|Charles I., born at Dunfermline 19 November 1600, succeeded his father on 27 March 1625, and soon after his accession, espoused by proxy at Paris 11 May, and personally 22 June 1625, Princess Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, daughter of Henry IV., King of France. Civil discord broke out in Scotland in 1637, and gradually taking the form of open war, spread into the neighbouring kingdom, continued for a period of ten years, and culminated in the deposition of the king and his execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1648-9.
By his Queen, Henrietta Maria, who was born 25 November 1609, and died at St. Colombe 10 September 1669, King Charles had four sons and four daughters, viz.-
- 1. Charles, Duke of Cornwall, born 13, buried 14 May 1629.
- 2. Charles, afterwards King Charles II.
- 3. James, Duke of York and Albany, afterwards King James VII.
- 4. Henry, Duke of Gloucester, born 8 July 1640, and died unmarried 13 September 1660.
- 5. Mary, born 4 November 1631. She was married 2/12 1641, to William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (who died 6 November 1650), by whom she had one son, William, afterwards King William III. She died in London on 24 December 1660.
- 6. Elizabeth, born 28 December 1635, and died of grief at Carisbrook Castle on 8 September 1650.
- 7. Anna, born 17 May 1637, and died in infancy.
- 8. Katharine, born and died 20 January 1638-9.
- 9. Henrietta Anna Maria, born 16 June 1644, was married 31 March 1661 at the Queen of England's chapel in Paris, to Philip, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., King of France, by whom, at her death, June 30, 1670, she left two daughters:-
- (1) Mary Louisa, born 1662, married to Charles II., King of Spain, and d. s. p. 1689.
- (2) Anne Mary, born 1669, and died 1728, having been married to Victor Amadeus II., Duke of Savoy, afterwards King of Sardinia. Their descendants include most of the Catholic reigning houses of Europe to-day, and since the death of Henry, Cardinal of York, represent the direct line of the Royal House of Stewart.