To test the Theory of Work Team/Group Empowerment within Organizations, an instrument called the “Sieloff-King Assessment of Departmental Power” (Sieloff, 1996) was developed and, subsequently, revised to the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Empowerment within Organizations (SKAGEO©) (Sieloff, 1999, 2008; Sieloff & Bularzik, 2011). Most recently, the instrument was renamed as the Sieloff-King Assessment of Work/Team Group Empowerment within Organizations (SKAWGEO©) to further increase the clarity of the focus of the theory and the instrument.

The SKAWGEO© is a twenty-six item instrument, composed of eight subscales, one for each of the components of the Theory of Work Team/Group Empowerment within Organizations (Sieloff, 1999, 2008). The number of items per subscale varies:  a) two [Communication Competency, Role]; (b) three [Empowerment Perspective, Goal/Outcome Competency, Work Team/Group Leader’s Empowerment Competency, Position]; or c) five [Controlling the Effects of Environmental Forces, Resources].         


The empowerment capacity level of a single work team/group is identified by the total score, resulting from the scores on the subscales of:  a) controlling the effects of environmental forces, b) position, c) resources, and d) role. The level of work team/group empowerment capability [empowerment] is identified by the total score, resulting from the scores on the first four subscales plus the scores on four additional subscales: a) communication competency,

c) goals/outcomes competency, d) work team/group leader's empowerment competency, and e) empowerment perspective. If a comparison between work teams/groups is the focus, the means of the work team/group's scores are to be used.


Self-report is considered to be a valid assessment strategy based on King’s (1981) definition and discussion of ‘perception’. King believed that an individual’s perception is valid and real, and their actions are based on these perceptions. As a result, an individual’s perception is to be respected by others. Thus, a work team/group leader’s or member's self-reported perceptions can be used as a valid indicator of their work team/group’s empowerment capacity and empowerment.