|Charles II. was born 29 May 1630, succeeded his father on 30 January 1648-49, but the kingdom being then in the hands of the 'Republicans' under Oliver Cromwell, who governed with the title of Protector, his early years were spent in exile. The Scottish Presbyterians distrusting Cromwell and the English Independents, had invited Charles to assume the Crown of Scotland, and though their army was defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar, 3 September 1650, he was duly crowned King of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1650-51. Invading England, however, his army was defeated b y Cromwell at Worcester on 3 September 1651, and the young king had to seek safety abroad. Soon after the death of Cromwell, Charles was restored to his kingdom, and entered London on his thirtieth birthday, 29 May 1660. He married, 31 May 1662, Donna Catherina, Infanta of Portugal, born 25 November 1638, daughter of John IV., King of Portugal, sister of Alphonso IV. and Pedro II., successively kings of Portugal. King Charles II. died 6 February 1685 leaving no issue by his queen, who retired to Lisbon, where she died 31 December 1705.
He had, however, many illegitimate children, viz.:-
- 1. James, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch, born 9 April 1649, son of Lucy Walters, known as 'Mrs. Barlow,' who accompanied the King into exile, and for a time was reputed to be married to him. She died in Paris 1658, when her aunt Anne, wife of John Busfield, was administratrix as next of kin (vide title Buccleuch).
- 2. Mary Walters, a daughter of Lucy Walters. It is doubtful if she was fully acknowledged as the king's child, though she received a pension. She died in 1693, having been married first, to William Sarsfield of Lucan, Ireland, and secondly, to William Fanshaw, Master of Requests, and had issue. She was reputed to have the power of 'touching for the king's evil.'
- 3. Charlotta Jemima Henrietta Boyle, alias Fitz Roy, a daughter of Elizabeth Killegrew, Viscountess Shannon, born about 1650. She was married first, to James Howard, grandson of Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk, and second, to William Paston, afterwards Earl of Yarmouth, and died 28 July 1684, having had issue by each.
- 4. Charles Fitz Charles (by Katherine Peg, daughter of Thomas Peg of Yeldersley), born in 1657, during his father's exile, and created Earl of Plymouth 1675. He married Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas Osborn, Duke of Leeds, and died at Tangier s.p. 1680.
- 5. Catherine Fitz Charles (also by Katherine Peg) died unmarried, apparently the same as the Katherine or Charlotte Fitz Charles who (as Dame Cecilia) became a Benedictine nun at Dunkirk, and died 'very aged' in 1759.
- 6. Charles Fitz Roy son of Barbara Villiers, daughter and heiress of William Villiers, Viscount Grandison in Ireland. She was created Baroness Nonsuch, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland in 1670, with remainder to her sons Charles and George Fitz Roy. Charles was born 1662, created K.G. 1673, Duke of Southampton 1675, and succeeded his mother as Duke of Cleveland 1709. He died 1731, having married, first, Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Wood, who died s.p. in 1680; secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir William Poultney of Misterton, by whom he had issue.
- 7. Henry Fitz Roy (also by Barbara Villiers) born 1663, created Baron Sudbury, Viscount Ipswich, Earl of Euston, and Duke of Grafton, 1675, K.T. 1689, Vice-Admiral of England 1682. He died from a wound received at the siege of Cork in 1690. He married Isabel, daughter and heiress of Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, by his wife Isabella of Nassau, and was ancestor of the Duke of Grafton.
- 8. George Fitz Roy (also by Barbara Villiers) born 1665, created Baron Pontefract and Earl of Northumberland 1674, Duke of Northumberland 1682, and K.T. 1683. He died s.p. 1716.
- 9. Anne Palmer or Fitz Roy (eldest child of Barbara Villiers), born 2 February 1661; acknowledged by the king with her sisters by warrant 28 February 1672-3. Married 16 May 1674 to Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex, and died 16 May 1722, leaving issue.
- 10. Charlota Fitz Roy (by Barbara Villiers), born 1664, was married in 1676 to Sir Edward Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield, and died 17 February 1717-18, leaving issue.
- 11. Barbara Fitz Roy by Barbara Villiers, born 1672. She engaged in an intrigue with James, fourth Duke of Hamilton (then Earl of Arran) and was mother of Charles Hamilton 'Comte de Arran,' born at Cleveland House 30 March 1691. She retired to France and entered into religion in 1691. She became Prioress of St. Nicholas Priory at Pontoise in 1721, and died there 6 May 1737.
- 12. Charles Beauclerc (by Eleanor or Nell Gwynne, an actress), born in 1670, created Earl of Burford 1676, and Duke of St. Albans in 1684, Captain of the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, 1693, K.G. 1711, and died 1726. He married Lady Diana Vere, daughter and sole heiress of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth and last Earl of Oxford, from whom descends the family of the Dukes of St. Albans.
- 13. James Beauclerc (also by Nell Gwynn), born 1672, and died in France 1680.
- 14. Charles Lennox, son of Louise de Kerouaille, a French lady in waiting to the Duchess of Orleans, created Duchess of Portsmouth, who was created by King Louis XIV. Duhchesse d'Aubigny in France with special remainder to her son. Born 1672, created Baron Settrington, Earl of March, and Duke of Richmond 1675, and Baron Methven, Earl of Darnley, and Duke of Lennox. He succeeded his half-brother the Duke of Monmouth as Master of the Horse, and died 1723. He married 1692-3 Anne Brudenell, daughter of Francis, Lord Brudenell, son of Robert, Earl of Cardigan, by whom he had issue, and was ancestor of the Duke of Richmond and Gordon.
- 15. Mary Tudor (by Mary Davis, actress), born 1673. She was married, first, to Francis Ratcliff, Earl of Derwentwater, with issue; secondly, in 1705, to Henry Graham of Levens, M.P.; thirdly, in 1707, to James Rooke, and died 5 November 1726.