's model of the world to include other choices and capabilities for protection and wisdom and to assist others in doing so as well."
     This second belief system, we shall called it, Y worldview--worldview Yankee or image Yankee(iY).
     "Reality is not relevant.  Perception is everything.  If you think it is the enemy, you can destroy it, whether true or not." (Terry Goodkind, "Wizard's First Rule", copyright © 1994, p.126)
     Having these two worldviews or belief systems exist together as two different factions in a society makes for an interesting and contentious situation, prone to conflicts, fights and violence.  Some would even say, they are enemies or maybe friends-enemies.  What should be clear is this, one side(iX) has no hesitation to kill, to eliminate or do something else to the others, while the other side(iY) is working on "to be able to widen one's model of the world to include other choices and capabilities for protection and wisdom and to assist others in doing so as well."  If this is real life, then guess which side is more likely to wipe the other side off the face of the planet or render the other side impotent--less of power(powerless) or lacking of power(without power).  On the face of it or on single pass of the surface view, odds would favored worldview X-ray(iX), would it not.  To the victor goes the spoiled.  If it is that simple and straight-forward, then why and how does worldview Yankee(iY) continue to exist.  There is deeper levels or more layers to the story, is there not.  Yes, there is and I shall not go into it.  
     Although I do not think the following is true, one proposal that I offer as an explaination for this conflict and tension between X-ray worldview(iX) and Yankee worldview(iY) is the introvert and extrovert duality.

  C. G. Jung's(1946) personality categories, introversion and extroversion
    (1.introvert) how the environment affects an individual, and
    (2.extrovert) how an individual affects the environment.
     Furthermore, ... Jung took SELF and the ENVIRONMENT to be exclusive and exhaustive categories.  *R1

*R1. (Ackoff's best : his classic writings on management, Russell L. Ackoff., © 1999, pp.222-223)

     kryptos(Greek)--hidden, covered, secret.
  For introvert, the hidden and more important part of the story is the inner life.  For extrovert, they have inner life, too, and this inner life is develope with a different approach, orientation and awareness.  The approach, orientation and awareness of extroverts are directed outward and less inward looking.  The focus of the extrovert is more with influencing, developing, and engaging the surrounding environment.  The introvert wants to influence, develope, and engage, too; they want to influence, to develope, and to engage everyones "model of the world to include other choices and capabilities", including the extroverts and other introverts.  Both the extrovert and the introvert work on and make changed to the system structure and content in different ways.  Some of these changes can be view as threats,  pushing people out of their comfort zone to the edge, generating fear.  Be at peace, do not be afraid, for all is well.  By the way if all is not well, then you should go and do something or nothing about it and not beLIEve in what I just said.    
  For the moment, however, this story is left unfinished.
     To be continued ...


 6. Problems and pain            [ ]

Stories are about problem and pain.  M. Scott Peck wrote about this in a popular 1970s psychology book titled, 'The road less traveled.'  He talked about the human stories, that "Life is a series of problems."

[pp.15-16]
 Problems and Pain

     Life is difficult.
     This is a great truth, one of the greatest truths.*  It is great truth because once we truly see this truth, we transcend it.
([ Even though we are all capable and able to transcend it, I beLIEve very few do transcend it; to truly see something or anything is difficult, however we only need to see the truth ONCE; some are under the delusion or self-deception that they have transcend it; some do transcend it after much work; for the rest of us, the great truth that life is difficult and is a 'pain in the ass'; in dealing with this, many people have decided to escape into their own private world, be on their private islands, or a private gated communities(sanctuary, retreat).])

[...]

     Life is a series of problems.

[...]

[page 16]
[...]
     What makes life difficult is that the process of confronting and solving problems is a painful one.  Problems, depending upon their nature, evoke in us frustration or grief or sadness or loneliness or guilt or regret or anger or fear or anxiety or anguish or despair.  These are uncomfortable feelings, often very uncomfortable, often as painful as any kind of physical pain, sometimes equaling the very worst kind of physical pain.  Indeed, it is BECAUSE (be cause) of the pain that events or conflicts engender in us that we call them problems.  And since life poses an endless series of problems, life is always difficult and is full of pain as well as joy ([we should hope]).  

(Peck, Morgan Scott; 'The road less traveled.'; 1. Maturation (Psychology); 2. Psychiatry and religion.; 3. Psychoanalysis and religion.; © 1978)
(The road less traveled., by M. Scott Peck, M.D., © 1978, pp.15-16)

     *  The first of the "Four Noble Truths" which Buddha taught was "Life is suffering."

   1. "This is the first of the four noble truth: birth, aging, illness, death--(1); sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair--(2); union with what is displeasing--(3); separation from what is pleasing--(4); not to get what one wants--(5); in brief, the five(5) aggregates subject to clinging."; this is suffering.
   [p.355] 
    five aggregates: forms, feeling, perceptions, mental formations and consciousness.  Forms include all that is physical, which includes our body made up as it is on earth, sun and sky; feelings include our emotions; perceptions include our five senses; mental formations include the wide expanse of all forms of thinking; and consciousness includes the action of being aware of what we perceive.
   (From the Gita to the Grail : exploring yoga stories and western myths, by Bernie Clark, p.355) 

([
   Dukkha - "uneasy"; "unsteady, disquieted"; unsatisfactoriness; not enough or never being enough; indicates a lack of satisfaction, a sense that things never measure up to our expectations or standards.

   Dukkha - suffering, difficult, un satisfactory, can not get satisfaction, no satisfaction.

   1. "This is the noble truth of dukkha: birth is dukkha, aging is dukkha, illness is dukkha, death is dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are dukkha; union with what is displeasing is dukkha; separation from what is pleasing is dukkha; not to get what one wants is dukkha; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are dukkha."

   2. "This is the noble truth of the origin of dukkha: it is this craving which leads to renewed existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there, that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination."

   3. "This is the noble truth of the cessation of dukkha: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it."

   4. "This is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of dukkha: it is the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration."

1 right belief (view)
2 right intention
3 right speech (words, tone, attitude)
4 right action (do, execute, work, perform)
5 right living (livelihood)
6 right effort -- the energy that you use in your life
7 right thinking (mindfulness)
8 right          (concentration)

   ])

 [p.115]
1. right views--knowledge and understanding of the Four Noble Truths
2. right aspirations--discarding desire and avoiding hurting others
3. right speech--telling the truth
4. right conduct--not stealing or cheating
5. right livelihood--earning a living in a way that does not harm or cause bloodshed to others
6. right effort--thinking positively in order to follow the path
7. right mindfulness--being aware of the effects of thoughts and actions
8. right meditation--attaining a peaceful state of mind

     (The Everything World's Religions Book : discover the belief, traditions, and cultures of ancient and modern religions, written by Robert Pollock, copyright © 2002, p.115)


On delusion, self-deception and self-delusion

  On p.104, p.232, p.235, pp.235-236
     By Tom Butler-Bowdon, on page 232 and page 235::
     from the book, ‘Phantoms in the Brian: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind,’, by V.S. Ramachandran & S. Blakeslee (1998), New York: HarperCollins, 
 [pp.235-236]
  Ramachandran refers to Thomas Kuhn and his landmark book 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,' which noted that science tends to sweep the unusual cases under the carpet until they can be fitted into established theories.  But Ramachandran's view turns this on its head: We can get closer to generalities by solving the strange cases. [...]      
 [p.235]
     ... involves the division of labour between the two brain hemispheres.   The left hemisphere works to create belief systems or models of reality.  It is conformist in nature and "always tries to cling tenaciously to the way things were."  Therefore when it has new information that does not fit into the model, it employs defense mechanisms of denial or repression in order to preserve the status quo.  The job of the right hemisphere, conversely, is to challenge the status quo, and look for inconsistencies and any sign of change.  When the right hemisphere is damaged, the left hemisphere is free to pursue its "denials and confabulations."  Without the right's reality check, the mind wanders down a path of self-delusion.
 [p.104]
     In a nutshell, we do just about anything to avoid pain and preserve a sense of self, and this compulsion often results in us creating psychological defenses, ([ to include delusion, self-deception, creation of imaginary world and fantasy, all as an adaptive and coping mechanisms]) (1936) (Anna Freud, 'The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense,' 1936)
 [p.235]
     ... Freudian idea of defense mechanism; that is, thoughts and behaviors whose purpose is to protect the idea we have of ourselves. Neurology's task is to discover why people rationalize and avoid reality, only it involves considerations of brain wiring instead of the psyche. Patients in denial mode are the best way to research this because their defense mechanism are concentrated and amplified.
     The brain will do anything to preserve a sense of self. This evolved perhaps because the brain and nervous system involve so many different systems and a grand illusion is necessary to tie them all together. To survive, to be social, to mate, we need to have the experience of being an autonomous being who is in charge. However, the part of us that is in charge is in fact only a small part of our whole beings; the rest carries on automatically, zombie like.
     Ramachandran, V.S., & Blakeslee, S. (1998), ‘Phantoms in the Brian: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind,’, by V.S. Ramachandran & S. Blakeslee (1998), New York: HarperCollins.
     (50 Psychology Classics: who we are, how we think, what we do; insight and inspiration from 50 key books, by Tom Butler-Bowdon, © 2007, MJF books, p.104, p.232, p.235, pp.235-236)


 7. Art of war                   [ ]

    I and Somalia against the world.
    I and my clan against Somalia.
    I and my family against the clan.
    I and my brother against the family.
    I against my brother.

                        --Somali proverb

On influence of politics and human nature on military operations

Definition of politics:
     1. political-economic--the pursuit of power and plenty (Greek philosophers, "Ackoff's best : his classic writings on management", Russell L. Ackoff., © 1999, hardcover, p.139)
     2. politics is the organization of power ("Tragedy and Hope", by Carroll Quigley, 1966)

[p.9]
 Sunzi, 6th cent. B.C.
    [Sunzi bing fa. English]
    The art of war / Sun-tzu.
    1. Military art and science--Early works to 1800
(translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles, first published in 1910 by Luzac & Co., London.)

INTRODUCTION
Written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army (1944)

     Written about 500 B.C., 'The Art of War' by Sun Tzu is the oldest military treatise in the world.  Highly compressed, it is devoted to principles and still retains much of its authoritative merit.  To the military student able to adapt its principles to modern warfare, it even now, twenty-five centuries(2500) after its preparation, is a valuable guide for the conduct of war.  Although the chariot has gone and weapons have changed, this ancient master holds his owns, since he deals with fundamentals, with the influence of politics and human nature on military operations.  He shows in a striking way how unchanging these principles are.
[...]

('The art of war', Sun-tzu, Dover edition; The Introduction and the chapter on Chinese Warfare were written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army, for the 1944 edition; p.9)

Fundamentals and principles are unchanging.

So what are structure?  Which parts or what parts are unchanging?  In music, there are the five musical notes according to the Chinese in ancient time.  Doe-Ray-Me-Far-Soo-La-Tea is what we are taught, seven musical notes.  In mixing paint, there are three primary colors and that is what most people believe to be true.  In tastes, there are five basic sensations--sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter.  In grayness, there are two basic shades--black and white.  And in battles, there are two methods of attacks--direct and indirect.  Are these exhaustive?  I can not say.  Are these exclusive?  I can not say.

 [pp.55-56]
     There are not more than five musical notes, [probably meaning, only five employed in Chinese music of the era] yet the combination of these five give rise to more melodies than probably can ever be heard.  There are not more than three primary colors, yet in combination they produce more hues than can ever be seen.  There are not more than five tastes, [sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter] yet combination of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.
     ([ and from the 50 shades of gray are the by product of careful dilution of jet-black ink in crystal clear water painted on white background; ])
     In battle, there are not more than two methods of attack--the direct and indirect; yet these two in combination give rise to an endless  series of maneuvers.  The direct and indirect lead on to each other in turn.  It is like moving in a circle--you never come to an end.  Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination?

(translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles)
('The art of war', Sun-tzu, Dover edition; The Introduction and the chapter on Chinese Warfare were written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army, for the 1944 edition; pp.55-56)

"Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape, 
 so in [tactics of] warfare there are no constant conditions."
(translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles)
                        --Sunzi (Sun-Tzu a.k.a. Sun Tzu Wu)
                          The art of war, 6th century B.C.
                          Dover edition (2002)
                          Military Service Publishing Company,
                          Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (1944)

     In the art of the confidence game, if you can set and control the condition, then you should be able to get your mark(target) to part with his or her asset; the same could be applied to setting the condition of the ground rule, whether it is warfare or other activities. 

[p.62]
     How victory may be produced by this from the enemy's own tactics is what the multitude cannot comprehend.
     All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.
     Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.
     Military tactics are like unto water, for water in its natural course runs away from high places and hastens downwards.  So in war, the way to avoid what is strong is to strike what is weak.
     Water shapes its course according to the ground over which it flows; the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing.
     Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape, so in warfare there are no constant conditions.

(translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles)
('The art of war', Sun-tzu, Dover edition; The Introduction and the chapter on Chinese Warfare were written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army, for the 1944 edition; p.62)

So according to Sun Tzu Wu, "just as water retains no constant shape, so in [          ] warfare there are no constant conditions." 

     No constant conditions is a clue or signal that this could be content; tactics in warfare like water should be considered as content; they are not structure.

     "... what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.", could the strategy be the structure?  Is it possibly the structure?  I do not know.

[XIII.  THE USE OF SPIES]

     27.  Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise
general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for
purposes of spying and thereby they achieve great results.

     [Tu Mu closes with a note of warning:  "Just as water, which
carries a boat from bank to bank, may also be the means of
sinking it, so reliance on spies, while production of great
results, is oft-times the cause of utter destruction."]

Spies are a most important element in war, because on them
depends an army's ability to move.

(The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, Translated from the Chinese by LIONEL GILES, M.A., First Published in 1910, google 'Project Gutenberg' for other eBook on the web, XIII., 27.)

     Just as clean clear water is essential for life, too much water will drown life, flood low land, and flowing water at the scale of tsunami torrent force will cause great destruction; structure is essential for social stability and development.  While no structure or not enough structure could result in anarchy or continuous conflict after conflict until the emergence of a new order (fragment sentence).  People take for granted that a new order always followed conflicts; history has shown otherwise.
           Conflicts usually hardened the two oppositions in their demand and expectation; as more and more resources and human lives are devoted and used up in the conflict, both sides should find it harder and harder to give in and give up until exhaustion of resources and emotional will to fight.  If no structure or not enough structure lead to one type of mess, then too much structure lead to another type of mess--totalitarianism; where is the 'Goldilocks and the Three Bears' middle ground of just right, degrees(how much) and balance.  

anarchy(anarchia, Greek)--
     1. the state of society where there is no law or supreme power; a state of political disorder
     2. a state of confusion or disorder
     3. chaos

In 'Spiral of Violence' (1971) by Dom Helder Camara, he wrote that "violence builds up at three levels in a society" ([ there are deeper levels to this that I shall not go into ]):

http://www.alastairmcintosh.com/general/spiral-of-violence.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dom_Helder_Camara


     1. structural injustice (Level 1 violence) : "Primary violence is the everyday effect of structurally ingrained social injustice."

     2. rebellion (Level 2 violence) : "This generates secondary violence - the revolt of the oppressed."

     3. repressive reaction (Level 3 violence) : "And that in turn provokes tertiary violence - repression by the powerful to secure their privileged position."

       "And so the spiral of violence tightens."

  

     War is not good for children and other living things, and the children are always innocent.  “With you I must remain young in my soul, and keep the hope and love I need to help all humanity.”


As to the system, its structure and its content, I have no magical answer or solution.  No silver bullet.  
     The structure incubates, 
                   can   and 
                   do    give birth to content; 
     with a proper feedback loop, 
                   filter and 
                   regulation, 
     the content can be used to change and reform, 
                             to update and transform the structure, 
     thus this is how content can transform the structure.  
     This is the 'cycle'
  --the structure begets(generates) content,
    the   content begets neo-structure(new-structure), 
the new structure begets new content(version 2).  

'sac cycle' - structure and content cycle
'sbc cycle' - structure begets content cycle

"Information emanating from the system returns to affect the structure and behavior of that same system." (p.199)
    (Miller, Galanter, and Pribram (1960), George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl Pribram, Plans and the Structure of Behavior (1960), Center for Advanced Study in the Behavior Science; in their development of TOTE(Test, Operate, Test, Exit), they based much of their thinking on the published and unpublished work of Newell, Shaw, and Simon up to 1959.)
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., p.199 )

[pp.134-135]
     This may appear to be a circular argument, leading to the hen-and-egg kind of absurdity.  But the hen-and-egg problem is embarrassing only if we attempt to determine which came first.  If we arbitrarily begin with either the hen or the egg, then each is a good measure of the other.
     [page 135]
Given the hen, we will have a good idea of what kind of egg she is going to lay; given the egg, we may be fairly certain of the kind of bird that will hatch from it.
     ... We shall try to see how the characteristic attitudes, aspirations, and actions of the individual are encouraged by the existing ideals embodied in institutions such as marriage, the government, the church, and the economy.  But we shall also undertake to determine how these very ideals and institutions are in turn modified or redefined by the efforts of the individual.

(Hsu, "Americans & Chinese," [DS 721.H685 1970], pp.133-135)
("Americans and Chinese," Francis L. K. Hsu, 1970, The Natural History Press, pp.134-135)

Which groupings are the structure? 
  Is it the attitudes, aspirations, and actions?
  Is it the institutions such as marriage, the government, the church, and the economy?
  Is it the efforts of the individual?
  Is it the individual?
  
[p.4]
     In ‘Mending the broken bond : the 90 day answer to developing a loving relationship with your child’, Frank Lawlis and his ghost writer wrote, “Giving and receiving love is vital to human existence. It is the glue that binds couples, families, communities, cultures, and nations. It is natural. It is instinctive. Yet this essential human capability is fragile. It can be corrupted and short-circuited to devastating effect.” *R4
     *R4  (‘Mending the broken bond : the 90 day answer to developing a loving relationship with your child’, by Frank Lawlis; 1. parenting; 2. parent and child; 3. child rearing; p.4)
     This bonding glue of giving and receiving LOVE is the structure. "It is natural. It is instinctive. Yet this essential human capability is fragile. It can be corrupted and short-circuited to devastating effect."  So the same could be said of the 'cycle'.  The 'cycle' is fragile and its essential ... can be "corrupted and short-circuited to devastating effect." 

Diagram_SX(Bert)
                The system
               (sub-system)
                    ||
     ||============================||
     ||                            ||
 structure   <===============>   content
(form-fixed) 

'sac cycle' - structure and content cycle, in this model, there is a give-and-take, an inter-action, inter-active influence between the structure and the content. 


Diagram_SY(Ernie)

     The system
    (sub-system)
/\                ||
||   structure    ||
||  (form-fixed)  ||
|| ______________ ||  
||    content     ||
||                \/

'sbc cycle' - structure begets content cycle, in this model, structure gives birth to content, and then content gives birth to a new structure, this new structure then gives birth to content version 2.0, and the cycle repeat it self, on and on. 

Both the 'sac cycle' and 'sbc cycle' are representing the same idea, using different diagram and words, approaching the same core idea from slightly different angle.

What I shall not address or go into is if the 'cycle' of 'giving and receiving LOVE' is a 'self-reinforcing and self-correcting feedback loop' or 'the transmission and return of discrete messages', like successive moves in a game. (p.199)
    (Miller, Galanter, and Pribram (1960), George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl Pribram, Plans and the Structure of Behavior (1960), Center for Advanced Study in the Behavior Science; in their development of TOTE, they based much of their thinking on the published and unpublished work of Newell, Shaw, and Simon up to 1959.)
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., p.199 ) 

We are now, living in a world, where more and more no one model, no one mode, no one practice, one methodology, one point of view, one idiot, or one genius has the solution to the WHOLE problems of messes we are dealing with.  
     In our understanding, recognition, identification and acknowledgement, the world(The System) has become more complex, more complicated, more inter-connected, more inter-dependent; and althought this can be view in term of 'good and not good' or 'good and evil' or 'helpful and harmful' or 'affirming-of-life and demeaning-of-life', ... .; the New World Order has and will give birth to its own classes of MESSES; it is much easier to ignore the problems(MESS) and let the MESS festered; let the next generation deal with it.  To be able to say the MESS is a structure MESS or/and a content MESS, can give insight and usefulness(benefit) to the situation(MESS) to be addressed.
     What the structure or form of the system, in question and at the target of our probe, may tell us is that the structure(form) is the 'modes of relationship' between each parts inside the system.  The form or the structure informs the user (the student) about the relation between the parts.  Of course, if we are unable to decode the structure(form), then it remains a mystery (puzzle).

     decode--make meaning out of it.

     It is in this sense and on this term, the structure and content dichotomy(split in two), the structure and content dualism(twofold), the structure begets content 'cycle'(sbc cycle), the structure and content(hen-and-egg), each orientation can be a type of decoder--a tool, a model, an optic, a 'modes of relation' indicator--to help us understand the nature of the system.

dualism definition:
    1. any system which is founded on a double principle, or a twofold distinction.
    2. philos. Any theory which considers the ultimate nature of the universe to be twofold, as mind and matter;--contrasted with 'monoism'(one, monos(Greek)--one, single, alone) and 'pluralism'(more than one, plus).


     Even a sheet of paper has two sides.
                        --Japanese Proverb 
                            ('Ninja', author Joel Levy)

     Third Law of Advice: Simple advice is the best advice.
                                            --(cookie 1)

     Even though organizational management practice has repeatedly try and have been somewhat successful in treating people as inter-change-able widgets liken to the parts in machines(TIC-TOC), the case I have tried to make here is that people are the structure and to take the view that people are inter-change-able, is generally a false choice.  Yes, every 60, 70, 80, or 100 years there will be inter-generational changing of the guard; the cycle could be even shorter than that, like a 40 years cycle.


 8. Numbers                      [ ] 

 [p.6]
  Introduction
  By Perrin Stryker
       [...]
       <the following is the last paragraph of the introduction>
       Perhaps the most significant implication of the concepts and procedures described in this book is that they anticipate the kind of ([program]) manager that will be needed in the future. As the authors have pointed out, the continuing increases in technology inevitably mean that managers will know less and less about the skills and knowledge of those they are managing, and will have to depend more and more on their ability to manage the operating techniques of those reporting to them. And in order to manage the way a subordinate handles problems and decisions, a manager has to know how to ask just the right questions. It is precisely with this critical management skill that this book is ultimately concerned. Such skill cannot, of course, be acquired overnight, and one reading of this book will certainly not develop it, but in my judgement there is no better place to start.

(The Rational Manager : A Systematic Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making, Charles H. KEPNER, Benjamin B. TREGOE, © 1965, p.6)

Lastly, I would like to bring a bit of attention to a few 'fuzzy numbers'(a range) for your consideration.  

[pp.175-178]
     In 1992, a British anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist, then at University College London, published the results of more than a decade studying our closest cousins, the primates.  After researching the behavior--and the brain sizes--of primate species from lemurs to chimps to humans, he found that there was a cognitive limit to the number of individuals with whom a social relationship can be sustained ([in a meaningful way]).
     ([ 38 primates ])
     For humans, that number is somewhere between 100 and 230--best guess, around 150.  The so-called Dunbar Number has been used to study everything from high-performing factory and office teams to online multiplayer video games and social-networking sites, like Facebook.  It also, possibly coincidentally, is about the number of students in each grade in a high school with six hundred(600) students.  There seems to be an optimal number for all kinds of societies, and the society of sixteen-year-old isn't any different.

('I got schooled : the unlikely story of how a moonlighting movie maker learned the five keys to closing American's education gap', M. Night Shyamalan, © 2013, Simon & Schuster)
(Shyamalan, M. Night(2013); 'I got schooled', Simon & Schuster, hard-cover, [317.82694 Shyamala 2013], pp.175-178)

Dunbar, R. (Robin) 2010.  'How Many Friends Does One Person Need?  Dunbar's Number and Other Evolutionary Quirks.'  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


That is one number.  There is a second fuzzy number that I would like to talk about.  This story is really fuzzy because I read about it many ages ago and it is truly very fuzzy.  The story  is un-verify and the source is needed for reference.  I do not believe this number is can be applied in all conditions, thus the need for the source and for the reference.
     1. The general condition, 
          will work in most situation(set(list) of conditions);
     2. the exceptions, 
          the list of exception where the condition does not apply,
          therefore the model should not work reliably,  
          each and every time you decide to use it anyway; 
     3. the special case,
          the model will work for these specific cases outside of the general condition and exception.
     The 3M corporation did a study on what is the optimal size of an organization(company).  After seeding many start-ups and then growing them to larger organizations, 3M soon discovered that the  performance start degrading when the threshold-size goes beyond around 300 to 400 people.  In other words, the optimal size of a human organization seems to be around 300 to 400.  When it goes beyond that, some sort of partitioning and re-organization is in order to re-adjust that number, subject to turn over, losses and recruiting new people into the team(organization).  
     Are these range of numbers written in stone?  No, not at all.  They are more like guideline(guidance), short-cut, rule of thumb, measurement.  If things are working, then it is best to leave it alone.  

Your telephone number is seven(7) digits in a grouping of three(3) and four(4); and with a three(3) digits area code, you get a ten(10) digits number.  

“The magic number is really three, plus or minus two.
 in truth, one is the magic number.”
                     --James M. Simon, Jr.,
                           April 10, 2003.

      In 'Analysis, Analysts, and Their Role in Government and Intelligence' with James M. Simon, Jr. on April 10, 2003, he said,  "There’s a great article called “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two.” 1  That article, in my humble opinion, is wrong. The magic number is really three, plus or minus two.  Most human beings think in threes and don’t remember more than three things: Mom, apple pie, and Chevrolet. That is the way people think, and in the U.S. government three is an upper limit. For busy people, in truth, one is the magic number."

    1
      George A. Miller, “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,” The Psychological Review 63, 1956, 81–97. (by way of "Analysis, Analysts, and Their Role in Government and Intelligence", James M. Simon, Jr., April 10, 2003, filename: simon-i03-1.pdf)

Writing about system, structure and content is relatively free of care and dANGER when the abstraction of life and death is far and away.  The following is one story from Ganjgal, Afghanistan.  

[p.203]
 "The ground command is calling the mission because he feels that he needs it," Swenson testified.  "It's not JAG [lawyers'] responsibility to interject to say, 'Hey, we are concerned that you're going to hit a building ... I am concerned with saving as many lives as I can ... When I am being second-guessed by somebody that's sitting in an air-conditioned TOC [Tactical Operation Center], well hell, why am I even out here in the first place?'  Let's just sit back and play Nintendo ... I am not a politicians.  I am just the guy on the ground asking for that ammunition to be dropped because it's going to save lives."
     The senior command had issued rules of engagement without addressing who had the authority to make the final decision.  Maj. Williams didn't know how to call in fire, was in charge.  Swenson believed he had the right to assume the role of ground commander and make the decisions.  The staff back at the ops center in Joyce overrode his fire requests.  Authority was diffuse, and no single person was held accountable.  What a mess!

("Into the Fire", Dakota Meyer and Bing West, © 2012; Ganjgal, Battle of, Ganjigal, Afghanistan, 2009, paperback, p.203)

[p.203]
     Gen. Colin Powell ... command decision-making.  "The commander in the field is always right and the rear echelon  is wrong, unless proved otherwise," he wrote.  "In my experience, the people closest to the problems are often in the best position to see the solutions.  The key here is empower and not to be the bottleneck."

("Into the Fire", Dakota Meyer and Bing West, © 2012; Ganjgal, Battle of, Ganjigal, Afghanistan, 2009, paperback, p.203)

"Courage is the most important of all the virtues, because without courage you can't practice any other virtue consistently.  You can practice any virtue erratically, but nothing consistently without courage."
                                            --Maya Angelou 

Before coming to the last structure, there is a set of elements that has both the properties of structure and content.  This is one of many examples that possesses the hybrid quality or duality of both being a structure, at one moment, and a content, in another context when needed.  This, in my opinion, is one of the more important example.  Courage and Love.  I know you should be able to come up with other examples of pairing(dyad).

dyad(dyas(Greek)--the number 2)--two units treated as one; a couple; a pair.
 
     There is one last structure that I want to point out, men or rather the role of men and role of women in culture and society.  If I am correct, out of all the names that has been mentioned in my writing, there is two female names, Daniela Weinberg and Jean Wyrick.  However, men(male) or women(female), only women can gestate and give birth to a child, and whether you are a gentle man or a gentle lady, you came from a mother's womb(biological structure).  This is a structure.


 9. Citations & References       [ ]
   (is no longer being update)
   (accurate as of 07/14/2014)
Ackoff, Russell L. 
    (Ackoff's best : his classic writings on management, Russell L. Ackoff., © 1999, pp.222-223)

    May 26, 2004, 'TRANSFORMING THE SYSTEMS MOVEMENT', Russell L. Ackoff; first sentence of text: "The situation the world is in is a mess."; last sentence of text: "I believe we have an obligation to the global society of which we are a part to make every possible effort to bring about a radical transformation of that society into one in which our children do not have to contend with the mess we have created and are exacerbating."; filename: RLAConfPaper.pdf


Boehm, B. W. (Barry)
    Boehm, B. W. (Barry)., Software Engineering Economics, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981, pp. 83-84; 470-472.

Brooks, Frederick P. 
    (The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. -- Anniversary ed., © 1985, Software engineering, pp.216-217, chapter 17)

    (F. P. Brooks, Jr., 1995, Addison-Wesley) 

    (The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. -- Anniversary ed., © 1985, Software engineering, p.276)


Brown, Joshua M.
    ('Backstage wall street : an insider's guide to knowing who to trust, who to run from, and how to maximize your investments', Joshua M. Brown (2012), copyright © 2012, [332.6097 Brown], )
(Brown, Joshua M.; 'Backstage wall street', copyright © 2012, publisher McGraw-Hill Companies, [332.6097 Brown], pp.165-166)

Butler-Bowdon, Tom
    (50 Psychology Classics: who we are, how we think, what we do; insight and inspiration from 50 key books, by Tom Butler-Bowdon, © 2007, MJF books, p.232, p.235, pp.235-236)

Dilts, Robert 
    http://www.nlpu.com/Articles/article2.htm

Dunbar, R. (Robin)
    Dunbar, R. (Robin) 2010.  'How Many Friends Does One Person Need?  Dunbar's Number and Other Evolutionary Quirks.'  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gruber, Peter
    (Tell to win, p.20, Peter Guber, 2011)

Harel, D.
    D. Harel, "Biting the silver bullet," Computer (Jan., 1992), pp.8-20.

Hartman, Thom
    ('Cracking the Code', Thom Hartmann, Chapter 2--cracking the story code--page 33.)


Hsu, Francis L. K.
    (Hsu, "Americans & Chinese," [DS 721.H685 1970], p.15)
("Americans and Chinese," Francis L. K. Hsu, 1970, The Natural History Press, p.15, pp.134-135, )

    ("Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", Francis L. K. Hsu (1975), Schenkman Publishing Company, Cambridge, Mass., [HQ682.H85])
(Hsu, Francis L K (1975); "Iemoto: the heart of Japan.", [HQ682.H85], p.97, pp.136-138)


KEPNER, Charles H.; TREGOE, Benjamin B. 
    (The Rational Manager : A Systematic Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making, Charles H. KEPNER, Benjamin B. TREGOE, © 1965, p.6)

Lawlis, Frank 
    (‘Mending the broken bond : the 90 day answer to developing a loving relationship with your child’, by Frank Lawlis; 1. parenting; 2. parent and child; 3. child rearing; p.4)

Meyer, Dakota and West, Bing
    Dakota Meyer and Bing West
("Into the Fire", Dakota Meyer and Bing West, © 2012; Ganjgal, Battle of, Ganjigal, Afghanistan, 2009, paperback, p.203)

Miller, George A. 
    George A. Miller, “The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,” The Psychological Review 63, 1956, 81–97. (by way of "Analysis, Analysts, and Their Role in Government and Intelligence", James M. Simon, Jr., April 10, 2003, filename: simon-i03-1.pdf)

Münz, Rainer and Reiterer, Albert F.
    Rainer Münz and Albert F. Reiterer
(Overcrowded World, Wie schnell wächst die Zahl der Menschen?Weltbevölkerung and weltweite Migration, Overcrowded World?, Global Population and International Migration, By Rainer Münz and Albert F. Reiterer, © 2007, English translation copyright © Julia Schweizer 2009, pp.258-259).

Otway, Helen
    (1001 unbelievable facts, author : Helen Otway, editors : Fiona Tullock and Kate Overy, © 2008)

Peck, M. Scott (Morgan)
    (Peck, Morgan Scott; 'The road less traveled.'; 1. Maturation (Psychology); 2. Psychiatry and religion.; 3. Psychoanalysis and religion.; © 1978)
(The road less traveled., by M. Scott Peck, M.D., © 1978, pp.15-16)

Pollock, Robert
Robert Pollock
    (The Everything World's Religions Book : discover the belief, traditions, and cultures of ancient and modern religions, written by Robert Pollock, copyright © 2002, p.115)

Polybius
(Polybius, 1979, p.80)

Richardson, George P.
    (Richardson, George P., Feedback thought in social science and systems theory, copyright © 1991 by the University of Pennsylvania Press)
(Feedback thought in social science and systems theory / George P. Richardson (1991), 1. social science--methodology., 2. feedback control systems., pp.305-306)

Shyamalan, M. Night
    ('I got schooled : the unlikely story of how a moonlighting movie maker learned the five keys to closing American's education gap', M. Night Shyamalan, © 2013, Simon & Schuster)
(Shyamalan, M. Night(2013); 'I got schooled', Simon & Schuster, hard-cover, [317.82694 Shyamala 2013], pp.175-178)

Simon, James M. 
    ("Analysis, Analysts, and Their Role in Government and Intelligence", James M. Simon, Jr., April 10, 2003, filename: simon-i03-1.pdf)

Sun-tzu (Sunzi a.k.a. Sun Tzu Wu)
    (translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles)
('The art of war', Sun-tzu, Dover edition; The Introduction and the chapter on Chinese Warfare were written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army, for the 1944 edition; p.9, pp.55-56, p.62)

    ('The art of war', Sun-tzu, Dover edition, first published in 2002, an unabridged republication of the edition originally published in 1944 by The Military Service Publishing Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; The Introduction and the chapter on Chinese Warfare were written by Big. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, U.S. Army, for the 1944 edition)
(translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles, first published in 1910 by Luzac & Co., London.)
     Preserved in China for more than 2,000 years before it was brought to the West by the French (Its introduction to Europe began in 1782 when a French Jesuit Father living in China, Joseph Amiot, acquired a copy of it, and translated it into French.)

    (The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, Translated from the Chinese by LIONEL GILES, M.A., First Published in 1910, google 'Project Gutenberg' for other eBook on the web, )

Weinberg, Daniela and Gerald M.
    ('General Principles of Systems Design', Gerald M. Weinberg and Daniela Weinberg, formerly titled 'On the Design of Stable Systems', May 1979, p.204, p.134(detecting the presence of structure), pp. 157-158, pp.159-162, the structure regulation law(p.206).)

Wong, Algeri
    http://www.algeri-wong.com/yishan/
http://www.algeri-wong.com/yishan/things-i-learned-from-my-wifes-screenwriting-education-part-ii.html
 
Wyrick, Jean
    Director of Composition at Colorado State University
(Wyrick, Jean; 'Step to writing well : a concise guide to composition' -3rd ed., Jean Wyrick, 1. English language--rhetoric, © 1987, © 1979, [PE1408.W93 1987], 808'.042)
('Step to writing well' -3rd ed., Jean Wyrick, 1. English language--rhetoric, © 1987, © 1979, [PE1408.W93 1987], 808'.042, p.214)


10. Names Index                  [ ]
   (is no longer being update)
   (accurate as of 04/22/2014)
 
Ackoff, Russell L. 
Boehm, B. W. (Barry)
Brooks, Frederick P. 
Butler-Bowdon, Tom
Dunbar, R. (Robin)
Giles, Lionel
Gruber, Peter
Harel, D.
Hartman, Thom
Hsu, Francis L K
KEPNER, Charles H.; TREGOE, Benjamin B. 
Lawlis, Frank 
Meyer, Dakota and West, Bing
Miller, George A. 
Münz, Rainer and Reiterer, Albert F.
Peck, M. Scott (Morgan)
Phillips, Thomas R. 
Pollock, Robert
Polybius
Shyamalan, M. Night
Sun-tzu (Sunzi a.k.a. Sun Tzu Wu)
Weinberg, Daniela 
Weinberg, Gerald M.
Wyrick, Jean


copyright © 2014 by Tom "David" Brown

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