James Francis Edward Stuart

James Francis Edward, his only surviving son, was by the orders of Louis XIV. of France proclaimed King of Great Britain at Paris, and is generally known as the 'Chevalier de St. George.' He made an attempt to recover his throne in 1715, but was unsuccessful, and resided afterwards at Rome. He married at Montefiascone, September 1719, Clementina Sobieska, daughter of Prince James Sobieski, son of John, King of Poland. She was born 6 July 1702, and died 30 December 1735. The Chevalier himself died at Rome 1 January 1766, having had issue two sons:-
  • 1. Charles Edward Louis Casimir, born at Rome 31 December 1720. In 1745 he, as his father's Regent, made a spirited but unsuccessful attempt to regain his heritage of Scotland and England, being finally defeated at the battle of Culloden in 1746. His wanderings in Scotland were followed by the sad life of an exile abroad. He died at Rome, styled Charles III. by the Jacobites, but unrecognised by the Pope, 31 January 1788. He married at Macerata, 17 April 1772, Louise Maximiliane-Emanuella, eldest daughter of Prince Gustavus Adolphus of Stolberg Guedern, and great-granddaughter of Thomas (Bruce), Earl of Ailesbury, but by her had no issue. She was separated from him, is known as 'la mia Donna' of Alfieri the poet, and died as Countess of Albany in Florence, 29 January 1824.

    Clementine-Marie-Sophie-Walkinshaw, styled 'Comtesse d'Albestroff,' daughter of John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, joined the Prince during his wandering life and was 'toujours traité et regardé dans le public comme son épouse, portant le même nom que le Prince et faisante les honneurs de sa maison,' until she retired to a convent, dying at Freibourg, November 1802. By her he had a daughter
    • Lady Charlotte Stuart, baptized at Liége 29 October 1753, whom he adopted, legitimated, and created Duchess of Albany. She died unmarried at Bologna, in November 1789.
  • 2. Henry Benedict, styled Duke of York, born 6 March 1724-5, he entered into Holy Orders, and was made a Cardinal. He assumed the title of Henry IX. on his brother's death, and struck medals bearing the legend 'Gratia Dei sed non voluntate hominum.' He had a pension of £4000 from King George III., and died, the last male of his line, at Frascati, 13 July 1807.
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