James VII

James, third son of Charles I., succeeded his brother as James VII. and II. He was born 14 October 1633, and created Duke of York 27 January 1643-4, Earl of Ulster 10 May 1659, and Duke of Albany 31 December 1660. He married, first, Anne Hyde, eldest daughter of Edward, Earl of Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor of England, who died 31 March 1671, and by whom he had:-
  • 1. Charles, born 1660, created Duke of Cambridge, and died in infancy.
  • 2. Mary II., born 30 April 1662, was married 4&14 November 1677 to William, Prince of Orange. They were declared by Parliament 13 February 1688-9 King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland, crowned 11 April 1689, and declared King and Queen of Scotland the same day. The queen died 28 December 1694, and William III. reigned as king until his death, 8 March 1701-2.
  • 3. James, born 11 July 1663, created Duke of Cambridge 23 August 1664, died at Richmond 20 June 1669.
  • 4. Anne, born 6 February 1664-5, was married 28 July 1683 to Prince George of Denmark, son of King Frederick III., who died without surviving issue 28 November 1708. She was declared heir to the throne 13 February 1688-9, succeeded in 1702, being crowned queen on the 23 April. She died 11 August 1714. Her only child who survived infancy was:-
    • (1) William, born 24 July 1689, styled Duke of Gloucester, died 29 July 1700.
  • 5. Charles, Duke of Kendal, born July 1666, and died a child.
  • 6. Edgar, Duke of Cambridge, born September 1667, and died aged four.
  • 7. Henrietta, born January 1668-9, and died young.
  • 8. Katharine, born February 1670-1, and died young.
He married, secondly, Mary Beatrice Eleanor D'Este, daughter of Alphonso, Duke of Modena, by Laura Martinozzi, niece of Cardinal Mazarin. She was born 5 October 1658, and was married to Duke of York by proxy at Modena and afterwards on 21 November 1673. She died at St. Germains 7 May 1718, leaving issue:-
  • 9. Katharine Laura, born 10 January 1674-5, and died an infant.
  • 10. Isabella, born 24 August 1676, and died 2 March 1680-1.
  • 11. Charles, Duke of Cambridge, born 7 November 1677, died in infancy on the 12 December.
  • 12. Elizabeth, born 1678, died young.
  • 13. Charlotta Maria, born 15 AUgust 1682, died in infancy.
  • 14. James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales, born 10 June 1688.
  • 15. Louisa Maria Teresa, 'la Consolatrice,' born at St. Germain-en-Laye 18&28 June 1692, died 18 April 1712.
King James VII. had also several natural children.
  • 1. James Fitz James (by Arabella Churchill, sister to John, Duke of Marlborough). He distinguished himself at the siege of Buda in 1686, and his father created him Baron of Bosworth, Earl of Tinmouth, and Duke of Berwick in March 1686, and K.G. September 1688. On his father going into exile in 1688, he accompanied him abroad, and entered the service of France, for which he was outlawed in 1695. He rose to the rank of Marshal of France, Grandee of Spain, and Knight of the Golden Fleece. He was killed in the wars between the Emperor and France in 1734. He married, first, Honora Bourke, daughter of William, Earl of Clanricarde, who died in 1698. He had, with other issue, a son, ancestor of the present Dukes of Berwick and Alba in Spain. He married, secondly, Anne Bulkeley, daughter of Henry Bulkeley, and his wife Sophia Stuart, granddaughter of Lord Blantyre, and sister of Frances Stuart, Duchess of Lennox, by whom he had issue two sons, one of whom was ancestor of the Duc de Fitz-James in France.
  • 2. Henry Fitz James (also by Arabella Churchill), born 1673. He entered his father's navy, but following him abroad, was outlawed in 1695. He thereafter became Admiral of the French galleys, and died in France 1702, having married Marie Gabrielle d'Audibert, Comtesse de Lussan (who, in 1707, married John Duc de Melfort), by whom he had a daughter who died young.
  • 3. Henrietta (also by Arabella Churchill), born 1670, married to Sir Henry Waldegrave of Chewton, created in 1686 Lord Waldegrave, and died in 1730 leaving issue.
  • 4. Ignatia Fitz James (also by Arabella Churchill), became a nun at Pontoise in 1690, and died there 7 November 1704, aged thirty.
  • 5. Katharine Darnley, by Katherine Sedley, daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, Baronet, in 1686 created Baroness of Darlington and Countess of Dorchester, born 1682. Her father conferred on her the rank of a duke's daughter, and she was married to James, Earl of Anglesey in 1699, but was separated from him (by whom she had had a daughter) on account of his cruelty. She was married, secondly, in 1705, to John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham and Normanby. She died 14 March 1743.
Owing to civil and religious discords, King James VII. abandoned his throne, which was then offered to his son-in-law, William, Prince of Orange, in 1688. King James retired to France, and died at Paris 16 September 1701.


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