James, 1st Duke of Abercorn

James, tenth Earl and second Marquess of Abercorn, born 21 January 1811, in Seymour Place, Middlesex, was educated at Harrow, and matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 2 July 1829. He proved his right to vote for Representative Peers for Ireland 27 March 1833, and was appointed Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the county Donegal, 1844; Knight of the Garter, 12 December 1844; Privy Councillor, 25 February 1846; and was Groom of the Stole to the Prince Consort from 1846 to 1859. He was made Honorary LL.D. of Cambridge, 5 July 1847; D.C.L. of Oxford, 4 June 1856; and LL.D. of Dublin, 21 April 1868. He was also a governor of Harrow School; sometime colonel of the Donegal Militia, and major-general of the Royal Archers, the Queen's Bodyguard for Scotland. He was served heir-male of the body of the first Duke of Chatelherault by the Sheriff of Chancery in Scotland, 13 January 1862, and, as heir-male of the first Duke, asserted his hereditary right to the original title of Duke of Chatelherault of 1549. By the edict of Louis XIV., May 1711, the descent of French dukedoms was declared to be to heirs 'descendus de males en males.' Being appointed Lord Lieutenant-General and General-Governor of Ireland in 1866, on the 20 July he took the oath of Chief Governor, and the oaths of Abjuration and Supremacy in the Council Chamber in Dublin Castle, whereupon the Lords Justices delivered to him the Sword of State, and invested him with the Collar of Grand Master of the Order of St. Patrick. He made his public entry into Dublin in state on the 23 August following. On the 18 April 1868 he presided as Grand Master at the installation of His present Majesty, then Prince of Wales, as a Knight of St. Patrick, which was performed with great pomp in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. In consequence of the resignation of the Conservative administration he left Dublin, 14 December 1868. By privy seal, dated at St. James's 4 August, and patent at Dublin 10 August 1868, he was created MARQUESS OF HAMILTON of Strabane, in the county of Tyrone, and DUKE OF ABERCORN in the Peerage of Ireland. He was for the second time sworn Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland on 3 March 1874, and made his public entry into Dublin on 18 April, and held this office till 6 December 1876. On 6 January 1875 he was installed Grand Master of the Freemasons of Ireland. He was Envoy Extraordinary to Italy for the Investiture, at Rome, 2 March 1878, of King Humbert, with the order of the Garter. In 1881 he was appointed Chancellor of the Royal University of Ireland. He died at Barons Court 31 October 1885.

He married, 25 October 1832, from Gordon Castle, at Fochabers Episcopal Church, Elgin, Lady Louisa Jane Russell, second daughter of John, sixth Duke of Bedford, by his second wife, Lady Georgina Gordon, fifth daughter of Alexander, fourth Duke of Gordon. She, who was born 8 July 1812, is a Lady (third class) of the Order of Victoria and Albert. They had issue, seven sons and seven daughters:-
  • 1. James, second Duke.
  • 2. Lord Claud John Hamilton, born 20 February 1843, was member of Parliament for Londonderry city 1865 to 1868, for King's Lynn, 1869 to 1880, for Liverpool, 1880 to 1885, and for West Derby division of Liverpool, 1885 to 1888; a Junior Lord of the Treasury, 1868; sometime lieutenant and captain in the Grenadier Guards, and lion, colonel 5th Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers since 17 January 1891; Aide-de-Camp to Queen Victoria, 1887; married, 20 July 1878, Carolina, daughter of Edward Sacheverell Chandos Pole, of Radborne Hall, in the county of Derby, and has issue:-
    • (1) Gilbert Claud, born 21 April 1879; lieutenant, Grenadier Guards, 28 October 1899.
    • (2) Ida, born 27 July 1883.
  • 3. Lord George Francis Hamilton, born 17 December 1845; member of Parliament for the county of Middlesex from 1868 to 1885, and for the Ealing division since that year; Under Secretary of State for India, 1874 to 1878; Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, 1878 to 1880; Privy Councillor, 4 April 1878; First Lord of the Admiralty from June 1885 to January 1886, and from 1886 to 1892; an Elder Brother of the Trinity House, 1887; Chairman of London School Board, 1894 to 1895; Secretary of State for India from 1895 to 17 September 1903; Captain of Deal Castle, 1899; was formerly lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards, and captain, Tyrone Militia; married, 28 November 1871, Lady Maud Caroline Lascelles, Lady of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India, daughter of Henry, third Earl of Harewood, and has:-
    • (1) Ronald James, born 26 September 1872.
    • (2) Anthony George, born 17 December 1874.
    • (3) Robert Cecil, born 31 January 1882; midshipman R.N.
    • 4. Lord Ronald Douglas Hamilton, born 17 March 1849, died 6 November 1867.
    • 5. Lord Cosmo Hamilton, born and died 16 April 1853.
    • 6. Lord Frederick Spencer Hamilton, born 13 October 1856; Second Secretary in the Diplomatic Service, 1883 to 1884; was M.P. for South-West Division of Manchester, 1885 to 1886, and for North Tyrone, 1892 to 1895.
    • 7. Lord Ernest William Hamilton, born 5 September 1858; captain (retired) llth Hussars ; M.P. for North Tyrone, 1885 to 1892 ; married, 2 June 1891, Pamela Louisa Augusta Ambrose, daughter of Captain Frederic Augustus Campbell, and has issue:-
      • (1) Guy Ernest Frederic, born 11 November 1894.
      • (2) John George Peter, born 15 October 1900.
      • (3) Mary Brenda, born 28 March 1897.
      • (4) Jean Barbara Bertha Elizabeth, born 6 September 1898.
    • 8. Lady Harriet Georyiana Louisa, born 6 July 1834; married, 10 April 1855, to Thomas George, second Earl of Lichfleld, who died 7 January 1892, leaving issue.
    • 9. Lady Beatrix Francis, born 21 July 1835, married, 23 May 1854, to George Frederick D'Arcy, second Earl of Durham, and died 21 January 1871, leaving issue. He died 27 November 1879.
    • 10. Lady Louisa Jane, born 16 April 1836, Lady of the Order of Victoria and Albert (third class), Mistress of the Robes to the Queen, and formerly to Queen Victoria, married, 22 November 1859, to William Henry Walter, sixth Duke of Buccleuch, K.G., K.T., and has issue.
    • 11. Lady Katherine Elizabeth, born 9 January 1840, married, 26 October 1858, to William Henry, fourth Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, and died 3 September 1874, leaving issue.
    • 12. Lady Georgiana Susan, born 7 July 1841, married, 16 March 1882, to Edward, fifth Earl of Winterton, and has issue.
    • 13. Lady Albertha Frances Anne, born 29 July 1847, married, 8 November 1869, to George Charles, Marquess of Blandford (afterwards eighth Duke of Marlborough, who died 9 November 1892), and has issue. Her marriage was, on her own petition, dissolved in 1883.
    • 14. Lady Maud Evelyn, born 17 December 1850, Lady of the Order of Victoria and Albert (third class) and of the Crown of India, married, 8 November 1869, to Henry Charles Keith, fifth Marquess of Lansdowne, K.G., and has issue.
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