Literary and historical annotations

1. Atghár This word is derived from ata (eight) and ghár (mountain), meaning eight
mountains. It is an area located southeast of Kalat. Moqur is its district center and
domicile of the Toukhi tribes.
2. Sorêy or Syorêy: Meaning shade. It is an area south of Kalat and is the original
domicile of the Hotheks.
3. Awlan: Located south of Shahjoi in Qandahar province. It has many ancient relics.
4. Sûr Ghár: Meaning red mountain. It is located south of Shahjoi and Awlan.
5. Paktika or Pashtoonkhwa: This historical province of our country has repeatedly
been mentioned in ancient books and old poetry. Its old spelling is Pastankha. Later
it was written as Pastankhwa and now Pashtoonkhwa. Kohzad in his book, Aryana,
explains the word, a summary of which is presented here: Pakth, Pasth or Bakhth
have the same root. They belong to the oldest Vedic tribes of Aryan-Bactrian origin.
During their migration they divided into two groups. One group stayed in Bakhdi and
the other branch, mentioned together with other tribes, in the battle of Ten Kings
migrated to the southern part of the Hindu Kush range and settled in the foothills of
Spinghar. Herodotus mentions the Pakthi, Pakthees or Pakthuis tribe and their land
as Pakthika or Pakthya. In the root of these words, bakhd or bakhdi has been
preserved. The Greek transliteration of these words clearly show that the writer was
referring to the Pasht tribe and to their land called Pashthikha (Aryana, p. 94).
As far as we know, Veda is the oldest document in which the name Pakhath
has been mentioned. One repeatedly finds the word in this book. Rig Veda, which
forms the most important historical part of Veda, refers to an important battle which
took place among ten rulers along the banks of the Ravi river in the Punjab. Ten
Aryan tribes participated in this battle under the leadership of their kings one of
whom was the Pakhath tribe (Cambridge History of India). This shows that among
the Aryan tribes which eminent tribe. They were famous around 1400 to 1200 B.C.
Herodutus, the father of historians 484-425 B.C., refers to them and calls their land
Pak-thi-eka (History of Herodotus, vol. 1, p. 260-308, vol. 2, p. 157-161; Encyclopedia
of Islam, vol. 1 p.150).
Ptolmey, the famous geographer, while discussing Arakozi, refers to
Paktheen or the land of the Pakthis (Aryana, p. 95). This historical name of a part of
our country is still extant as Pashtoonkhwa in the Pashto language. Without doubt it
is the Pak-thi-eka of Herodotus. This word has been used in ancient texts and after
500 H. (1107 A.D.) it has been frequently noted in Pashto literature. For example, in
this book Skarandoi, a poet at the court of Sultan Màzuddin Mohammad Saam, who
invaded India after 571 H. (1123 A.D.), wrote a poem in eulogy of the king in which
he states:
Pashtoonkha skalay zalmy ché zghély hind tê
no aghléh péghlé kândî atañoona
When the youth of Pashtoonkhwa go to India
Young and pretty maidens dance joyously.

Similarly Sulaiman Maku, the author of Tazkerat-al-Awalia, circa 612 H.
(1215 A.D.) notes Pashtankha without the use of the letter wow (Pashtana Shuàra,
vol. 1, p. 64-70 ). In Pata Khazana the word occurs in the poem of Baba Hothek and
the preface of the book.
After the early period, we find the word repeatedly in Makhzan-al-Islam of Akhund
Darweza Nangarhari who lived around 1000 H. (1592 A.D.) and died in the year
1054 H. (1644 A.D.) (Tazkera-e Àulama-e Hind, p. 59). The father of the Pashto
language, Khushal Khan Khatak, says:
har ché sa dê pashtoonkhwa day hâl yá dâ day 
Whatever good is from Pashtoonkhwa, this is its state.

His Majesty King Ahmad Shah Baba states:
dë dehli tákht hërawama ché râ yad krhám,
zma dë skuly pashtoonkhwa dë ghroo saronah
I am oblivious of the throne of Delhi
While pondering my beautiful Pashthoonkhwa's towering peaks.

From these historical and literary sources, it is clear that this name has been
used over the centuries from the oldest times to the present day; and it is the same
Pak-thi-eka of Herodotus.
Kohzad in Aryana, considers the geographical boundaries of this historical
region as the extensions of the Sulaiman and Spinghar mountains and the valleys
which are watered by their streams. He adds that Bellew considers the northern
boundaries of this region as the highlands of Swat, Panjkora and the southern banks
of the Logar and Kabul rivers. Its southern boundary consists of the land of
Kâkarhistan, Pseen, Shaal and the Bori valley which adjoins the Indus. The Indus
river forms its eastern boundary, while to the west it extends to the farthest points of
the Sulaiman range (Aryana, p. 96).
As we know geographical boundaries change with time. During a certain
period a region expands while at other times it wanes. It is possible that
Pashthoonkhwa contracted during the time of Herodotus and enlarged later. For
example Ptolmey notes Pak-thi-eka within the borders of the Arakozi province. Thus
it is possible that the borders of the ancient province of Pak-thi-eka reached up to
Argandab and Arghasan at one time.
The historical name Pak-thi-eka or Pakthika, is formed from two components.
The first part is the Vedic Pakthi or Pakthkuis of Herodotus. The second part is
composed of khwâ, which is in usage at the present time, meaning land or side in
Pashto. In the past it was spelled as kha without the letter wow. This is clear in all
past books such as Tazkera-e Sulaiman Maku, Makhzan-e Afghani and this book.
Some Pastoon tribes still pronounce it as such.
In the past it was common to transpose the letter khe with kaf. As kha was
transposed with the letter kaf, it was written as ka. Thus the Pakthika mentioned by
Herodotus 2,500 years ago is without doubt the Pastoonkhwa of today, which is the
name of a historical province of our dear country.
6. Mërts, dusên: Mëyrts whose plural is mëyrtsy means enemy. The word is not used in
common language now. It is clear from this book that in the past two words were
used for enemy. One was mërts and the other dusên. Baba Hothek in his poem of
chivalry says:
mërtsy zgheli aw térhéze
See them running the frightened foe.

In the epic poem of Amir Krorh Suri it has been used as such:
gháshy dê mán më dzî bresna pur mértsámênu bandie.
The arrows of my strong will like lightening fall on the enemy.

Skarandoi in his encomium says:
nê yay tsok makh tê drî dê mértsámênu
Not an enemy can face his might.

In the Middle period of Pashto literature this word was also used. For example
Khushal Khan says:
ché dê stîrgo yay taqwa séra mërtsey dê
pê na haqah mî niwalé parsayay dê
Her eyes have enmity with piety,
Needlessly do I adhere to piety.

Afzal Khan Khatak writes in his history:
yaw mûdat ché tîr shû biya dê yusufzaû dê dálazako sêra mërtsî shwa
After the passing of some time, enmity was established between the Delazak

and the Yusufzay (Tarekh-e Murasà).
From these literary references it is seen that from ancient times to a few
centuries ago mërts (enemy), mërrtsî (plural) and mërtsî (enmity) were used.
Similarly mërtsman (enemy) and mërtsmani (hostility) were also in use. On the other
hand dusên (enemy), dusna (plural) and dusnéy (hostility) were its synonyms.
Sulaiman Maku says:
pûr dusên yay yarghal kâwa
sarah wamrhorhal yay dusna
They attacked the enemy and vanquished the foes
(Pastana Shuàra, vol. 1).
After that Malikyar, who was a contemporary of Sultan Muàzuddin Ghori,
turey tërë krhêy
dusên mo prë krhêy
Sharpen the swords; kill the foe
. (Pashtana Shuàra, vol. 1, p. 56).
In this book it has also been used several times by old poets. For example
Baba Hothek says:
zalmo pûr nang dzanonah mrha krhêy
dusên pê ghashyoo mû pëya krhêy
Young men face death boldly,
Strike the enemy with your arrows.

If we go back to the ancient Aryan times, we see that the root of the word
dusên is present in the literature. For example, in the Urmazd Yeshth of little Avesta
we see dashmino, the original form of the word dushman of Persian. Dash in that
language meant bad and was used as a prefix of many words ( Dictionary of Little
Avesta, p. 490). In a later language, which was similar to Pahlavi, dashmir meant the
opposite or enemy (Dasateer-e Ãsmani, p. 245).
If we glance at the Vedic era we can find the root of this word in das and
dasyo, which in Avesta and Veda meant ugly, black and enemy. Non-Aryan tribes
were referred to by these names. The word has also been recorded in the Darius
Inscription ( Vedic India, p. 69-218). Geiger states that dano, das and dasyo means
rival and foe and they were those tribes which the Aryans clashed with during their
migration from the north to south. These tribes, not being Aryan in origin, were
addressed by such names (West Aryan Civilization, p. 103).
These historical records show that the roots of all these words are dash or
das which during the Aryan times meant bad. Das, dasyo, dash, dashmino,
dushman and dusên all belong to the same family. The dusên of Pashto comes from
das to which the letter (noon) of the relative case has been added at the end, a
common practice in Pashto. Thus the close relationship of Pashto to the ancient
languages of the Aryans is evident.
7. Márghá: This was the name of a vast stretch of land south of Qandahar which
started from Arghasan and continued up to the Sulaiman mountain and the central
part of Baluchistan. Arghasan, southern Kalat, the foothills of Kozhak mountain, and
a part of Kâkarhistan were included in Margha.
8. Waza Khwâ: A high plateau in the Ghalji territory, located southeast of Ghazni and
extending to the Sulaiman mountains.
9. Noor Baba: Baba Hothek whose life and poetry has been mentioned in this book
had a brother by the name of Toukhay. Toukhay had four sons, one of whom was
named Noor (Hayat, p. 257). Noor Baba, who has been recorded in this book, is a
famous Afghan personality. In Makhzan-e Afghani, Noor Baba has been described
as the son of Baro bin (son of) Touran (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami p. 320). But
according to this book and local belief Noor is the son of Toukhay bin Baro.
10. Kesay: Pashtoons refer to the Sulaiman mountain as the Kesay Ghar (mountain).
11. Ghwarha Margha: Margha is also known as Ghwarha Margha.
12. Ghundan: This mountain is located between Kalat and Shahjoi, south-east of the
town of Kalat, south of the Tarnak river.
13. Kand and Zamand: They are the sons of Khrasboon bin Sarhban. Kasay is their
brother (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 300; Tazkerat-al-Abarar, p. 86). It has been
mentioned in this book that their progeny spread in Nangarhar, Khybar and
Peshawar. Other historians say that they lived in Ghwarha Margha, Arghasan and
Qandahar and migrated through the Kabul and Gomal valleys to Nangarhar and
Peshawar. The last part of the migration is said to have taken place during the
period of Mirza Ulug Beg, the grandson of Temur-e Lang (Tamerlane) 812-853 H.
(1409-1449 A.D.) (Tarekh-e Murasà Afzal Khan Khatak, p. 6; Hayat, p. 177). This
indicates that the migration took place after 700 H. (1301 A.D.)
14. Kasay: A clan by this name lives in Quetta. The name is probably derived from
Kesay mountain which is the name of the Sulaiman mountain in Pashto. The person
named as Kasay in this book is the son of Khrasboon bin Sarhban. According to
historians he had 12 sons (Hayat, p. 229; Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 352; Khurshaid,
p. 200). Historical books only give the names of these people, but in this book
reference has been made to their lives and poetry. It is said that the progeny of
Kasay left their native home at Margha and went to the Sulaiman mountain. In
Chaghcharan of Herat there is a place known as Kesay up to this day, which is the
district capital of the area and may be related to this name.
15. Pseen: An area in present day Baluchistan. It is located at the base of Sulaiman and
Kozhak mountains and is the domicile of the Atsek, Thareen and Kâkarr tribes.
16. Arghasan: An area southeast of Qandahar. It is the ancient domicile of the Kâkarr
tribe or the historical Arakozay.
17. Zhobe: An area located in the eastern foothills of Sulaiman mountains occupied by
the Kâkarr tribes.
18. Kozhak: A famous mountain which starts at Shorawak, south of Qandahar, extends
southeast to Arghasan and south of Syoray and Kalat to the southern extensions of
Moqur and Waza Khwa.
19. Shaikh Mathi: He is a famous Afghan literary personality. His life and an example of
his poetry is presented in this book. From other sources we have the following:
Shaikh Mathi was bin Abas bin Omar bin Khalil (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 302;
Divan-e Miya Naim Mathizay Khalil, p. 222). Prior to Khalil, several historical sources
agree on the names of his ancestors i.e. Nàmatullah (Makhzan, p. 302), Darweza
(Tazkera, p. 87), Hayat (p. 159), Khurshaid (p. 192) and this book. After Khalil, Hayat
Khan and Khurshaid Jahan delete Omar and Abas and consider Mathi to be the son
of Khalil (Khurshaid, p. 198; Hayat, p. 219). The descendants of Shaikh Mathi, who
live in the Nakodak village of Qandahar, and whom I personally interviewed, say that
Nàmatullah and the author of this book correctly indicate their lineage.
Afzal Khan Khatak says: The Ghoryakhel left Arghasan and Qandahar and
through the Kabul valley arrived in the vales of Peshawar, displaced the Delazaks
from those areas and took over the lands (Tarekh-e Murasà, p. 10-12; Khurshaid, p.
198). Khalil was a chief of the Ghorya clan and Shaikh Mathi was born several
generations later. This great scholar and poet, according to this book died along the
banks of the Tarnak river in 688 H. (1289 A.D.). His shrine still exists on the Kalat
hill (in the present day Kalat district), northeast of Qandahar. People call him Kalat
Baba. He left behind a legacy of scholarship to his family. His erudition and spiritual
fame have been well known in the country. Several centuries later, Nàmatullah
Herawi considers him among the great Afghan scholars and states: He was a
follower of righteousness and explorer of the divine and a champion of faith and
religion. The Afghans consider him a holy figure (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p.
254). In short it can be said that Shaikh Mathi was a pious scholar and a
distinguished poet.
20. Shaikh Mohammad Zahr: Nàmatullah Herawi in Makhzan-e Afghani (p. 152, handwritten
manuscript) refers to this learned personality as Shaikh Yusuf Zahr Bin. He
was the eldest son of Shaikh Mathi.
21. Shaikh Mathi's family: As mentioned earlier, Shaikh Mathi's descendants were
among the most famous learned Afghans. After the death of Shaikh Mathi they
spread in all directions and their spiritual influence increased.
Nàmatullah Herawi gives a detailed account of this family in his Makhzan.
Among Afghan writers the family came to be known as Mathizay (progeny of Mathi).
Besides what has been written in this book about this family, the following is a
summary on the lives of members of this family from other sources.
Mathi's brothers: According to the contents of this book, Shaikh Mathi had
three brothers (p. 23); Imran, Hasan and Pir-e Germaan and a sister by the name of
Bibi Khala. This statement is corroborated by the epilogue of Diwan-e Miya Nàim
Mathizay. The Khwaja Imran mountain of Thoba, southeast of Qandahar, which is
the domicile of the Atskzay tribe, also known as Kozhak in Pashto, is named after
Hasan, who is considered to be a brother of Mathi in this book, according to
Nàmatullah, is his son (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 256), his other brother is Pire
Germaan. Their sister, Bibi Khala, is buried in Pseen and her shrine is still revered
(Epilogue of Divan of Miya Nàim, p. 222).
Nàmatullah provides a detailed description of this family in his book which is
presented here: Mathi had three wives. First Bibi Piyari bint (daughter) Shaikh
Salman Danaye Sarwani, who gave birth to six sons: Yusuf, Zahr (Zahir), Omar,
Bahlol, Mohammad, Hasan and Alo. Second Bibi Ani Ghalji who had two sons
named Khwaji and Maamaa and third, the daughter of the chief of the Mahyar
Sarhbani tribe who had one son named Hasan.
Hasan is also considered as an eminent Afghan scholar. Nàmatullah
mentions him as a learned personality and writes: Hasan bin Mathi was a sage and
eminent scholar (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 256).
Shaikh Kata was the son of Shaikh Yusuf bin Mathi, whose mother, Bibi
Murad Bakhta was from the Zamand tribe, gained great fame among the seven sons
of Shaikh Mathi (Makhzan-e Afghani Qalami, p. 204). Besides being a spiritual
leader he was also a great literary figure and an eloquent writer in the Pashto
language. According to Pata Khazana he wrote Larghoni Pashtana in Pashto, which
is an important reference document. The annals of his life are not clear to us but
according to the author of Pata Khazana, who notes the death of Shaikh Mathi
around 688 H. (1289 A.D.), it can be deduced that if three new generations are born
in a century Shaikh Kata was alive around 750 H. (1349 A.D.).
The Shaikh appears to have been a shrewd investigator, as the author of the
book writes: Shaikh Kata saw Tarekh-e Suri of Mohammad bin Ali Albasti, which is
an important reference document of Larghoni Pashtana, in Baleshtan and cites
important events from it in his book (p. 29). Unfortunately, Shaikh Kata's book is not
available, neither have been the references mentioned in the book found. Not much
is known about the life of Shaikh Kata except that he was a steadfast man who had
a penchant for travel. Nàmatullah recalls his eight sons as follows: Sultan, Sabet,
Haji, Salman and Mamay from his first wife, named Zalo Maghdorazi. His second
wife who was also named Zalo and belonged to the Akazay Yusufzay tribe, gave
birth to three sons named Ibrahim, Malik and Paji (Makhzan, p. 306).
Shaikh Qadam bin Mohammad Zahed bin Mirdad bin Sultan bin Shaikh Kata
was another famous personality of that family (Makhzan, p. 306). According to the
epilogue of Nàim's Divan he died in Sar Hind and is buried there. Nàmatullah gives
the name of his mother as Shahri bint Khoydad Kakyanay (Makhzan, p. 307). From
his writing it can be seen that Qadam's father was a contemporary of Mirza
Mohammad Hakim bin Homayun who started ruling in Kabul after 962 H. (1555
A.D.) Therefore it can be estimated that Qadam also lived during that time.
Shaikh Qasim is the son of Shaikh Qadam and his mother was Naekbakhta
bint Shaikh Allahdad Mamozay, who has been mentioned in the third treasure of this
book. Nàmatullah considers him a disciple of the descendants of Shaikh Abdul Qadir
Jailani and states: He was born in the spring of 959 H. (1552 A.D.) near the Badani
river (east of Peshawar) and died in 1016 H. (1607 A.D.) (Makhzan, p. 307). Qasim
Afghan became famous for his erudition and spirituality. The people of the area
gathered around him, which put fear among the local administrators of Mirza
Mohammad Hakim bin Homayoun. Therefore, Shadman Khan, the governor of
Peshawar decided to murder him forcing him to leave Peshawar for Qandahar. From
there he went on the pilgrimage of the holy places and became a follower of the
Qaderi faith. After the pilgrimage he returned back to (Doawa) Peshawar and gained
great fame as a scholar and spiritual leader and came to be known as Shaikh Qasim
Sulaimani. This time the Moghul court of India tried to bring an end to his fame and
with the help of one known as Esa, he was called to come to Lahore. After going to
Lahore, Qasim became even more famous and powerful and a large number of the
people of Lahore gathered around him. Because of this Jahangir, the Moghul
emperor, jailed him in the Chenar fort where he later died. Tazkera-e Awlia-e Afghan
is the famous work of this eminent Afghan spiritual personality in which he describes
the life and works of renowned Afghan scholars (Tazkerat-al-Abrar, p. 183-184).
Unfortunately this book has not been found so far.
Nàmatullah mentions him among Afghan scholars but he also talks about his
life separately and states: His holy shrine is in Qalà Chenar (Tazkerat-al-Abrar, p.
184) and he had several children. Nàmatullah who wrote his book two years after
the death of this renowned saint notes his children as follows:
Shaikh Kabir, known as Bala Pir, was born on Thursday, the 4th of Shawal
994 H. (1586 A.D.) in Badani of Peshawar and died on 12 of Ramadan 1054 H.
(1644 A.D.) (Makhzan, p. 308). Akhund Darweza also mentions Shaikh Kabir. This
shows that his fame had spread throughout the region (Tazkerat-al-Abrar, p. 184).
He died in India and is buried there (Epilogue of Naim's Divan). The other sons of
Shaikh Qasim are: Wasil, born 1007 H. (1599 A.D.), Nour who died in 1061 H.
(1651 A.D.) and Farid born in the year 1000 H. (1592 A.D.) (Makhzan p. 308-309).
Shaikh Imamuddin was also a famous scholar and writer and was well-known
among the 12 sons of Shaikh Kabir. His mother, Taj Bebe bint Malik Darwez, was
from the Khalil clan. He was born on Monday in the month of Moharram in the year
1020 H. (1611 A.D.) and died on 23 Moharram 1060 H. (1650 A.D.) He is buried at
Peshawar. Shaikh Imamuddin wrote Tarekh-e Afghani which contains historical
narratives of the Afghans and provides other historical sources as references.
Among the books listed as references are: Rowzat-al-Ahbab, Majmà-al-Ansab,
Asnaf-al-Makhlooqat, Tawarehk-e Ibrahim Shahi of Maulana Mushtaqi, the book of
Khwaja Ahmad Nezami, Ahwal-e Sher Shah and Israr-al-Afghani (hand-written
manuscript of Tarekh-e Afghani). His other work is Awliya-e Afghan, which has not
been found but the author of Pata Khazana mentions it. Among his children the
following are famous:
1. Shaikh Abdul Razak, born 24 Rajab 1037 H. (1627 A.D.)
2. Shaikh Abdul Haq, born on 22 Zulhajja 1039 H. (1629 A.D.)
3. Shaikh Mohammad Fazel, born 22 Rajab 1040 H. (1631 A.D.)
4. Shaikh Abdul Wahed, born 28 Moharram 1048 H. (1638 A.D.)
Another famous personality from this family is Miya Nàim bin Mohammad
Shuàib, bin Mohammad Saeed bin Qiyamuddin bin Shamsuddin bin Abdul Razak
(mentioned earlier). He was a famous Pashto poet and his hand written divan exists.
Miya Nàim was born in Khalil of Peshawar and lived there. He wrote his divan in
1230 H. (1815 A.D.) while still very young. During the reign of Shah Zaman
Sadozay he left Peshawar for Qandahar and lived in the village of Nakodak, where
he died later. His descendants still live in this village. His divan consists over 3,000
couplets and he is revered in the literary school of Rahman Baba.
22. Pâswâl: This word probably means keeper, protector or king. It has not been seen in
the works of other scholars and it is not clear on whose authority Pashto Máráka
refers to it as king or amir. From the poem of Shaikh Mathi it is understood that it
had a meaning nearer to that given to it in Pashto Maráka. The word is composed of
pâs and wâl. Pas in Persian also means protection and in Pashto pasêna and pasal
have similar meanings. Anyhow pâswâl is an old Pashto word which can be
reintroduced into present day Pashto literature.
23. Skêlel, skêlâ: In Pashto skêly is an adjective meaning beautiful which has also been
written as ksêly. In Kakarhistan and Pseen it is pronounced as such and in the
Nangarhar and Peshawar valleys it is pronounced as skêly. Rahman Baba says:
khabar nê yam ché pê bâb mé ksêly tsa dë ؟ ه دي  لي  خبر نه يم چه په باب مي ک
zê rahman pê andésna yam lê dë skêléyo کليو  نه يم له دې  زه رحمان په اندي
I do not know what has been written in my destiny
I Rahman, am afflicted by these beautiful ones.
Those tribes that pronounce it as ksêly, use it to mean both written and
From the works of past poets in this book it can be seen that the word had the
infinitive, verbs and verbal noun that have fallen from use. Shaikh Mathi has used
skêlal meaning arrangement and decoration:
tola skêlal dê stâ lê lasa کلل دي ستا د لاسه  وله 
ayë dê paswalo pasa pasa اې د پاسوالو پاسه پاسه
All this decoration is your work
O protector up above.
Skêlâ (beauty) is a verbal noun derived from the same root. There were
several other derivations, some of which are in use up to this day. Shaikh Mathi
stâ dê skêla da palwasha dê کلا دا پلوشه ده  ستا د
da yë yawa spáka nandara dê دا ئې يو سپکه ننداره ده
This is a flash of your beauty
And a slight semblance of its aura.

Skélîdál (to become beautiful) is an infinitive and skêlîdah is its verbal noun
as used by Mathi:
loya khawanda tola tê yë وله ته ئې  لويه خاونده
têl dê narhey pê skêlyda yë کليده يې  ۍ په  تل د ن
O protector you are owner of all
Striving for the beauty of the world
Skêláwûnkay (one that beautifies) is a noun of agency from the infinitive
skelal (to arrange).
Skarandoi says:
dê pusarlay skêláwûnkay biya krha síngaruna ه سنگارونه  کلونکي بيا ک  د پسرلي
The beautifier of spring has decked herself again. Wáskêlal is the past perfect
Skarandoi says:
márghaláro bandë wêskêlal bañûna ونه  کلل ب  مرغلرو باندي و
With pearls she bedecked the gardens.
Beside the word skêly or ksêly that we know today all its other forms have
become extinct, nor can they be found in the works of the Middle period. As the
pronunciation of the words skêly and ksêly is close to the Arabic shekl some may
think that the words were derived from the Arabic and have been Afganized. From
the following description this error can be clarified.
These words had a strong root in the ancient Aryan languages, and in the
Sanskrit language they are present in both forms (kshel and shkel) meaning the
same thing. Forbes in the Hindi-English dictionary printed in London in 1807, page
505 writes: Shukl or shukla means light or whiteness. Shukala-paksha is the
brightness of the moon from the first to 14th day and this word is present in Pashto
in the same form (skêly-palwasha). Its other form ksêly is also present in the
Sanskrit as noted in page 573 of the same dictionary:
kushal means health, prosperity, auspiciousness, success
kushala means good, happy, right
kushali means successful, victorious

When the form and root of this word are present in the Aryan languages and
all philologist consider Pashto as an Aryan language then how is it possible to say
that: skêly of Pashto has been derived from Arabic.
Moreover, if we refer to Arabic dictionaries the word shekl has different
meanings one of which is visage and shakeel in that language does not mean
beautiful. But according to Zabt-al-Munjad and other sources it refers to frothing from
the bridle's mouth-bit and the meaning of beauty or pretty is absolutely not seen in it.
24. Hásk: In ancient documents this word means sky and now anything elevated or high
is considered as hásk. It is first seen in the poem of Hazrat Bit Nika. He states:
hásk aw mdzáka nghêstê stâ dê ته ستا ده  که نغ  هسک او م
dê mrroo wadâ lê tâ dê و وده لتا ده  د م
The sky and earth are yours
You let men grow and multiply (Pashtana Shuàra vol. 1, p. 50).
In this book hásk has been repeatedly used, showing that it was a common
term in ancient times but was replaced by the word asman, though it has retained its
meaning of high. Shaikh Mathi says:
nê hásk nê mdzáka wê tor tám wu که وه تورتم ؤ  نه هسک نه م
tyâra khpára wê tol àdám wu ول عدم ؤ  تياره خپره وه
There was no sky nor earth, but a dark abyss
Where darkness prevailed, in total nothingness.
The ancient poet of the Pashto language, Amir Krorh Jahan Pahlavan says:
zma dê báryoo pêr khol tawezî hásk pê nmundz aw pê wyarh
او په وياړ  ي هسک په نمن  زما د بريو پر خول تاوي
The sky revolves around my victories with pride.
Shaikh Asad Suri states:
nangyalayoo lára qayd mrhéna dá dzáka که  ينه ده  ننگياليو لره قيد م
sêh yê walwutala hásk tê pur dë lâr سه ئې والوتله هسک ته پر دې لار
As imprisonment to the brave is like death
To the sky transpired his breath in this way.
Skarandoi says:
zarghonû mdzoko kë dzál kâ láka storîya ل کا لکه ستوريه  کو کي  زرغون م
ché pur hásk bandë dzálezî spin gulûnah ليژي سپين گلونه  چه پر هسک باندي
The white flowers among the green grass
Resemble stars in a dark sky.
Nasr Ludi, the son of Shaikh Hamid Ludi states:
dê islam pûr hásk bê dzálam لم  د اسلام پر هسک به
wê tûranoo tê tyãrá yam و تورانو ته تياره يم
On Islam's sky I will shine
Though to my accusers I am darkness.
From these literary sources it is clear that among the people of the past hask
meant sky and it is possible that this word may be reintroduced in its original form.
25. Balishtan: In this book Balishtan has been mentioned as a city and fortress in Ghor.
It is an ancient city of Ghor which dates back to the early Islamic period and was the
administrative center of the local rulers. In Tarekh-e Suri it has been stated: Around
139 H., the son of Amir Polad Suri conquered all the fortresses of Ghor including
Balishtan. Shaikh Kata, the famous historian who lived around 750 H. (1349 A.D.)
had seen Tarekh-e Suri in Balishtan. It can be said that Balishtan was known during
Shaikh Kata's life. An area between the Teray district of Qandahar and southeastern
Ghor is known by this name. In historical and geographical documents the area has
been also recorded as Walishtan. The letters (bai) and (wow) often replace one
another in the names of places in Afghanistan such as Zawul=Zabul and
Walishtan=Balishtan. Balishtan has been recorded as a Ghorid city by Baihaqi as
Gorwalisht (Baihaqi, p. 76). Ghorwalisht has also been mentioned in Tabaqathh-e
Nasiri. In a hand written copy of the book, available in St. Petersburg, it has been
written as Ghorwalisht (Raverty's comments on Tabaqathh-e Nasiri). Ghowalisht was
a city between Takinabad and Mandesh of Ghor. The location of present day
Balishtan coincides with that of Ghorwalisht.
Walishtan has also been mentioned as a city between Dawar and Bost in
Tarekh-e Seistan, (p. 206-208), which undoubtedly is Balishtan. Abu-al-Hussan bin
Zaid Baihaqi, famous as Ibin Funduq also considers Walishtan as a district of Bost
whose center was Siwar (Tarekh-e Baihaqi, p. 347). From these documents it can be
deduced that Walishtan=Balishtan was a famous Ghorid principality. Minhaj Seraj in
Tabaqathh-e Nasiri also considers Walishtan to be a part of Ghor and divides it into
the upper and lower Walishtan. He states that the people of Walishtan were not
Moslems during the time of Amir Suri (Tabaqath, p. 181).
This name, however, should not be confused with Walas=
Balas=Walishistan=Walisistan, which Baihaqi has mentioned along with Makran and
Qusdar of Touran (Baihaqi, p. 294). Maqdasi has mentioned it as Balish in Ahsan-al-
Taqaseem, and in Hudood-al-Àlam it has been written as Balis. Al Biruni in Qanon-e
Masàudi wa Al-Saidala mentions it as Balish and Walisistan. Al Yaqubi in Ketab-al-
Baladan-al-Yàqubi has recorded it similarly. Walishistan=Balis=Balish is located in
present day Sind and Baluchistan occupying the lands from Siwi (Sibi) and Sewan of
Sind. Al-Biruni in Qanon-e Masàudi considers Siway and Mastung of Baluchistan
and Sewan of Sind as the cities of Walishistan.
26. Suri and Amir Polad: Suri was an important clan that lived in Ghor. They are present
there until this day and are called Zuri. This is an old name and Arab historians and
geographers have recorded it as zur and zuri. The first historian who mentions zur in
the Islamic era is Ahmad bin Yahya Belazeri {circa 255 H. (869 A.D.)}. During the
conquest of Sajistan and Kabul he states: After the year 30 H. (651 A.D.), Abdul
Rahman bin Samra bin Habib bin Abd Shams occupied Sajistan, Zaranj and Kash
and reached the Dawar region by way of Al Rakhj. He besieged the people of the
area in Jabal-al-Zur and later established peace with them. He confiscated the
golden idol, with eyes of ruby, and cut its hands and extracted the rubies. He then
told the governor of Dawar: "This idol will neither harm you nor will you gain anything
from it." After that he marched on Bost and Zabul (Futuh-al-Baladan Belazeri, p.
Later historians such as Abu Zaid Ahmed bin Sahl Balkhi, who died in 322 H.
(934 A.D.), and wrote Ketab-al-Ashkal or Sovar-al-Aqaleem in 309 H. (921 A.D.),
and after him the famous Astakhri who refined it into Al-Masalek wa al-Mamalek also
mentions the idol and the temple of Jabal-al-Zur. Yaqoot quotes them and refers to
the mountain and idol as zur and zoon (Màjam-al-Baladan, vol. 4, p. 28). In another
book he states: Zoor was an idol in the Dawar region (Marased-al-Ithlà, p. 206).
From the writings of pre-Islamic historians it is seen that this temple was
famous before the advent of Islam. Hsuan Tseng, the famous Chinese traveler saw
it in 630 A.D., and calls it Shuna. He says that the temple was located in Tsaw Kota
on a mountain. The idol known as Shuna and its temple located in Jabal Zur is seen
on the coins of two dynasties from southern Hindukush, the Tajan- Shahi and Napki
Malka. It signifies the solar divinity and it is possible that the religion of the people of
Zur was sun-worshipping before Islam (Anis, vol. 190, Kohzad). Le Strange states
that the temple was located near the city of Wartal (The Lands of Eastern Caliphate).
At present it is not possible to correctly identify the location of this temple.
The name Zur becomes more common after the Islamic period. It changes to
Sur and Suri and some tribes and regions have come to be known by this name. For
example Zurabad was a famous city which is present up to this time south of
Sarakhs near the northwestern border of the province of Herat of Afghanistan.
Yaqoot has noted it as Zurabaz in the vicinity of Sarakhas (Marasid, p. 206), but was
considered the domain of Herat in the past. Abubakr Atiq bin Mohammad-al-
Surabadi-al-Herawi was a scholar born in this city who lived during the time of Alp
Arsalan 455-465 H. (1063-1073 A.D.) and Tafseer-al-Soorabadi is his famous work
(Keshf-al-Zunon, vol. 1, p. 234).
Suri bin al-Màtaz, the chief of Khorasan, is another renowned Suri personality
during the reign of Sultan Masàud. He apparently is connected to the Suris. Shaikh
Abdul Jabar bin al-Hasan-al- Baihaqi, is a poet of the Masàud era who recited
satirical Persian and Arabic poetry. He writes:
Awake and be aware O proud one and see
The relics of Masàud and Suri;
You will not find such joy in the world
Indeed until death in the ruins of Sur.
or: O Amir look towards Khorasan. What wealth brings the Suri (Tarekh-e Baihaq ibn
Funduk, p. 179). The historical Suris are very closely related to the Ludis. The Ludis
had famous monarchs such as Shaikh Hamid, Sultan Bahlol and Sultan Ibrahim.
The Suris also had kings of fame i.e. Sher Shah Suri, Adil Khan, Islam Shah and
Adli (Hayat, p. 284; Khurshaid etc.).
We know from the annals of history that from ancient times to the beginning
of Islam and later the Suris reigned over Ghor, Khorasan and later in Ghazni,
Bamiyan, Takharistan and Zabulistan. They established the mighty Ghorid dynasty
in our country. The eastern borders of their empire reached the Ganges river and
Khorasan in the west. The northern border of their empire was demarcated by the
Oxus river and the Pamir mountains and to the south it stretched to the Arabian sea.
Qazi Minhaj Seraj, a famous historian of the time, wrote about the Ghorid kings.
Since he was a historian of the Ghorid court and lived at that time his statements
seem to be correct. A short statement of his work is presented.
Minhaj Seraj quoting Muntakhab-e Nasiri states: There were two brothers
from the progeny of Zahak. The older was named Sur and the younger Saam. The
first one was a ruler and the second a commander of the army. The descendants of
these rulers governed Ghor centuries before the advent of Islam. They were known
as the Shansabanians, because the king who embraced Islam, during the time of
Hazrat Ali, was named Shansab (Tabaqath, p. 176-177; Jahan Ara Qazi Ahmad
Moreover, according to Al-Yàqubi and Belazeri, another personality related to
the Suris, during the early Islamic period, was the governor of Merv. He was known
as Mahooy Suri who killed Yazd Gard the third, the last Sasanid emperor when he
fled to Merv to escape the Arab armies. During the time of Hazrat Ali he went to Kufa
and was appointed the governor and collector of the region by the Caliph (Futuh-al-
Baladan, p. 323; Al-Baladan ibn Wasekh-al-Yàqubi, vol. 2, p. 214).
Firdausi, the great Persian poet, gives a detailed account of Mahooy Suri and
considers him of Suri origin. He writes:
Like the wind he felled a camel
Near Mahooy, of Suri origin.
After killing Yazd Gard, this famous Suri chief spread his empire and sent his
armies to Balkh, Hari and Bokhara. Firdausi notes:
To his first born he gave Balkh and Hari
And sent his armies in every direction,
As the army grew in numbers
And he attained his goal,
He gave the soldiers money to prosper
And brought pride to his family.
He had a famous and wise man
In his service called Kursiyoon.
Then toward Bokhara they marched
The warriors of the brave army.
Shansab bin Kharnak (Sarnak) is most famous among the Suri kings. Amir
Polad Ghori was one of his sons whose domain was the mountains surrounding
Ghor. He revived the name of his ancestors. When Abu-Muslim drove away the Bani
Omiya rulers from Khorasan, Amir Polad took his Ghorid army to his help. The
palace of Mandesh and the mountains of Ghor were under his sway. Following his
death, his domain was left to his nephews. After that there are no accounts of these
kings until the time of Amir Banji Neharan (Tabaqath, p. 179).
After Amir Polad, who was the contemporary of Abu Muslim Khorasani
{around 130 H. (748 A.D.)}, Minhaj Seraj does not mention anything about this
dynasty until the time of Amir Banji Neharan who lived at the time of Haroon-al-
Rashid 170 H. (787 A.D.) There is no mention of this dynasty after Amir Banji until
the era of Amir Suri, a contemporary of the Safarids 254-296 H. (868-909 A.D.).
With regard to Amir Suri he states: He was a great king, and most of the lands of
Ghor were in his domain...Amir Suri was the leader of the Mandesh Shansabanis
(Tabaqath, p. 181). After Amir Suri he talks about Malik Mohammad Suri. He is the
same person who was imprisoned by Sultan Mahmud and sent to Ghazni but died
on the way.
In summary it can be said that the Suris are the historical Zuris, who played
an important role in the history of our country and Amir Polad is an important
personality of this dynasty. According to Pata Khazana, Amir Krorh Jahan Pahlavan
was his son. We do not have any further information on the life of Amir Krorh, except
that his name lives in Afghan folklore. When the Pashtoons want to say that
something is very old, they say, it is from the time of Amir Krorh.
27. Mandesh: It is a famous city of Ghor dating back to the Ghorid and Ghaznavid
periods. Documents of the Ghaznavid era mention Mandesh. Abulfazl Mohammad
Baihaqi, the famous historian of the time states: Amir Mohammad bin Mahmud was
imprisoned by his brother, Masàud, in Kohtez (or Kohsheer) fortress from where he
was transferred to the citadel of Mandesh.
The name of Kohtez fortress has been documented differently. In Tarekh-e
Seistan it is written as Kohezh. The annotator of the book states that Kohezh is
actually Kohizhak (Tarekh-e Seistan, p. 207). The fortress was in the vicinity of
Takinabad and the present day Kozhak is not far from this place. Therefore it can be
concluded that Kohizhak was located somewhere in the Kozhak mountains. This
mountain range extends from the southern Registan of Qandahar southward to the
southern and eastern parts of Kalat.
Baihaqi notes that Mandesh was a mighty fortress with high walls. He
describes the fortress as follows: When we left the Ayaz forest and reached
Korwalesht, the Mandesh fortress was visible from a long distance. We continued
journeying and finally reached the base of the fortress. Upon arrival we saw a huge
fortress with strong, thick and high walls (Baihaqi, p. 76). When Amir Mohammad
was imprisoned in the Mandesh fortress, Nasir Baghawi, who was his friend, recited
these lines in his memory (Baihaqi, p. 76):
O king what misfortune has befallen you,
That your foe is from your own lot,
Your tribulation is the worst of tribulations
That from your father's kingdom you have inherited Mandesh.
After Baihaqi, Abdul Hay Gardezi, circa 440H. (1049 A.D.), mentions the
Mandesh fortress, that was specifically used to guard the royal treasure (Zain-al-
Akhbar, p. 87). Following the Ghaznavid period, Mandesh has been referred to in
Tabaqathh-e Nasiri of Minhaj Seraj Jouzjani several times. For example with
reference to the progeny of the Ghorid kings, who were known as Sur and Saam,
Zumandesh and Mandesh have been mentioned (Tabaqath, p. 178). Later, in
reference to Amir Polad he states that the Mandesh citadel and other cities of Ghor
were under his sway (Tabaqath, p. 179). Minhaj Seraj considers Mandesh as the
administrative center of the Shansab dynasty. He writes: There is a large mountain
in Ghor, Zarmurgh, on which Mandesh is situated. It is said that the palace and the
ruling center of the Shansabanis is located at the foot of the mountain. The second
mountain is called Surkhghar. This mountain is also located in the province of
Mandesh (Tabaqath, p. 181). The word surkh ghar has been written as sar hasar
and sar khasar in the hand-written manuscript. According to Raverty it is Surkh ghar
because ghar in Pashto means mountain thus Surkh ghar means red mountain.
Regarding the construction of the citadel, Minhaj Seraj writes: Abas bin Shish
summoned experienced masons from Mandesh and built a palace at the base of the
mountain on a promontory. The walls of the palace extended to the precipice of the
mountain (Tabaqath, p. 183). Later he states: Bahauddin was appointed as the chief
of Sanga, which was the administrative center of Mandesh...and the Sanga fortress
is called Khol Mani (Tabaqath, p. 186, 360). Khol is a Pashto word meaning helmet
and mañi in Pashto means palace thus khol mañi means Helmet Palace.
From the notes of historians it is clear that Mandesh was a famous area of
Ghor and Sanga was its center. Yaqoot, the famous geographer writes: Sunj is a
village in Bamiyan and Sanja which is pronounced as Sanga by the Persians is a
famous region of Ghor (Marasid, p. 224). Ibn Asir also considers Sanja a city among
the cities of Ghor (Al Kamel, vol. 11, p. 75). Similarly Yaqoot states: Sinja was a
famous center of Ghor (Marasid, p. 225).
The exact location of Mandesh and Sanga cannot be pinpointed with
accuracy. It is possible that these names are still used in Ghor.
28. Kheisar: According to Yaqoot it is a border fortress between Ghazni and Herat
(Màjam-al-Baladan, vol. 3, p. 499). It has often been mentioned in the Ghorid and
Ghaznavid periods. It was famous for its fortifications and strength. In describing
Masàud's conquest of Ghor from Herat, Baihaqi states that the first journey was to
Baashaan and then to Kheisar (Baihaqi, vol. 1, p. 122). In another place he gives its
location near Toulak (Baihaqi, p. 130). From this it can be deduced that Kheisar was
a border fortress in the northwestern part of Ghor. Astakhri also states that it is
situated at a distance of two day's walk from Herat (Al-Masalek wa al-Mamalek
Minhaj Seraj considers the Kheisar mountain among the five mountains of
Ghor. He says its length, breadth and height are beyond comprehension (Tabaqath,
p. 181). Kheisar was famous around 600 H. (1204 A.D.) because Tajuddin Osman
Margheeni, the first ruler of the Kurts, who was related to Sultan Ghiasuddin
Mohammad bin Saam Suri 668-699 H. (1270-1300 A.D.), lived there. Tajuddin was
given the title of governor of Kheisar and after his death, his son, Malik Ruknuddin
became the governor of Kheisar and a part of Ghor. He was also recognized as the
governor of Kheisar by the Mongols. He died in 643 H. (Tabaqathh-e Nasiri and
Habib-al-Sayr). The fortress became renowned during the period of the Kurt rulers.
Saifi Herawi states: After occupying the fortresses of Khorasan, Genghiz Khan
decided to lay seige to the fortress of Kheisar. He sent one of his sons with an army
to the province of Ghor to occupy the famous fortress. They reported that it was an
unusually strong and large fortress and that no offender had been able to occupy it
except the Islamic rulers of Ghor...Genghiz ordered that artists who have seen the
fortress and know its dimensions be summoned so they may paint the fortress for
him. When he saw the painting the beauty and workmanship of the fortress was
beyond belief. He turned toward his commanders and said: "Nobody has seen such
a place nor will anyone see it in the future..." (Tarekh-e Saifi Herawi).
The historical fortress of Kheisar, which was famous during the time of
Ghorids and the Kurts, has been destroyed like other Ghorid fortresses and citadels.
Its remains, known as Jahan Qalà, rise about 40 meters above the ground level in
the western Zarni mountains.
29. Tamran: Tamran was also a famous Ghorid city and during the Shansab period a
number of scholars lived there. Minhaj Seraj repeatedly mentions this place. For
example he writes: In 618 H. (1221 A.D.) the author of Tabaqath, Minhaj Seraj, was
on his way from Tamran to Ghor and he met Malik Hesamudin Hasan Abdul Malik at
the Sanga fortress known as Khol Mani. (Tabaqath, p. 360). Similarly this historian
gives the name of the third mountain among the five mountains of Ghor as Ashk
(Dar Ashk) and states that it is in Tamran and is the highest and largest mountain of
Ghor (Tabaqath, p. 181).
Hudod-al-Àlam (p. 59) says that Tamran is located in the vicinity of Karwan in
Khorasan and its chief is called Tamran Qazenda. Tabaqathh-e Nasiri gives the
names of several famous personalities of this city such as: Malik Qutbuddin Yusuf
Tamrani, Malik Saifuddin Masàud Tamrani, Malik Tajuddin Tamrani and Malik
Nasiruddin Tamrani were among the administrators and chieftains appointed by
Sultan Ghiasuddin Mohammad Saam (Tabaqath, p. 204).
Tamran was the domicile of the Tamrani people and they are known as the
Teimuri called the Temuri today who may be the original Tamrani. The present day
Teimuri live in the vicinity of Tulak and Farsi of Ghor and south of Herat (Asar-e
Herat, vol. 1, p. 137-138). They are now considered as a branch of the Char Aimaq
of Ghor who are divided into different groups (Hayat, p. 457).
The present day Teimuri and the Tamrani of the past, like the three other
Aimaq groups i.e. first the Zuri=Suri of the Islamic era, second the Taimani=Thamani
of Herodotus and third the Hazari who include the Jamshadi and Feroz Kohi have
lived in Ghor, Badghis and Sabazawar of Herat since ancient times. A study of this
book shows that the language of the people of Ghor and the Taimani was Pashto
and until this day large numbers of the Taimani speak the language. Famous Pashto
poets have arisen from this tribe in the past.
With regard to its geographic location we are only aware of Minhaj Seraj's
statement: From Tamran to Ghor. From this it can be deduced that Tamran was a
region outside the domain of Ghor at that time. In another place he states: The writer
was in the service of Malik Nasiruddin Abu Bakr in the year 618 H. (1221 A.D.) in
the provinces of Gazaiv and Tamran (Tabaqath, p. 188). From this statement it is
seen that Gazaiv and Tamran were close to each other and in the direction of Ghor.
Gazaiv is now pronounced as Gizav and written as Gizab. Under the present day
administrative division it is a part of the Uruzgan province, north of Qandahar. It is
located north of Ajristan (the historical Wajiristan) and south of Daikundi. Therefore
we can say that Tamran was located east of Ghor and the abode of present day
Teimuri tribes, who live in Ghor and in the western parts of the country, cannot be
considered with certainty to be a part of the historical Tamran. According to
historians Tamran was located east of Ghor. It is possible that because of the turmoil
in Ghor, which resulted in the movement of the Feroz Kohi people from Feroz Koh
(Feroz mountain) to the valley of Murghab, the Teimuri tribes may have left their
original domicile and moved westward.
30. Barkoshak: Koshak means a palace, or a high and strong edifice (Burhan-e Qatà). It
was frequently used in Persian after the advent of Islam. The Ahnaf palace, which
was built by Ahnaf bin Qais in Merv was known as Koshak-e Ahnaf by the Persians
(Ibn Khardabah, p. 32; Ashkal-al-Àlam, p. 209, handwritten manuscript of Jaihani).
Palaces built in high mountainous regions were known as Koshak. With regard to
the life of the mountainous people of Ghor, Minhaj Seraj writes: A Koshak was at
war with another Koshak (Tabaqath, p. 181).
This word is also mentioned by Baihaqi. For example Koshak Mubarak is
mentioned in Herat (Baihaqi, p. 49). But Barkoshak was a famous palace of the
Ghorid dynasty. In the hand-written version of Tabaqath it has been written in two
forms: baz-koshak and bar-koshak, especially in the manuscript which I have seen, it
has been written as Barkoshak in several places. In Pata Khazana it has also been
written as Barkoshak. Since Bazkoshak does not have any meaning therefore the
correct form is Barkoshak as bar in Pashto means high or upper and has often been
used against lar which means low or lower. These words have been used in the
names of places and tribes such as Bar Arghandab (upper Arghandab), Bar Grishk
(upper Grishk), Bar Pashtoon (upper Pashtoon). Bar had the same meaning in
Persian and has been used in Al-Tafheem of Al-Biruni, and in Tarekh-e Seistan (p.
404) as barzara or upper Zara which is a branch of the Zara river.
Minhaj Seraj gives the following account of Ghor's Barkoshak: And that
palace (Barkoshak) is a structure of unparalleled beauty and workmanship which
cannot be seen in any other land and no architect has been able to build it
elsewhere. On top of the palace are five gold studded turrets every one three yards
high and two yards wide, and two golden falcons, each the size of a camel, that
were sent by Sultan Muàzuddin after the conquest of Ajmir to Sultan Ghiasuddin
Mohammad Saam as a present... (Tabaqath, p. 210).
Other records of this historian show that the Barkoshak palace was located
on a mountain in the city of Feroz Koh. He states: A celebration and banquet were
held at the Barkoshak palace, located in Feroz Koh (Tabaqath, p. 21). In another
place he writes: Between the city and the mountain, the Barkoshak palace was fitted
with an iron gate (Tabaqath, p. 215). According to these statements, Barkoshak was
a famous citadel of the city of Feroz Koh unmatched in size and height.
31. Tarekhe Suri: The author of Pata Khazana mentions the name of this book several
times and consider Mohammad ibn Ali Albasti as its writer. This book was an
important source of reference for Shaikh Kata, the author of Larghoni Pashtana, who
saw it in Balishtan. The two books serve as an important source of reference for the
author of Khazana. Unfortunately there is no trace left of either book.
32. Wyârháná: It is derived from the root of wyârh, meaning pride, and was used in the
Middle period, but is not used at the present time. The poems of valor and pride
were referred to as wyârháná, which form an important part of Pashto literature. It is
an important noun and should be introduced into usage once again.
33. Atál: Means strong, genius and outstanding. The Pashtoons also used it as a noun,
for example, Atal Khan, from the Sadozay tribe, Popalzay clan, was a contemporary
of the sons of Ahmad Shah Baba.
34. Mán: This word is not used in Pashto now. In Sanskrit it means heart, soul and will
(Forbes Hindi-English Dictionary, p. 703). In India it was idiomatically used to mean
desire. The great scholar, Abu Raihan al-Biruni, in describing the social moves of the
Indian Aryans says that mán, in reality, means heart. Since the heart is considered
the center of an animal's will therefore "mán" was used by people to express their
desire (Ketab-al-Hind, vol. 1, p. 45).
In this old Pashto poem of Amir Krorr, mán has been used:
ghashy dê mán dzî bresnâ pur mertsamánu bandë
منو باندي  نا پر مير  ي بري  غشي د من
The arrows of my strong will like lightening fall on the enemy.
From its usage it is seen that the word was used in the old Aryan language and was
in use in old Pashto just as in Sanskrit. At the present time the word zrhá which
means heart, is sometimes denoted to mean will or desire such as pê zrhá ksë më
dë i.e. I have the desire to do this work.
35. Yárghálam: A verb in the first person present tense from the infinitive yárghálal,
which is not used now. In the poetry of the Middle period it was used as yárghál
meaning to attack. From the following couplet by Khushal Khan Khatak it is clear
that in the past the word had an infinitive and several derivatives:
ma kho toba wakrha kê zrhah hum ra sara mal shî
ه که زړه هم را سره مل شي  ما خو توبه وک
eshq dë ché hamësh yay pê thoba bandë yárghál shî
عشق دي چي هميش ئې په توبه باندي يرغل شي
I have repented and hope my heart sides with me
It is love that always attacks repentance.
36. Pëzhandoy: Meaning clear, famous or well-known.
37. Pálan: Related to the word (pál ) meaning step which evidently means infantry.
38. Zárhên: This word is not in use today, but in explanatory terms it can be said that
the letter (noon) has been added to the word (zrha) replacing the letter (ha) meaning
valiant and brave. It is among the rare words of the language preserved in the book.
39. Mákhsûr: This word is composed of mákh meaning face and sûr meaning red. It
means honor and is out of use now.
40. Lwárhawî: This word not in use today is derived from lwárh which means high or
exalted. In similar fashion dranawei meaning respect and graciousness and still in
use today has been derived from drund heavy.
41. Lowr: In this book it has been repeatedly used to mean kindness. From the poem of
Amir Krorh Jahan Pahlavan it is seen that the word was in use in the Pashto
language several centuries ago. He says:
khpalû wágarhû lára lowr përzoyaná kawám و لره لور پېرزوينه کوم  خپلو وگ
To my subjects I graciously show kindness.
In Shaikh Mathi's poem it has been used in the following context:
stâ dê lowrûno yaw rñâ dê ا ستا د لورونو يوه ر
It is a radiance of your grace.
Shaikh Asad in his fable states in prayers:
hum pê tâ dë wî dër lowr dê ghafar هم په تا دي وي ډير لور د غفار
May the grace of God be with you.
In his Saqi Nama Zarghoon Khan says:
mâ tê jam dár bêl wálor râ ما ته جام دربل ولور را
Give me a cup of contentment and grace.
From these examples it is seen that the word has been used to mean kindness,
grace and commiseration. The word lowr is not used by itself in Pashto any more
except in the form of lowrina meaning commiseration.
42. Bâmêl: In Pashto dictionaries bâmêl means endurance and friendship and in
common language it is used in the same context. From the poem of Jahan Pahlavan
it is clear that in the old times it was used to convey the meaning of care-taking and
friendship. At any rate it is an important word of our language.
43. Wádána: To foster or rear. At present wádá is used to mean the same and wádána
has become extinct.
44. Dêrédz: It is a word that is not in use at the present time nor is it seen in the works
of the Middle period. Perhaps, in old times it was a common word. From its use here
and in Skarandoi's poem it can be said that it was used to mean pulpit. In the original
manuscript, an annotator has written the translation manbar (pulpit) twice over the
word. From the viewpoint of structure, it is composed of dêrëdal (to stand) and dzaî
(place). Literally, it is closer to isthgah in Persian and mouqif in Arabic.
45. Stâywál: One who praises or recites an encomium. Styél is a verb which means to
praise and wal is a suffix but this noun is not in use now and instead stâyunkay is
46. Poshanj: According to Yaqoot it was a fortified city in the Mashjar valley about 10
farsakhs (50 km) from Herat (Marasid-al-Ithlà, p. 85). It is the same famous city
mentioned in Masalik wa Mamalik and in historical documents written after Islam. It
was the center of learned men and its Persian spelling is Poshang. According to
Hudod-al-Àlam (p. 57) it was a fortified citadel surrounded by a moat. From the
beginning of the Islamic era to the conquests of the Moghuls Poshang was a one of
the most famous cities of Khorasan.
47. Baghnein: A region in Zamindawar which is called Baghni at the present time. It is
located between Ghor and Zamindawar. It has also been recorded as Baghni in
Hudod-al-Àlam (p. 64).
48. Amir Mohammad Suri: The name Suri and the Suri dynasty were alluded to in
annotation 26. Here, I am concerned with Amir Mohammad Suri who was a
contemporary of Sultan Mahmud and this book contains his elegy. Qazi Minhaj Seraj
gives the following account of Malik Mohammad Suri: ...When Amir Mahmud
Subuktageen ascended the throne, Ghor was under the rule of Amir Mohammad
Suri. He sometimes obeyed Sultan Mahmud, sometime transgressed and at other
times rebelled against him...until Sultan Mahmud invaded Ghor and besieged the
Ahangaran fortress for a long time resulting in many deaths. After a lengthy period,
Mohammad Suri made peace, left the fortress and started serving Sultan Mahmud.
The Sultan sent him to Ghazni with his younger son, Sheish. When they reached
Kailan, Amir Mohammad passed away. Some say that since he was a prisoner he
was unable to bear the humility brought upon him. He was carrying poison under the
gem of his ring and ended his life by taking it (Tabaqath, p. 182).
The statement that he was unable to bear the humility of imprisonment which
resulted in his death is corroborated in Pata Khazana. Baihaqi also writes about
Sultan Mahmud's conquest of Ghor but makes no reference to the Ghorid king. He
merely states that in 405 H. (1044 A.D.) Sultan Mahmud led his armies into Ghor by
way of Bost and Khwabain (Baihaqi, p. 117).
Ibn Asir considers this battle to have taken place in the year 401 H. He says
that Mahmud's army was led by Altontash, the governor of Herat and Arsalan Jazeb,
the governor of Tus. Ibn Suri came out of Ahangaran to meet them with ten
thousand men. They fought bravely for half a day, then Mahmud deceitfully retreated
and the Ghorids chased Mahmud's army and drove them away from the city.
Mahmud gathered his men and attacked, resulting in the capture of Ibn Suri and the
conquest of Ahangaran. Ibn Suri committed suicide by taking poison (Al-Kamel, vol.
9, p. 91).
Like Ibn Asir Hamdullah Mustufi also records these events but says: Suri, the
leader of the Ghorids, was killed in battle and his son was taken prisoner. In rage he
killed himself by taking poison hidden under his gemstone. The Ghorid kings were
from the lineage of the ruler who was defeated by the army of Mahmud. Fearing the
Sultan, his progeny went to Hindustan. (Guzidah, p. 406-497).
In this way historians of the Ghaznavid and Ghorid era and later ones give a
different account of the events. Some even consider these dynasties to be non-
Moslem; it is possible that during the Ghaznavid and Ghorid periods not all the
people of these regions had become Moslem. But according to Minhaj Seraj and
Pata Khazana, citing Tarekh-e Suri, the name of the king who fought Sultan Mahmud
was Mohammad Suri and the elegy also shows that he was a Moslem.
Minhaj Seraj states that Shansab, the founding father of this dynasty
embraced Islam during the time of the fourth Caliph (see annotation 26). As I have
discussed in annotation 26, Belazeri in Futuh and Yaqubi in Al-Baladan mention
Mahoya Suri, who was received by the fourth Caliph, and was appointed the
governor of Merv. Therefore, the statements that this king was an infidel during the
time of Mahmud is weak and difficult to accept.
From the writings of Baihaqi it is clear that the struggle for Ghor did not end
until the era of Masàud, and it was not possible to subdue Ghor (Baihaqi, p. 129).
Thus the struggle with the Suris continued until Masàud was able to finally end the
49. Ahangaran: It was the most important city of Ghor and was considered the
administrative center of the Ghorid empire. The elegy of Shaikh Asad Suri, recited in
memory of Mohammad Suri, says that Ahangaran was in peace due to his fortitude.
Al- Biruni considers Ahangaran to be in the mountains of Ghor (Muntakhabat-e
Qanon Masàudi, p. 28) and Ibn Asir considers Ahangaran to be the most fortified
citadel of Ghor that was conquered by Mahmud in 401 H. (1011 A.D.) (Al-Kamel,
vol. 9, p. 76).
Hamdullah Mustufi writes: Ghor is a famous province and its city is known as
Rud Ahangaran. It is a large city with a healthy climate and has good grapes and
melons (Nazhat-al-Quloob, p. 188).
Ahangaran exists up to this day. Its relics are located along the banks of the
Hari Rud, south of Kasi. Barthold, the famous Russian orientalist, also considers the
location as that of the ancient Ahangaran (Historical Geography of Barthold, p. 405).
Its location is also given in the Royal Atlas, map 34 (Tarekh-e Hind, vol. 1 p. 253).
In the footnotes of Tabaqathh-e Nasiri (p. 320) Raverty gives the location of
Ahangaran near the Ahang canal of Ghazni, which apparently is an incorrect
statement as the historical Ahangaran is still famous and known by its former name.
50. Dzghêlâ, dzêlâ, zêrghâ, zálmâ: By studying Pata Khazana and the poems of the
past we come across verbal nouns of these words. The words zhêrhâ from the
infinitive zhêrhal, to cry; khêndâ from the infinitive khêndal, to laugh and nêtsâ from
the infinitive nêtsal, to dance are examples which are in use in the language but the
words in the title of this section are not in use anymore.
By looking at the words belonging to the same family, that are alive in the
language, we can say that dzghêlâ (meaning effort has been derived from the
infinitive dzgêstal to run), dzêlâ (brightness has been derived from dzêlédal to
illuminate), zêrghâ (meaning greenery comes from zêrgoon green) and zêlmâ
(youth, comes from zêlmay young). These words have been used repeatedly in this
When I found the few pages of Tazkerat-al-Awlia of Sulaiman Maku in 1933 in
a mosque of Adam Khan village along the banks of the Helmand river, I noticed the
use of the word mêla in the poem of Malikyar, which has been derived from mêl
(friend) in the same manner. In volume one, page 65 of Pashtana Shuàra I had
mentioned its usage with uncertainty. From these old poems it is clear that there
were other words used in the same form in our language but have fallen from use
with the passing of time. Such rare and important words used by our ancestors
should be reintroduced into the language.
51. Bâmy: In the qasidah of Shaikh Asad bin Mohammad Suri who died in 425 H. (1034
A.D.) the word bamy has been used in these lines:
nê ghâtol biya zêrghonezî pê lasuno ونو  ي په لا  ول بيا زرغوني  نه غ
nê bâmy biya masëda kâ pê kohsâr نه بامي بيا مسېده کا په کهسار
Nor does the tulip blossom on the cliffs,
Nor does the bami smile on the mountains.
The noun bâmy is not in use now nor is it seen in the literature of the Middle
period. From its use it is seen that bâmy was the name of a flower. The word is also
seen in old Persian literature. It appears with the historical name of Balkh. For
example Farukhi Seistani (circa 429 H.) states:
Greetings O Balkh Bamy with the spring breeze
Enter it through Nawshad gate or the gate of Navbahar. (Divan-e Farukhi, p.
Hakim Asadi Tousi, circa 458 H. (1066 A.D.) says:
With great pomp
The king of Nimroz rode
Toward the domain of the brave
Known as Balkh Bamy by name. (Garshasp Nama, p. 335).
Firdausi Tousi, circa 400 H. (1010 A.D.), says:
Toward Balkh Bamy they were sent
With a great deal of advice.
Elsewhere he says: From Balkh Bamy he extracted gold. (Shahnama, vol. 2, p. 482,
vol. 3, p. 1285).
Anwari says: From Balkh Bamy you can fly to the roof of Al-Aqsa mosque.
Regarding the old name of Balkh, Abu Raihan al-Biruni states: Balkh and its old
name Bamy (Qanoon-e Masàudi, p. 43). Some compilers of dictionaries consider the
name of Bamian, one of the famous cities of our country, to have been derived from
bamy and believe that the names of the two centers of civilizations have
etymological links (Anandraj Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 378). Some authors have written
that Balkh Bamy was also called Balkh Bamiyan and it was famous by both names
(Ganj-e Danish, p. 144).
Zaki Walidi Toughan, professor of history of the Istanbul University writes: It is
likely that the name of Bamiyan has been derived from bamy. Bamiyan means
Balkhians. Thus it can be said that Bamiyan belonged to the Balkhians (Zaki Walidi's
comments on Qanoon-e Masàudi, p. 43). Thus bamy was used as a title and as a
attributive adjactive with the name of Balkh (Farhang-e Naubahar, vol. 1, p. 98).
We know that a attributive adjective was always used with the historical name
of Balkh and during the time of Avesta the word srira was its attribute. Srira means
beautiful. Later it was replaced by the word bamy (beautiful and illuminating). This
word takes its root from bamya of Zend (Zend Avista, vol. 1, p. 8). In Pahlavi
bamy(pretty) was bamik. According to Johnson, bamik appears in the Pahlavi
translation of Avesta that dates back to the eighth century A.D. and was found in
Samarkand (Zoroaster, p. 271-272).
This was how bamy was used in the historical context. Now let us see how it
was used in the Pashto language. It is used as a name by the Pashtoons. For
example, Bamy was a person from the Popalzai tribe of the Abdalis (Hayat, p. 118).
A clan by this name still lives in Qandahar, and the street on which they live is called
the Bamizay street.
Our ancestors used the names of flowers as proper names. As mentioned
earlier popal is also the name of a flower and at the present time names of flowers
such as Jandei Khan, Gul Khan, Gulab, Ghatol, and Raiday are commonly used by
Pashtoons. This similitude has a strong reason. The Afghans have lived in open
country in the midst of natural beauty and have close ties to nature. Thus when they
were naming their children, nature had an instinctual effect on their decision making.
Therefore the names of flowers, beautiful plants, birds, mountains etc. are used as
names of people. The use of the name of the bamy flower as a proper noun is one
such example.
What is the relation between the use of the word bamy, the name of a flower,
possibly some kind of a tulip, with the ancient bamy meaning beautiful? To answer
this question we have to look into the cultural affinities of the people of Balkh. The
use of flowers, during spring, was an ancient tradition of the people of the region.
The famous temple of Nau-wa-hara which later became Navbahar was a place
visited by the common people. According to historians its tall flags could be seen
from far away (Màjam-al-Baladan, vol. 8, p. 320). Avesta mentions "the land of high
flags". One of the flags is still preserved in the shrine of Hazrat Ali in Mazare Sharif.
It is raised with great ceremony on the Afghan new year day (March 22) and the
celebration of gul-e surkh (red flower) is still held there every year. People from all
over the country visit the city to participate in this celebration.
Yaqoot gives an interesting account of this temple: The temple of Navbahar in
Balkh was very large and famous. It was covered with silk and other fine cloths. It
was the habit of the people to cover every new edifice with flowers. With the start of
spring season they embellished the temple with the first flowers of spring (Màjam-al-
Baladan, vol. 8, p. 320). Therefore the meaning of bamy can be interpreted in two
ways. First, it may have replaced srira which in Avesta means beautiful. Second,
bamy was a flower. As flowers are always identified with beauty and nature,
therefore it was allegorically used to mean beauty. At any rate the bamy of Pashto
has close ties with Balkh Bami and both words seem to have an Aryan origin.
52. Gharj: Gharj is historical Gharjistan, Gharshistan or Gharistan of our country which
has been recorded in different forms by scholars. Yaqoot in Màjam-al-Baladan says
that the original form of the word is ghar meaning mountain. Ghar is an old Pashto
word. Yaqoot says that the boundaries of this province extend westward to Herat,
eastward to Ghor, northward to Mervalrod and southward to Ghazni. He states that it
is a vast region with a lot of habitations and that the Mervalrod flows through it
(Marasid, p. 291). In Hudod-al-Àlam (p. 58) it is considered a part of Khorasan and
its administrator is called Shar. It has good agricultural land where large quantities of
cereals are grown and it is surrounded by mountains.
53. Shar: Same as Gharj as explained in annotation 52.
54. Feroz Koh: It was the capital of the Shansab rulers of Ghor and was destroyed
during the Mongol invasion. It was one of the most famous cities of our country that
has been praised by historians such as Minhaj Seraj.
55. Shansab and Shansabani: These names are explained in annotation 26.
56. Bolêla: In this book the word bolêla, meaning the same as the Arabic qasida,
occurs in several places. It is possible that the word fell out of use after the early
times. It is one of the old words of Pashto preserved in the book.
57. Chándáy In the encomium of Skarandoi, written for Sultan Shahab al-Dunya wa al-
Din Ghori, the word chándáy has been used:
pêr bárbáñ ché zágh dê chuñoo nghwázédêh sî و نغوږېده سي  چه ږغ د چو  پر برب
tê wâ chándáy sêráh pëoodêy áshlékonah ته وا چندي سره پېودي اشکولونه
In the garden when the songbirds sing,
You say it is like a poet reciting poetry.
In the original text the word (poet) is written over chándáy. This word is totally out of
use. Chándáy is probably a word left over from the ancient Aryan times because it
was used in Sanskrit. Among the Hindi Aryans, samarti was the science of holy
narratives. Of the six branches of this science one was known as chahand, the
science of poetry. Every Vedic scholar was required to study the six sciences;
among them the study of chahand was also necessary (Hind Veda, p. 88).
Abu Raihan al-Biruni, who has made a thorough investigation of the Indian
sciences, states: Chanad refers to the science of metering in poetry. Since most of
the Indian sciences and books are written in poetry, according to the rules of
chahand, therefore, the study of this science is of utmost importance. The
understanding of this science is difficult. He continues to give a detailed description
of the rules of this science and adds: This science was created by two Indian
scholars named Pangal and Chalat and the famous book of this science was written
by Giest (Ketab-al-Hind, vol. 1, p. 180).
From this explanatory note it can be deduced: that chahand is the science of
metering in poetry and chanday, which in Pashto has been used to mean a poet, has
the same root as the Aryan word. Since the Aryans went to India from our country,
therefore, we can say that the word has entered the Indian languages from here.
58. Áshluk: In the couplet of Skarandoi presented in annotation 57, an annotator has
written the translation "poems" over the word áshlokuna. In Forbes Hindi-English
dictionary it has the same meaning and is referred to as a Sanskrit word (Forbes
Hindi-English dictionary, p. 42). Al-Biruni writes: Most of the Hindi books are áshluk,
which is a form of poetry called charrud. Every pud has eight words, the fifth word of
which is light and the sixth heavy (Ketab-al-Hind, vol. 1, p. 194).
To summarize: Among the Indian Aryans, áshlok was a form of poetry.
Originally, it may have strictly meant poetry or rhythmic prose. Thus áshluk is an
ancient Aryan word meaning poetry. It was also used in old Pashto.
59. Popál: Popál is the name of an Afghan clan which belongs to the Abdali (Durani)
tribe (Hayat, p. 117) and Popal has always been used as a name by the Afghans.
From this book it is evident that popál was the name of a flower, since it has been
customary to use the names of flowers such as bâmy, réday and ghâtol as proper
nouns. Thus it can be said with certainty that popál was the name of a flower which
was Arabicized to fofal. It is said that a tree by the same name grows in India.
Farukhi Seistani states: In it are trees such as the Indian gawz and popál that yield
fruit throughout the year. Popál is called kobal in Hindi and separi and dali in Urdu,
which yields a famous Indian medicament. In English the fruit is called betel-nut.
60. Sháñ and Sháña: In the original text an annotator has written the translations rutted
and rut. Their usage also shows they have the same meaning. Evidently these
words are not in use now and only sháñëdal is used in some parts of Nangarhar
meaning the neighing of a horse which is called shéshnel and shiéhnâ in Qandahar.
Since horses neigh during the rut in spring it is possible that the word shéñëdal,
which originally meant to rut has been applied to the neighing of a horse. Sháñ
meaning rutted is not used anymore and I have not come across it in latter day
Pashto literature.
61. Qusdar: Qusdar was a famous city during the early Islamic period. It was located in
the southeastern part of our country known as Touran. It is still known by the same
name and is situated in Kalat of Baluchistan (Historical Geography of Barthold, p.
Al-Biruni recorded it as Quzdar of the Sind (Muntakhabat-e Qanon Masàudi,
p. 29) and Astakhri, on the road from Fahraj (Seistan) to Sind, considers it a city of
Sind (Astakhri, p. 55-56). Yaqoot says: Qusdar is a city of Hind or Sind and is
located in the region known as Touran. It is a small city with many bazaars (Marasid,
p. 321). This city, which in Hudod-al-Àlam has been spelled with the letter seen, in
other books with swad and in the historical documents of the Ghaznavid and Ghorid
periods with zay (for example Adab-al-Harb of Mubarak Shah, p. 11-58), was a
famous place between Seistan and India and its excise revenues reached one
million dirhams (Ahsan-al-Taqaseem, p. 485). It was the stronghold of the Khariji
sect, and in the mid fourth century Hejira Abulhasan Ali bin Latif was its
commissioner. It had numerous mosques and buildings and was famous for its law
and order (Màjam-al- Baladan, vol. 7, p. 78).
Bashari says that Qusdar lies 12 manzils (manzil is the distance walked in
one day) from the Tez port of Baluchistan in the direction of Makran (Ahsan-al
Taqaseem, p. 385) and Abulfida places it 20 manzils from Multan (Taqweem, p.
349). Ibn Hawqal states: There are some villages in the vicinity of Qazdar, and the
commissioner of the place is Muàyan bin Ahmad (circa 367 H. ), who reads the
sermon in the name of the caliph and lives at Bakaznan.
Al-Bashari who saw the city in 375 H. (986 A.D.) writes: Quzdar, the capital of
Touran is located on a plane. The city is divided into two parts. The sultan's house
and fortress are in the first section and the second part known as Bodein, contains
the merchant's houses. It is an extremely clean place. It is a small prosperous city.
The people of Khorasan, Pars, Kirman and Hind visit it, but its water, which comes
from a canal, is not good (Ahsan-al-Taqaseem, p. 478).
62. Debal: It was a famous port situated west of the Indus River delta on the shore of
the Arabian Sea and is now called Tahtha. It was considered to be within the limits
of Sind (Ayeen-e Akbari). It is well-known for its compilers of Hadis and scholars
whose names are included in Samàni's genealogies. This port was a center for Arab
merchants (Tàluqath Hind wa Arab, p. 391).
Al-Biruni considers it to be located in Sind (Qanoon, p. 16), a statement
corroborated by Muqadassi. The author of Hudod-alÀlam writes: It is a city in Sind
on the bank of the River Indus and is the domicile of merchants (Hudod-al-Àlam, p.
74). Astakhri notes its location to be two farsakhs from the delta of the Indus, and a
journey of seven days from the border of Pars (Sara) (Astakhri, p. 62). Yaqoot
writes: It is a famous city on the shores of the Indian Ocean and the waters of
Lahore and Multan flow in its direction and empty into the ocean (Marasid, p. 174).
It was an important port city of India and according to Sayoti in Tarekh-e
Khulafa, 150 thousand people lost their lives there in an earthquake in the year 280
H. (894 A.D.), during reign of the Abassid Caliph, Moàtamid. From this statement the
size of the city can be estimated. Albashari states: There are one hundred villages
around it and in it live merchants who speak Sindi and Arabic and its revenues are
high (Tàluqath, p. 392).
63. Sthan: This word which has been used in the encomium of Skarandoi means
country or land. At present no such word is in use in the Pashto language. However,
the word was used by the ancient Aryans and also used in old Pashto. In other
Aryan languages stan means land or place and is used up to the present time. It is
also seen in Persian from the beginning of the Islamic era in words such as
Sharistan, Ghargistan and Gulistan etc. In Sanskrit sthan means site, place, center
or station (Forbes Hindi Dictionary, p. 458). The word Hindustan was originally
Hindu-Sthan, meaning the land of Hindus. Sthan was also known as Baharat and in
old Indian records Hindustan was also called Dev-sthan meaning the land of piety
(Ketab-al-Àlam, vol. 1, p 54).
In the Persian of the Ghaznavid period sthan had the same meaning. Fakhr
Modabir Mubarak Shah states: To the sthan of Lohore they went...(Adab-al-Harb, p.
39). From these documents we understand that sthan was an old Aryan word which
was commonly used in Pashto, Sanskrit and Persian and is the root of stan,
currently used in Persian; toon of Pashto also seems to have the same root.
64. Attock: The area where the Indus River passes east of Peshawar through a narrow
gorge is known as Attock.
65. Bármal, lármal, thármal: These three words are neither present in the literature of
the Middle period nor used in present day conversation. In the hand written
manuscript of Pata Khazana an annotator has written the word noon over bármal,
afternoon over lármal and evening over thármal. These times of the day are now
called (mapsén, mazégár and masam).
Tarekh-e Baihaqi and other old Persian texts show us that from those times
until now the different times of prayer e.g. namaz pesheen, namaz digar and namaz
shãm were applied to the times of the day. It is possible that these words were
Afghanized in Pashto and became mapsén, mazégár and masam.
Pata Khazana and the encomium of Skarandoi give us the old names of
these times and show that our national language contained such precious literary
treasures that have now been replaced by foreign words. Some people consider
these words to be the condensed versions of barmahal (high time), larmahal (low
time) and tor mahal (dark time). Mahal is still used in Pashto and means time. At any
rate these are ancient treasures of our language.
66. Boodthoon: This word has been used twice in the encomium of Skarandoi.
yâ bê wran kâ boodthoononah dê bámbño
He will destroy the boodthoons of the Brahmans;
tso ché nast krrë lê narrëya boodthoononah
To annihilate boodthoons from the world.
In the first hemstitch the word budkhana meaning place of idol worship has been
written over boodthoon by an annotator. Its usage in the hemstitch suggests the
same meaning.
Structurally the word is formed from two elements i.e. bood and thoon. We
know the second element from Pata Khazana where it has repeatedly been used to
mean home and place. But bood is not spelt as such in modern Pashto. However, in
Pashto vowels are added to words to ensure correct pronunciation. The letter (waw)
has been added to the word while the original word is bud. Ibn al-Nadeem gives a
complete description of bud and states that Indians had an idol by this name in their
temples. It is said that the idol had the likeness of Bhudda, who was sent to direct
them (Al-Fahrest, p. 487). Belazeri also talks about the bud of Multan for which a
great temple had been built (Futuh-al-Baladan, p. 437).
Mohammad bin Ahmad al-Khwarazmi 387 H. (997 A.D.) says: Bud is a large
Indian idol which people visit. Every other idol is also called a bud (Mafateh-alÀoloom,
p. 74). The Arabs have borrowed this word and according to the rules of
their language its plural is buddat (Al-Fehrest, p. 484).
The word is pronounced buth in Persian. These words have originated from
the word buddha. As the people worshipped idols of Buddha, first those idols and
later all idols were called buth. In Pashto the word has remained in its old form, bud,
the form also recorded by Arab historians. In Pashto it has been preserved in the
form of bood-thoon. Beside being the name of every kind of idol, the Bhuddists
consider buddh among the three absolute elements of the mind i.e. intellect, religion
and ignorance. The first has been called buddh which brings forth the states of
happiness and peace (Ketab-al-Hind, vol. 1, p. 41). It is possible that due to the
importance of buddh intellect is inferred from it. The word is still used in this context.
In Pashto and in the Kabuli dialect of Persian, bud means an intellectual and a
In pre-Islamic Persian and Pahlavi the word was written as buz and meant
keeper, chief and head. Masàudi explains that in Pars there are ranks and dignities,
the highest of which is mobuz meaning the keeper of faith. In these languages mo
meant religion and buz meant keeper, the plural of which has been written as
muabeza. Similarly asfahbuz is composed of asaba meaning army and buz meaning
commander. In the same way dabeerbuz meant the keeper of books, Hothekhshabuz
was leader of merchants (Al-Tabniya wa al-Sharaf Masàudi). In same manner
hirbuz was the fire chief and kohbuz was chief of mountains as described by
Khwarazmi (Mafateh-al-àloom, p. 64, 65, 71). The meaning of head, keeper and
chief was implied by the word buz. It is close to the bud of Pashto and Hindi.
After studying these documents it can be said that bud, buz and bood had the
meaning of chief, head and owner among the ancient Aryans and later it became the
name of the famous Indian missionary, and people built a large number of his idols
to which they prayed and which they called bud, bood and buth. In boodthoon of
Pashto, meaning a temple or place of idol, the same word has been preserved.
67. Nmzdák: In Skarandoi's encomium it has been stated:
nûm dë têl wá pûr dárîdz pûr nmzdákona پر نمزدکونو  نوم دي تل وه، پر دري
Let the banners fly on the mosques as you strive.
On top of the word nmzdák an annotator has written mosque. This word is used
among the nomadic tribes of Nasir as muzdák with the same meaning. In my opinion
the word lmundz or nmundz meaning prayers and nmzdák (mosque) have their root
in lmandzal and lmndzanh. In this book they have been used in several instances
meaning praise, benediction and prayers. For example:
shpë yay ruñy pê lmandzo wî ه وې  ي په لمان  شپې ئې رو
pê zhérrâ aw pê naroo wî په ژړا او په نارو وې
ché bê hksëwoot pê lmandzna ه ېووت په لمان  چه به گ
yâ bê ksëwoot pê stayana ېووت په ستاينه  يا به ک
yawa wrádz jahãd afzal يوه ورځ جهاد افضل
têr kálo kálo lmandzél ه تر کلو کلو لمان
Many a night he prayed
And in tears stayed.
When in prayer he knelt,
Day and night in prayers he dwelt.
One day of jihad,
Is better than several year's prayers.
These couplets are from the poem of Dost Mohammad Kâkarh and in all
instances the use of the word lmndzana and its likes mean prayers. Such usage of
the word is also seen in the poems of the Middle period. For example, Khushal Khan
për dzoyana sa sulook nmándzna àdál نه، عدل  ه سلوک نمن  ، وينه  پير
kê dë dâ khoyûna shta tsa ghwarrë norê ه غواړې نور  که دي دا خويونه شته
Saintliness, good deeds, to pray and justice.
If you have these attributes, what else do you want?
Abdul Qadir Khan says:
sár wa mál sándál zénat dê àshoqano ندل زينت د عاشقانو  سر و مال
enayat, méhr, nmándznah, zenat sta sî نه، زينت ستاسي  عنايت، مهر نمن
To dispense wealth is the work of lovers
Favor, love and prayer be your ornaments.
Nmándzan is from the same root meaning prayers, blessings and kindness as Abdul
Qader Khan states:
kê nmandzán wáyál dë nê këzî wê ma tê ي و ما ته  ن ويل دي نه کي  که نمن
kála kála rata krrê khábéra spora ه خبره سپوره  کله کله راته ک
Kind words you do not have for me
Then sometimes do chide me.
Nmándzeli is a past participle from the same root as Khushal Khan writes:
khudây haghah pê dwarroo kawno day nmándzly
لي  خداي هغه په دواړو کونو دئ نمن
ché pê wradz yë àdál wedad pê shpah nmundzonah
ونو  چه په ورځ ئې عدل وداد په شپه نمن
God has blessed the one
Who practices justice at day and prays at night.
The words nmándzal, nmnádzana, nmnádzan, nmnádzeli, nmundz, nmzdak,
namaz and mazkat, which have been used in Pashto and Persian, all have the same
ancient Aryan root. In Pashto they are also written with the letter lam at the
beginning of the word. The word namaz, which is the first of the five pillars of Islam,
also meant benediction, humility and respect in old Persian (according to Forbes
Hindi Dictionary, p. 749, the root of all these words is the same in Aryan languages.
In Sanskrit namast means respectful and namsiya is honored or revered). For
example Abdul Hay bin Zahak Gardezi writes in Zein-al-Akhbar (p. 75):
Choon amir ra bededand, hama namaz burdand wa khedmat kardand, wa
baro-e padshahi salam kardand.
When they saw the amir, they bowed and saluted the king.
Firdausi says:
Zameen ra beboseed wa burdash namaz زمين را ببوسيد و بردش نماز
hami bood peshash zamani daraz همي بود پيشش زمانى دراز
He kissed the earth and prostrated himself for a long time (Shahnama, vol.
5, p. 315).
Thus we can say that like namaz, the words nmundz and lmundz were also
used in this context to mean humility, submission, respect and politeness. The old
nmzdak and the present muzdak of Pashto, which mean place of prayer and
mosque, were also used in old Persian but spelt as mazkat, as seen in old Persian
texts. For example in Hudod-al-Àlam (372 H.), Masjide Jamà, the grand mosque has
been written as mazkat adena and mazkat jamà (p. 56). With respect to the grand
mosque of Herat he writes in page 57: The grand mosque (mazkat jamà) of this city
is the most well constructed among all mosques (mazkatha).
Similarly, Abu Ali Mohammad Balàmi, the famous Sassanid vizier (circa 363
H.), in the translation of Tarekh-e Tabari, uses this word to mean a mosque. For
example he says: And Maryam was with Zekriya in that cell of mazkat (p. 228)
or...on Friday they prayed in the grand mazkat (p. 728).
68. Sarwan: Abu Mohammad Hashim ibn Zaid-al-Sarwanay is from Sarwan. The author
of the book in reference to Larghoni Pastana states: He was born in Sarwan of
Helmand. Sarwan is the historical city which has been mentioned by a large number
of past geographers. Ibn Howqal says: Sarwan is a small city of Seistan with a lot of
fruits, especially dates and grapes. It is located two manzils from Bost (Taqweem, p.
Ashkal-al-Àlam of Jaihani says: Zarwan is smaller than Qarmain and is near
Ferozqand with plenty of agricultural lands, buildings and abundant water (Ashkal, p.
66). Hudod-al-Àam gives the following description: Sarwan is located between Bost
and Zamindawar and is a part of Khorasan; it is a small town with a hot climate
where dates grow; it is a pleasant place (Hudod, p. 63). In Qanoon-e Masàudi, it has
been incorrectly recorded as Zardan and this may be an error of the scriibe. Al-Biruni
also considers Zarwan to be in Bost (Qanoon, p. 28). He writes in Al-Jamahir: There
are gold mines called Zarwan in the vicinity of the village of Khashbaji near
Zabulistan where this metal is found among the rocks and in wells. In the mountains
near the Khashbaji village silver, iron, lead and magnet etc. are found (Al-Jamahir, p.
Astakhri also considers Sarwan to be in Bost (Astaghri, p. 238-248) and it has
been recorded in the same way in Tarekh-e Seistan (p. 30). Sarwan or Zarwan
stands up to this day along the eastern bank of the Helmand river and is a part of the
Nahre Seraj district. Ancient relics of a fortress and other buildings are seen around
it and at the present time people call it Sarwan Qala. It is the domicile of the
Alekozay and Alizay tribes.
69. Abu-al-Àina: Ibn Khalad also famous as Abu-al-Àina was a famous Arab scholar,
poet and writer. He was the mentor of Abu Mohammad Hashim al-Sarwani. His
name is Mohammad bin al-Qasim or Ibn Khalad bin Yasser bin Sulaiman and he
was in the service of Bani Hashim. His nickname was Abu Abdullah, and he was a
famous writer and poet. He studied under al-Nabeel, Asmaee, Aba Obeida, Aba
Zaid al-Ansari and others. Suli, Ibn Najeeh and Ahmad bin Kamel talk about his life
as follows: He was a well-versed and eloquent person, a great scholar, intelligent
and an excellent orator. He was born in Ahwaz in the year (191 H.) and died in the
month of Jamadi-al-Awal, toward the end of the year (282 or 283 H.) in Baghdad
(Màjam-al-Àodaba, vol. 7, p. 61).
Historians consider him the most eloquent Arab poet and he was well-known
for his humor. Some of his humor can be read in Arabic and Persian books. Amin
Ahmad Razi writes: He was a humorous character. One day in the court of the vizier
he was talking in someone's ear. The vizier asked: "What lies are you telling him?".
He answered: "Just praising you". He lost his sight as a young man and spent 40
years in blindness (Haft Eqleem, vol. 1, p. 161).
Hashim al-Sarwani, one of the ancient poets of our national language, who
was a student of this famous Arab genius, translated a poem of his mentor into
Pashto that we saw in the biography of Abu Mohammad Hashim al-Sarwani.
Fortunately Yaqoot has also recorded the Arabic version of the poem which is
presented here to the readers so that it may be compared with the Pashto
translation. (Not presented in this English translation. For comparison please refer to
the 1944 edition of Pata Khazana).
70. Bostan-al-Awlia: The date of the completion of this book has been recorded as 956
H. (1549 A.D.) but in the description of the life of Shaikh Bostan the date appears
as 998 H. (1590 A.D.) This discrepancy is probably due to an error by the scribe as
in Makhzan-e Afghani of Nàmatullah (p. 250, hand written manuscript) his death
occurred on Friday the 11th of Rabi-al-Thani in 1002 H. (1593 A.D.). Therefore it
can be said that the date 998 H. (1590 A.D.) is close to reality because in 965 H.
(1558 A.D.) the Shaikh was either a young boy or an infant. As Nàmatullah states
that Sarwani traveled to India in his youth, therefore he probably did not have the
time to write during his journeys.
71. Bara Khwa: Meaning a high side or an elevated land. People of the lowlands call the
plains of Qandahar and Arghandab, the elevated lands of Ghor and the lands
beyond Kalat up to Ghazni as pasa khwa, bara khwa and lwarha khwa i.e. high land.
72. Kajran: This is the historical Kajooran which is mentioned in Ghorid episodes. It is
called Kajran up to this day. It is formed of highlands, over eight thousand feet,
which occur northeast of Dawar and south of Ghor. The people of the area are
known as Kajrani. The historical record of this word Kajooran is frequently seen in
Tabaqathh-e Nasiri. It was an important urban center of the Ghorid period. Al-Biruni
states: Kajran of Ghor is in the midst of mountains (Muntakhabat-e Qanoon
Masàudi, p. 28). Zaki Walidi Toughan, the editor and publisher of the book writes:
This name has not been mentioned in other geographical sources.
73. Saam: The original is Shaam. It is misspelled in the book.
74. Shahi and Shaha: These words are frequently seen in Pashto literature and have
been in use since the old times. Shahu is a third form. It is a common name for the
beloved. In the Pashto language the love stories of Shaha and Gulan and Shahi and
Deli are famous. In both stories the heroine was desired and loved by the shahi or
shaha. From the poem of this book and other sources it is clear that the sweetheart
is referred to as shahi, shaha or shahu. His Majesty King Ahmad Shah Baba says:
dê shahâ dê angáñ sël sî ahmadah سيل سي احمده  د شها د انگ
kê taslîm khpéla ráza krrë zmâ délah ې زما دله  که تسليم خپله رضا ک
See the compassion of the beloved O Ahmad
If you want to submit O heart of mine.
Khushal Khan says:
dê sháhey thûro sunbolo تورو سنبلو  د شه
pêr spîn mákh yê tásélsolo پر سپين مخ ئې تسلسلو
The beloved's dark tresses
Hanging around her white face.
75. Shaikh Bostan Barheits: This person, whose life history and an example of his
poetry is presented in Pata Khazana, is from the Barheits Sarhbani family. His book
Bostan-al-Awlia was seen by the father of the author of Pata Khazana. Beside what
has been written about him in Pata Khazana, Nàmatullah, who was his
contemporary, provides the following information: This distinguished servant of God
who has been burnt in the divine fire, is a symbol of unity and erudition, Shaikh
Bostan Barheits, came to India from Rah during his youth and settled in the village of
Samaana. He made his living as a merchant. He was a man of deep feelings and his
eyes were never dry. He lamented all the time and despite his pain he read 15
chapters of the Koran every day. Most of the time he recited sorrowful Pashto poetry
which made people cry. He performed the ablution and prayed five times a day. The
writer of this history befriended him during a sea voyage. One night the sea was
stormy. The ship mates became frightened and started to pray for mercy. Since my
relationship with him was sincere I asked him that it was time to seek help. He
replied that it was merely the confusion of the mind and there was nothing to fear.
After saying these words, the storm subsided and a desirable wind started to blow
and saved the ship from danger. Upon returning to Ahmadabad of Gujrat he told me
one day that his life had come to an end and whether I would be willing to arrange a
coffin for him. I agreed. He died from dysentery on Friday the 11th of Rabi-al-Thani
in the year one thousand and two after the noon prayers.
In short this exalted figure whom Nàmatullah Herawi had met personally, and
was his friend for a long time, was a great scholar and poet.
76. Bêdêla: This is a special form of Pashto poetry which is read with a distinct tone. It
is subject to a special rule of prosody known as kaçr . Throughout its length the first
hemistich is repeated after every distich. There are several ways of metering the
verses of a bêdêla.
77. Ludis of Multan: Shaikh Hamid was the governor of Multan during the time of
Alaptageen and Subuktageen 351-390 H. (962-1000 A.D.). After his death, his son,
Nasr ascended the throne. During the time of Sultan Mahmud, i.e. after 390 to 401
H. (1000-1011 A.D.), when Multan became part of the domain of Ghaznavids, Abu
al-Futuh Daud bin Nasr was the governor of the area. This book presents a detailed
and useful account of this dynasty little seen in other historical works.
The author of Pata Khazana extracted this information from Kelid-e Kamrani
(see annotation 78). Kelid-e Kamrani quotes Aàlam-al-Louzà fi Akhbar-al-Ludi
written by Shaikh Ahmad ibn Ludi 686 H. (1287 A.D.). Since these statements do not
lack references therefore they can be relied upon. Beside the names of the three
governors, the name of another person, Shaikh Reza, who was the nephew of
Shaikh Hamid, has also been mentioned in the book while he is not mentioned in
other sources. The name of Nasr has been recorded as Naseer by later historians
such as Fereshta but in Zain-al-Akhbar of Gardezi it is Nasr without the letter ya.
This book has also spelled his name in the same manner as Gardezi. From this it
can be deduced that the original citation i.e. Tarekh-al-Ludi is a reliable source.
Mohammad Qasim Fereshta, extensively deals with the subject that Shaikh
Hamid was a Ludi Afghan and states: He administered Lamghan and Multan under
the tutelage of Raja Jaipal. From 351 to 356 H. (962-655 A.D.) he helped the Raja
against western invaders. When Subuktageen ascended the throne, Shaikh Hamid
signed a peace treaty with him and in 395 H. (1005 A.D.) when Sultan Mahmud
started his Indian campaign, the administration of Multan was in the hands of Abu al-
Futuh Daud, the grandson of Shaikh Hamid. Next year, that is in 396 H. (1006
A.D.), Sultan Mahmud did not go to India by the direct way of Gomal and Derajat but
attacked Multan by way of Peshawar. Abu al-Futuh was surrounded, but he made
peace, repented from the Ismaili faith, and accepted to pay taxes to the Sultan. After
a few years (around 402 H. ) Sultan Mahmud once again attacked Multan and
vanquished the Ismailis. He captured Daud bin Nasr and brought him to Ghazni
where he died later (Fereshta, p. 17-27).
This is a summary of the account by Fereshta regarding the Afghan Ludi
dynasty. After him other writers such as Hayat Khan (Hayat-e Afghani, p. 45), Sher
Mohammad (Khurshaid Jahan, p. 67) and Malleson (History of Afghanistan, p. 44),
consider them Afghan Ludis, most likely based on the writings of Fereshta.
Previous historians who have referred to these events do not mention
anything about their nationality. For example, Abdul Hay Gardezi, who wrote his
history during the Ghaznavid period {around 441 H. (1050 A.D.)} writes: With the
advent of the fourth century, he decided to capture Multan. He went there and
conquered the remaining territories of Multan and captured most of the Qaramitha or
killed some or cut the hands of others and chastised them. Others were imprisoned
in fortresses where they eventually died. In the same year, he captured Daud bin
Nasr and took him to Ghazni, from where he sent him to the Ghorak fortress (located
30 miles northwest of Qandahar) where he died... (Zain-al-Akhbar, p. 55).
Arab historians also mention these events. For example the summary of the
statements of Ibn Asir and Ibn Khaldoon is as follows: Sultan Mahmud attacked
Multan in the year 396 H. (1006 A.D.) because the governor of Multan, Abu al-
Futuh, had embraced atheism and had invited his subjects to join him. When the
governor heard about the Sultan's arrival he abandoned Multan. The Sultan
besieged him and fined him twenty thousand dirhams (Al-Kamel, vol. 9, p. 122; Ibn
Khaldoon, vol. 4, p. 366).
This is what Arab historians have written regarding the Ludi dynasty, but a
contemporary Indian scholar, Maulana Sulaiman Nadawi, discusses this issue in his
book Tàaloqat Hind wa Arab (p. 315-329). He states that the family of Shaikh Hamid
was Arab and the progeny of Julm bin Shaiban, the Arab governor of Sind, who is
considered to be the first Qaramithi governor of the region (Tàaloqat, p. 328).
From their genuine Arab names such as Hamid, Nasr, Daud and Abu al-
Futuh and the use of words such as shaikh, Nadwi concludes that these rulers were
of Arab origin. He further states that Mohammad Qasim Fereshta considers them
Afghan Ludis without any strong documentation and that he has faked their roots.
In fact, before the discovery of Pata Khazana, there was no document to
substantiate that this family was of Afghan origin. Fereshta has also not clarified his
references with respect to this family. By reading Pata Khazana the issue becomes
clear. It shows that Fereshta was not making false claims. With such positive
documentation there is no doubt that the Ludi family of Multan is of Afghan origin.
This is because what has been documented in Pata Khazana is in conformance with
the names and events recorded in Arab texts. In short this book shows:
1. The story of the Afghan origin of Shaikh Hamid. This family was not a
fabrication of Fereshta. This fact has also been stated by historians preceding
Fereshta. The progeny of this family once again rose to power in India during the
eighth century until their defeat by Babur, the first Moghul emperor, in the battle
of Pani Pat in 932 H. (1526 A.D.).
2. The members of this family spoke Pashto. The poetry of Shaikh Reza and
Nasr bin Hamid has been recorded in Pata Khazana, they are considered to be
among the oldest poems in this language.
78. Kamran Khan Sadozay: Kamran Khan Sadozay is a famous Afghan personality,
who, according to Pata Khazana wrote Kelid-e Kamrani in 1038 H. (1628 A.D.) in
Share Safa of Qandahar. We have ample information on Kamran Khan and his
family. They were famous administrators of Qandahar for a long time. The founding
father of this family was the famous Sado Khan and Ahmad Shah Baba and the
Sadozai governors of Herat are related to him (Hayat, p. 118; Khurshaid, p. 181).
Omar, the father of Sado Khan was a margrave of Qandahar during the time of the
Safavids. Sado Khan was born on Monday 17 Zihajja 965 H. (1558 A.D.). After the
death of his father he took over as chief of the tribe. He lived for about 75 years and
had five sons: Khwaja Khizr Khan, Moudod (Maghdod) Khan, Zàfaran Khan, Kamran
Khan and Bahadur Khan (Sultani, p. 59). Among these five brothers, Kamran Khan
was a literary personality and is subject of our discussion here.
Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani believes Sado Khan had a number of children and
says that during the era of Shah Abas he was appointed the governor of Qandahar
(Tazkera-al-Mulook, in Raverty). In summary: After Sado Khan his son Khizar Khan
became the chief of the tribe and during the time of Aurangzeb, the son of Khizar
Khan, who was named Khudadad Sultan, was appointed the governor of Qandahar
by the Delhi throne. Another brother, known as Sher Khan had also gained fame and
His Majesty Ahmad Shah Baba was from his lineage. Thus Ahmad Shah's lineage is
as follows: Ahmad Shah son of Zaman Khan son of Daulat Khan son of Sarmast
Khan son of Sher Khan (Hayat, p. 119).
Names of the members of this family appear in the history of the Moghuls of
India. It seems that Kamran Khan and Malik Maghdood (Maudood) were the
contemporaries of Shah Jahan 1037-1076 H. (1628-1666 A.D.) and they were
considered among the famous governors of Qandahar at that time. The armies of
Shah Jahan took over Qandahar with their help 1047 H. (1637 A.D.); and after that
battle they were appointed the governors of the area (Padshah Nama, vol. 2, p.
Kamran's date of death is not clear, but according to the writings of Abdul
Hamid he died in Delhi in the month of Rabi-al-Awal of 1050 H (1640 A.D.) (Padshah
Nama, vol. 2, p. 151). Afterwards, his brother Malik Maghdood, challenged Mir
Yahya, the governor of Kabul, who was appointed by Shah Jahan, and lost his life in
the ensuing battle in 1053 H. (1643 A.D.) When Shah Jahan heard the news of his
death he was deeply saddened and removed Mir Yahya from the post of governor
(Padshah Nama, vol. 2, p. 348).
79. Share Safa: An area 100 km northeast of Qandahar. In past times it was the
domicile of the Sadozay tribe.
80. Párhêkey: This word which in the past times meant a poem is not in use any more.
The oldest book where we see its use is Tazkerat-al-Awlia of Sulaiman Maku. It has
been used several times in the few pages of the book which were discovered in
1933 (see Pashtana Shuàra. vol. 1, p. 53-55-63). From this it is evident that
párhêkey was used to mean a poem.
81. Arhah: In the poems of the Ludis ãrhah has been used twice:
hagha groh dë aus ãrrah kárr  هغه گروه دي اوس آړه ک
You have changed that religion now.
zê lê groha pê ãrrah yám زه له گروهه په آړه يم
I have converted from religion.
This word is not in usage any more nor is its meaning seen in dictionaries. Perhaps
its root is in arrawal (to change). Thus ãrrah should mean change. In both instances
it has been used with religion and faith. Perhaps it is derived from the infinitive
arrawal and means ilhad (apostasy). Lahd in Arabic means inclination and going
beyond limits (Qamoos-e Ferozabadi) and ilhad is derived from it. At the present we
have derivations such as awostal, arrawang, and awosta from arrawal but ãrrah is
not in use anymore. But the intransitive form of arrawal which is awostal is still used
to mean ilhad (atheism or changing religion). For example in the case of a person
who changes his religion it is said: awostay dei (he has changed).
82. Esa Meshwañay: This famous writer and poet was known to us prior to the
discovery of Pata Khazana through Makhzan-e Afghani of Nàmatullah Herawi. His
life history is presented in the first volume of Pashtana Shuàra (p. 72-72).
Nàmatullah includes his Hindi and Persian poems in his book and considers him a
famous saint.
83. Koyal: This is the name of a bird in Sanskrit (Forbes Hindi English Dictionary, p.
561), called the cuckoo. In Pashto the feminine form of the name is koyala. It has
been used in the quatrain of Khalil Khan Niazay. Koyëlá may be compared to
bulbula whose masculine form is bulbul. In Pashto literature it has also been used as
kwail and kohël. Miya Nàim Mathizay says:
dê chamán pê bulbulano kë shor gád shî
ché nàyém dê shpë faryad láka kohël kâ
The garden bulbuls start singing
When Nàim laments at night like the cuckoo.
84. Rantanhbour: This name has been written in different forms but the correct version
is Rantanhbour (Rantambour in English). It was a famous fortress of Ajmir, in
eastern Rajputana (Khulasa-al-Tawareekh, p. 55). Its ancient name was Ran-satmaba-
pur, meaning the place of battle columns. It is a stone fortress on top of a hill
(Gazetteer, vol. 21, p. 235). It is famous for its strength in Indian history and was
occupied for the first time by Sultan Muàez al-Din Ghori (Taj-al-Maàsir; Gazetteer,
vol. 21, p. 235) and according to Tabaqathh-e Nasiri (p. 172) 70 kings had not been
able to occupy it. Khushal Khan was imprisoned there after 1074 H. (1664 A.D.). He
mentions it in his poems. For the life history of this poet refer to the introduction of
his divan which I published in Qandahar in 1317 H. (1938 A.D. This date refers to
the solar Hejira year).
85. Derawat: This place lies about 89 km northwest of Qandahar and is located south of
the mountains of Ghor and Uruzgan with a mountain stream passing through it. At
present it is an administrative center. It is possible that the historic Hera-hoti may be
this place.
86. Toba: An elevated area at the foothills of the Kozhak mountain, 130 km southeast of
Qandahar which is the domicile of the Atsek tribe.
87. Sultan Ghiasuddin: Refers to the famous Sultan Ghiasuddin Mohammad Saam
Ghori who fought big battles in the vicinity of Herat and Ghor. As the battles are
referred to as jihad they must have been fought against non-Moslems. These are
probably the battles which were fought with Sultan Shah Jalaluddin Mahmud
Khwarazamshah in 588 H. (1192 A.D.) in which Jalaluddin had sought the help of a
large number of non-Moslem Khathas (refer to Tabaqathh-e Nasiri and others).
88. Kâkarhs shrine: With regard to the shrine of Kâkarh Baba this book says that he
was buried in Herat. Pashtoons visit his shrine from far away places such as Zhobe
and Kâkarhistan and call him Kak Nika (nika in Pashto means grandfather). The
historian, Sher Mohammad, who spent some time in Herat writes: His grave is near
the right gate of the grand mosque of Herat and he has visited it several times.
People pray at his grave as they enter or leave the mosque (Khurshaid, p. 204).
89. Kohat: This place is located about 80 km southeast of Peshawar. Several Khatak
writers and poets mention it in their works. Rahman Baba got the early inspiration of
his youth from this place.
90. Kokaran: This place is located 10 km west of Qandahar along the banks of the
Arghandab river. Haji Mirwais Khan's shrine is there. From this book it appears that
our national leader spent his life there.
91. Manja: It lies 32 km northwest of Qandahar adjoining Share Safa. This is the place
where the declaration of independence was accepted and signed by a national
council. The declaration was probably signed there because it was the home of
Khanzada, daughter of Jàfar Khan Sadozay, wife of Haji Mirwais Khan as the area
was under the influence of the Sadozay tribe in those times.
92. Jaldak: It is located 110 km northeast of Qandahar and is the domicile of the
Alakozay tribe.
93. Shah Beg Khan: Two people have been recorded by this name in the history of our
country. First Shah Beg, son of Amir Zoalnoon Arghoon, who was the governor of
Qandahar after 900 H. (1495 A.D.), was driven away by Babur in 913 H. (1507
A.D.). He took refuge in Shaal and Mastung. Shah Beg took back Qandahar in the
same year but was finally totally defeated by Babur in 928 H. (1522 A.D.). He went
toward Sind and Baluchistan and ruled there for some time (Tarekh-e Màsumi;
Fereshta, Babur Nama; the tablet of Chil Zeena of Qandahar).
Second, Shah Beg Kabuli, who in 1003 H. (1595 A.D.) took over Qandahar
under the orders of Jalaluddin Akbar and was the governor of the region. He stayed
there until the end of Akbar's life 1014 H. (1605 A.D.) In the same year the Safavid
forces besieged Qandahar. Jahangir sent his forces and restituted the city. He
appointed Pakhta Beg Kabuli who was known as Sardar Khan as the governor of
Qandahar thus replacing Shah Beg (Akbar Nama; Tuzuk-e Jahangiri; Iqbal Nama;
Since in this book the title of subadar of Qandahar accompanies the name of
Shah Beg, it most likely refers to Shah Beg Kabuli because Shah Beg Arghooni was
known as the governor and ruler of Qandahar and not as a subadar.
94. Ali Sarwar Ludi: He is a famous Pashtoon writer and the author of Pata Khazana
cites Tuhfa-e Saleh and Nàmatullah's Makhzan while talking about his life.
Nàmatullah states the following in Makhzan about this poet: The renowned Shaikh
Ali Sarwar Ludi Shahukhel was among the holy men of his tribe and lived in the
Kahror village of Multan. He was among the people whose prayers were answered,
his advice was effective and in thirty years he was not once seen to lie down. It is
said that one day as he was sitting in a mosque and having a haircut the barber
stated that on whoever Shaikh Najmuddin Kubri cast a glance he was blessed. The
Shaikh smiled and said that is easy. When the haircut was finished the barber went
into a trance and started talking about piety. He then started to pray and preach and
people gathered to listen to his sermons. The Shaikh bestowed his saintly blessing
on all people and his children are also outstanding personalities.
95. Shaal: Shaal or Shalkot (the Shaal fortress) was near the present day city of Quetta.
According to Abu al-Fazl, it was considered an eastern dependency of Qandahar
during the Akbari era. It had a fort with earthen walls where Kasay Afghans and
Baluch lived (Ayeen-e Akbari, p. 189).
96. Gomal: It is a famous passage which starts southeast of Ghazni (Wazakhwa), goes
along the northern tiers of Koh Sulaiman to the western banks of the Indus river.
97. Mullah Zàfran: He is a famous personality of the Hotheki period and Pata Khazana
has one of his poems. Contemporary historians such as Sultan Mohammad and
Sher Mohammad mention him in their works, a summary of which is presented here:
According to Pata Khazana Mullah Zàfran was an outstanding scholar of the
court of His Majesty Shah Hussain Hothek. Sultan Mohammad writes that Mullah
Zàfaran was appointed the ambassador to the court of Nadir Shah Afshar by His
Majesty Shah Hussain before 1143 H. (1731 A.D.). Nadir Shah invaded Herat in the
same year and Mullah Zàfaran once again went as an emissary to Herat and an
exchange of prisoners took place between the Afghan and Iranian forces (Sultani, p.
87). Sher Mohammad says that in the month of Moharram of 1143 H. (1731 A.D.)
Mulla Zàfaran represented His Majesty Shah Hussain in the court of Nadir Shah at
Sananduj (Khurshaid, p. 148). This historical event has been corroborated by
Mohammad Mehdi Ashtarabadi (Jahan Kusha-e Nadiri, p. 134-155). It is possible
that Astarbandi was the source for the writings of Sultan Mohammad and Sher
In summary it can be said that this distinguished personality was among the
exalted men of Shah Hussain's court. He should not be confused with another Mulla
Zàfaran who was a courtier of His Majesty Shah Mahmud and His Majesty Shah
Ashraf in Iran. This Mullah Zàfaran was an emissary of Shah Ashraf to the court of
Nader Shah during the time of the downfall of the Afghan forces. He was arrested by
Nadir Shah and sent to Asfahan. Since he could not bear imprisonment he jumped
from the bridge of the River Lasheen (Lashni) and commited suicide (Sultani, p. 85;
Khurshaid, p. 147).
98. Musa Khel: A clan of the Kâkarh tribe that lives in the foothills of Sulaiman
mountain, east of the Zhobe valley.
99. Masàud: A branch of the Waziri tribe.
100. Bangas: A tribe that lives south of Peshawar and Spinghar. During the Moghul era
of India the district of Bangas was considered a part of Kabul. It is the domicile of the
Mohmand, Khalil, Afridi and Khatak tribes (Ayeen-e Akbari, vol. 2, p. 190-193). The
Bangas road toward Kabul was also famous at that time.
101. Dera: This word probably refers to Dera Ismail Khan or Dera Ghazi Khan. When
Shah Hussain, the Hothek king, sent his army to this region his commander in chief
was Bahadur Khan.
102. Shaikh Rahmani: A famous anchorite and spiritual leader of the time. He was a
follower of Shaikh Adam Banuri who was a student of Hazrat Mujadad Kabuli who
died in 1106 H. (1695 A.D.) (refer to Divan of Abdul Qadir Khan, p. 10-262).
103. Pir Mohammad Miyaji: This famous personality of the Hotheki era has been
discussed in other sources in the following context: When His Majesty Shah Ashraf
lost his forces and started marching from Shiraz toward Qandahar, the Nadiri army
pursued him. When Shah Ashraf crossed the Fasa bridge (three farsakhs from
Shiraz), he left Pir Mohammad Khan known as Miyaji, the guide of His Majesty
Mahmud, together with some soldiers to guard the bridge. Miyaji who was revered
by the people was killed in that location in 1143 H. (1731 A.D.) (Jahan Kusha, p.
121; Sultani, p. 85).
104. Bori: A place in Kâkarhistan of Zhobe.
105. Babojan Babei: Sultan Mohammad writes that at the time when Shah Mahmud and
Shah Ashraf were predominant Babojan Babei was the governor of Lar wa Bandar in
Iran. After the downfall of the Hotheki empire he returned to Qandahar.
Jahankusha-e Nadiri has recorded him as Baro Khan. When Nadir Shah Afshar
marched on Qandahar from Herat, he ordered Imam Wirdi Beg, the governor of
Kirman to capture Grishk and Bost. His Majesty Shah Hussain sent an army under
the command of Babojan to face him. He engaged the Nadir Afshar forces and
drove them toward Farah (Sultani, p. 88; Jahan Kusha, p. 166). Besides this note he
is not mentioned in other sources.
106. Mashor: A village 10 km southwest of Qandahar. The remains of an old citadel and
a city are present there. During the Moghul period, the southern gate of the citadel of
Qandahar was known as the Mashor gate (Abu-al-Fazl, Akbar Nama, vol. 1).
107. Shaha wa Gulan: This is a famous Pashto love story. The main characters of the
story Shaha (female) and Gulan (male) are symbols of purity and good conduct.
This folk story is still told among the people, parts of which are recited in the form of
108. Mohmand: This village lies about 10 km east of Qandahar and is considered the
first rubat (measurement of distance) toward Kabul.
109. Yusuf: This person who was a companion of Haji Mirwais Khan has not been
mentioned in the sources we have at hand. Tarekh-e Sultani, Khurshaid Jahan and
Hayat-e Afghani mention others with regard to Hotheki events, but aside from Pata
Khazana, Yusuf is not mentioned elsewhere. There is also no mention of Aziz Khan
Nourzay, Gul Khan of Baberh tribe, Nour Khan Barheits and Nasro Khan Alakozay
of Jaldak in other sources.
110. Yahya Khan: This Yahya Khan is the brother of Haji Mirwais Khan. Mohammad
Khan, the nephew of Haji Mirwais, who accompanied his father and uncle into battle,
is known as Haji Angoor in later events. He was the governor of Jakhtaran for a long
time. His son, Abdul Ghafoor Khan was in control of Kalat during Nadir Afshar's
march on Qandahar. Abdul Rasoul Khan, the brother of Abdul Ghafoor, fought
bravely against Nadir engaging him in battle near Shibaar (Hayat-e Afghani, p.
257-264 ).
111. Skaapur: This is the Pashto form of Shikarpur of Sind through which trade with
Qandahar took place.
112. Mastung: It is a famous historical city located in Baluchistan. Totay it is a mere
village. Yàqoot records it in the Arabic form as Mastunj. He states that the distance
between Mastunj and Bost is seven days (Marasid, p. 329). Gardezi says: Sultan
Mahmud captured Shar, the king of Gharjistan, and sent him to the city of Mastung
(Zain-al-Akhbar, p. 56).
113. Miya Abdul Hakim Kâkarh: He is one of the famous Afghan spiritual leaders, was
well-known for his mysticism. He lived around 1140 H. (1728 A.D.) and in 1150 H.
(1738 A.D.) left Qandahar for Kâkarhistan. His shrine is located in Tal and Chatali.
114. Ksheta Khwa: Meaning in the lower side. Since the surroundings of the Tarnak
river, south of Qandahar, is located at a lower elevation therefore it is known as
Ksheta Khwa. It is the domicile of the Barakzay people.
115. Miya Nour Mohammad: He was from the Nourzay tribe and is considered a pious
and learned personage of Qandahar. He was a student of Miya Abdul Hakim and
lived during the reign of His Majesty Ahmad Shah Baba. Considered a teacher of the
common people he died in 1172 H. (1759 A.D.) and is buried in the village of
Manara, south of Qandahar. His shrine is still visited by people. Among his works
Maqala-e Àulia, on Suffism is famous. A scholar of the time, Mullah Ahmad
Qandahari, has written a commentary Tàleem-al-Sulook on it.
116. Panjwayee: It has been written in different ways such as Panjwai, Fanjwai, Banjwai
and Panjwahi by Arab and Afghan historians and geographers. It is a famous city of
the historical Rakhj or Rakhz. It is still famous by the same name and lies about 24
km southwest of Qandahar.
117. Wêyáy: This word was in use until the Middle period of Pashto literature and
probably meant a word. It is often seen in the works of Middle period writers. For
example Khushal Khan says:
dâ wêyáy zmâ dê raz day
dâ manzil dûr aw daraz day
This is the word of my secret
This journey is long and arduous; or:
yaw wêyáy dê dálasa râta prë nézdéy دې  يو ويي د دلاسا راته پرې ن
dzan kê hár tso khpál máyan tê marwar kárrám م و خپل مين ته مرور ک  ان که هر 
Not a single soothing word she utters
No matter how much vexed I may be from my love.
118. Bostan: This place is located 32 km north of Quetta in Baluchistan and is the
domicile of the Atsekzay tribe.
119. Saidal Khan Nasir: He is a famous Afghan general who participated in numerous
battles inside and outside the country. Beside considering him a military genius, the
author of Pata Khazana says that he was a scholar and wrote poetry in Pashto, our
national language. He was the son of Abdal Khan Nasir Barhizay who lived in Dela,
near Abe Istada, southwest of Moqur. The Nasir clan is a famous branch of the
Ghalji tribe and is divided into the Spin Nasir, Sur Nasir and Tour Nasir i.e. the white,
red and black Nasir. Barhizay or Borhizay is a branch of the Sur Nasir (Hayat).
According to this book, Saidal Khan started serving in a military capacity during the
time of Haji Mirwais Khan. He accompanied His Majesty Shah Mahmud to Iran and
took part in the conquest of Asfahan and made noteworthy contributions to the
expansion of the Afghan kingdom. With the downfall of this great military leader
during the seige of Kandahar by Nadir Shah Afshar, the Hothek kingdom fell apart.
Thus it can be said that Saidal Khan was a pillar of that kingdom.
Historians mention his name in all the battles that were fought in a period of
30 years inside and outside the country after the rise to leadership of Haji Mirwais
Khan up to 1150 H. (1737 A.D.). According to Pata Khazana he also successfully
participated in the battles against the Safavids undertaken by Haji Mirwais Khan to
liberate the country.
After the death of the great liberator, Haji Mirwais Khan, when His Majesty
Shah Mahmud marched on Iran Saidal Khan was the commander of his troops. He
also participated in the battles of His Majesty Shahanshah Ashraf, both inside and
outside Iran and was victorious in his encounters with the enemy. He is said to be
the only commander of the forces of His Majesty Ashraf during the battles against
Nadir Afshar.
When the Afghan forces were defeated by Nadir Afshar in Iran, Saidal Khan
returned to Qandahar and fought against Nadir Afshar until the last moment and did
not capitulate to the foreign invaders. As long as it was possible he attacked the
In Moharram of 1142 H. (1730 A.D.) when Nadir Shah invaded Herat and
attacked the governors of that region, Shah Ashraf tried to occupy Meshad. The
commander of the Afghan army was Sidal Khan and his forces were centered in
Kirman (Jahankusha, p. 105). Later he fought against Nadir Shah and after the
defeat of Shah Ashraf's forces he came to Qandahar to join Shah Hussain to
continue his military quest.
In 1143 H. (1731 A.D.) Nadir Shah directed his forces toward Herat. The
Abdali rulers of the area continued resisting Nadir Shah up to 1144 H. (1732 A.D.)
when they sought the help of Shah Hussain, who was the ruler of Qandahar. In the
month of Rabi-al-Awal of the same year Saidal Khan marched toward Herat with a
force of several thousand men (Jahankusha, p. 181; Nadir Nama, p. 115; Sultani, p.
88). After several years during the month of Zieikàda 1149 H. ( 1736 A.D.) when
Nadir Afshar surrounded Qandahar, the people of Qandahar, under the military
leadership of Saidal Khan, resisted him fiercely for a period of one year. When Nadir
Afshar directed his forces toward Kalat, Saidal Khan left the Qandahar citadel with
four thousand men to face his enemy and fought several battles until he was
besieged, together with Shah Hussain and his men, in the Kalat fortress. When
Nadir Afshar captured Saidal Khan he blinded him (Jahankusha, p. 315; Nadir
Nama, p. 197, Khurshaid, p. 160; Zendagani-e Nadir Shah, p. 105; Sultani, p. 92).
After loosing his sight, Saidal Khan with some of his relatives left for Shakar
Dara of Kohdaman, north of Kabul and later died there. His shrine is located in the
Siyahsang graveyard of Shakardara. He left behind a son, Sher Mohammad, whose
progeny is known until this day.
120. Sultan Mulkhi and his family: This man who is the grandfather of Haji Mirwais
Khan's mother is considered a learned Afghan figure. Members of his family were
the chiefs of the Ghalji tribe for a long time. They are from the Toukhay clan and are
considered the cousins of the Hotheks. The Mulkhi branch is famous among the
Toukhays. This branch, which numbers about 100 families, lives south of Tazi Rubat
between Shahjoi and Kalat. The ruins of their ancient fortress are still seen there.
Historians agree that Sultan Mulkhi was a contemporary of Aurangzeb who
ascended the throne in 1068 H. (1658 A.D.) and died in 1118 H. (1706 A.D.)
Mulkhi, as chief of the Ghalji, demarcated the Garamabad valley until Jaldak
as the border between the Ghalji and Abdali tribes. This truce was signed with
Khudadad Sultan Sadozay, who was the chief of the Abdali tribe. The truce holds
until this day (Sultani, p. 60). Sultan Mulkhi died in the battle of Darwaza between
Indzargai and Surkh Sang. After his death, his son, Haji Adil (Abdal) became the
chief for a time. He and his son Bayee Khan were the governors of Kalat and they
lived in the Kalat and Jakhtaran fortresses, situated along the banks of the Tarnak
river. Eventually Bayee Khan was killed and Shah Àlam, son of Ali Khan, the
nephew of Mulkhi and his son Khushal Khan became the governors for some time.
Later Ashraf Khan and Alahyar Khan, the sons of Khushal Khan became leaders.
Ashraf Khan was appointed as the governor of Kalat and Ghazni by His Majesty
Ahmad Shah Baba. During Ahmad Shah's first campaign in India he accompanied
the king. When Timur Shah became king, Amo Khan, son of Ashraf Khan, rose to be
the chief of the Ghalji tribe (Hayat, p. 261-264; Khurshaid, p. 217-220).
121. Beglar Begi: According to the Safavid administrative setup the highest ranked
administrator was called beglar begi, and the governor of Qandahar was given this
title. The beglar begi was directly appointed by the king. Several khans and sultans
worked under him in the administrative region.
122. Thazi: This is the second rabat (a day's journey) toward the northeast on the road
to Kalat. The progeny of Mulkhi Toukhi live near it toward the south.
123. Kosan: This place lies west of Herat along the banks of the Hari Rud and at
present it is a part of the Ghorya district. In Pashtoon tradition the distance between
Khyber to the east and Kosan to the west is considered to be very long as these two
parts are separated by the entire length of the country.
124. Nour-Jahan: Mumtaz Mahal Begum was the queen of Shah Jahan and Nour-Jahan
Begum was the queen of Jehangir, the Moghul emperors of India.
125. Bibi Naekbakhta: This learned woman was an Afghan scholar and the author gives
a good description of her life. The writings of Nàmatullah, regarding this woman,
accord with what has been written about her in Pata Khazana. Nàmatullah mentions
her in these words: Hazrat Shaikh Qadam had two wives. One was the mother of the
pious Bibi Naekbakhta from the Mamozay tribe and she came from the village of
Ashnaghar where the Mamozay live...(Makhzan, p. 307). Apart from this we do not
have any other information regarding this sagely woman.
126. Ashnaghar: An area north of Peshawar which is also written as Hashtnaghar.
127. Badani: An area east of Peshawar.
128. Jamaryañi: A branch of the Toukhay clan.
129. Deray: Meaning Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan. Dera (plural=deray) is a
Pashto word.
130. Gulistan: A place northeast of Farah which is the domicile of the Nourzay tribe.
131. Khusrao Khan: According to historians Khusrao Khan was the nephew of Gurgin
Khan. According to Tarekh-e Sultani (p. 72), Jahankusha-e Nadiri (p. 6), and
Khurshaid Jahan (p. 132) his name was Kaikhusrao Khan but Sir John Malcolm (p.
204) and Abdullah Razi in Tarekh-e Iran (p. 564) write his name as Khusrao Khan.